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per-terreō, -ēre, -ui, -itus, terrify.

per-timēscō, -ere, -timuī, [timēsco, inceptive from timeō], fear greatly, be much afraid of, be alarmed, dread. pertineō, -ēre, -ui, [per + teneō], pertain, concern; tend; quo illa ōrātiō pertinet? what is the purpose of their speeches? perturbātus, -a, -um, [part. of perturbō], adj., disturbed, in disorder. per-turbō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, throw into disorder or confusion, disturb. per-veniō, īre, -vēnī, -ventus, arrive at, reach, come, fall. pēs, pedis, [PED, tread], m., foot; pedibus in sententiam īre, vote for.

pessumus, see malus. pestilentia, -ae, [pestilēns, pestilential], f., plague. petītiō, -ōnis, [PET, fly], f., candidacy, canvass.

petō, -ere, -īvī or -ii, -ītus, [PET, fly], seek; attack, aim at, thrust at; ask for, make request for, petition; be a candidate for, canvass for; pursue after, strive to obtain, look for.

Petrēius, -ī, m., a Roman name;

M. Petrēius, lieutenant of the consul C. Antonius, was in command of the forces arrayed against Catiline in the battle of Pistoria.

Picenum, a district on the east coast of Central Italy. pietās, -ātis, [pius, dutiful], f., piety.

pīlum, -ī, n., javelin, a Roman weapon, consisting of a wooden shaft 4 ft. long, fitted with an iron point 2 ft. long; it weighed about 10 lbs.

pingō, -ere, pinxi, pictus, paint;

pexus, -a, -um, [part. of pectō, comb], adj., well-combed.

tabula picta, painting. Pīsō, -ōnis, m., name of a Roman family in the Calpurnian gens:

(1) C. Calpurnius Pīsō, proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis, B.C. 66-65, was brought to trial by the Allobroges on a charge of extortion, B.C. 63.

(2) Cn. Calpurnius Pīsō plotted with Catiline in B.C. 66 to kill the consuls Cotta and Torquatus; but, failing in this, went as quaestor to Hither Spain, where he was soon afterward murdered by his Spanish cavalry. Pistōriēnsis, -e, [Pistōria], Pistorian, of Pistoria, a town in the north of Etruria, near which the battle with Catiline was fought; now Pistoia.

placeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus, with dat.,

please, be acceptable, satisfy, content; impers. with inf., it pleases, one proposes, one thinks best.

petulantia, -ae, [petulāns, for- placidē, [placidus, gentle], adv.,

ward], f., wantonness.

mildly, gently.

plānitiēs, -ēī, [plānus, level], f., level ground, plain.

Pīcēnus, -a, -um, adj., Picene, of Plautius, -a, name of a Roman

gens; Plautius, -a, -um, adj., Plautian; lex Plautia dē vī, a law proposed by M. Plautius Silvānus, tribune of the plebs in B.C. 89, directed against disturbers of the public peace. plēbs, plēbis, and plēbēs, -ēī,

[PLE, fill], f., common people, commons, plebeians, plebs, populace.

plerumque, [acc. n. of plērusque], adv., generally, for the most part.

plērusque, -aque, -umque, [plērus, very many], adj., usually pl., most, for the most part; as noun, the most of, the greater part of.

plūrumum, see multum. plūrumus, see multus. plus, see multum and multus. poena, -ae, [Towń, penalty], f., punishment, penalty; poenās dare, suffer punishment, be punished.

pollēns, entis, [part. of polleō, be strong], adj., strong, powerful. polliceor, -ērī, -itus sum, [por for pro liceor, bid], offer, promise, make promises. pollicitor, -ārī, -ātus sum, [freq.

from polliceor], promise. polluō, -ere, -ui, -ūtus, [por for prō + luō, loose], defile, pollute, stain, desecrate. Pompeius, -a, name of a plebeian gens:

(1) Cn. Pompeius Magnus, Pompey, the triumvir, was occupied in settling affairs in the far East at the time of the Catilinarian conspir


(2) Q. Pompeius Rūfus, praetor in B.C. 63, was sent to Capua to aid in suppressing the conspiracy.

Pomptīnus, -ī, m., C. Pomptīnus, praetor together with L. Valerius Flaccus, arrested Volturcius and the envoys of the Allobroges, and brought them before Cicero.

pōnō, -ere, posuī, positus, place, put, station.

pōns, pontis, m., bridge. pontificatus, -ūs, [pontifex, pontifex, high-priest], m., office of pontifex, pontificate. populāris, -e, [populus], adj.,

of the people; devoted to the people, democratic; as noun, populāris, -is, m., associate, accomplice.

populus, -i, [PLO, fill], m., people, nation.

Porcius, -a, name of a plebeian

gens; see Catō and Laeca. Porcius, -a, -um, adj., Porcian,

of a Porcius; lēx Porcia dē provocatiōne, (B.c. 197), a law of the tribune P. Porcius Laeca, forbidding a magistrate to scourge or put to death any Roman citizen who appealed to the people.

porro, [PRO, before], adv., fur

ther; porro autem, while on the other hand.

portātiō, -ōnis, [portō], f., carrying, conveyance, transportation.

portendo, -ere, -tendi, -tentus, [por for pro+tendō], foretell, predict, prophesy. portentum, -1, [part. of portendō], n., omen, portent.

portō, -āre, -āvi, -ātus, bear, carry, convey, transport. possessiō, -ōnis, [por for prō + SED, sit], f., possessions, estates, property. possideō, -ēre, -sēdī, -sessus, [por for prō + sedeō], have possession, possess, hold. possum, posse, potui, - [potis, able + sum], be able, can, be possible, have power; be strong, be powerful, be effective, accomplish.

post, [ros, behind], adv., behind; post esse, be put behind one, be forgotten; afterwards, after, later.

post, [adv., post], prep. with acc., of place, behind; of time, after, since.

post-eā, adv., after this, hereafter, subsequently; postea quam, after.

post-quam, conj., with indic., after.

postrēmō, [abl. of postrēmus],

adv., at last, in conclusion, finally, in fine, in short, in a word.

postrēmus, -a, -um, [superl. of

posterus, next], adj., last, lowest; n. pl. as noun, the last or latest events.

postulō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, ask,

demand, require, request. potēns, -entis, [part. of possum],

adj., powerful, influential. potentia, -ae, [potēns], f., power; political power, authority, influence.

potestās, -ātis, [potis, able], f., power, authority; opportunity.

potior, īrī, -ītus sum, [potis,

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praeceps,-cipitis, [prae+caput], adj., headlong; rash, reckless, desperate.

praeceptum, -1, [part. of praecipio], n., directions, instructions, order.

praecipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus, [prae+capiō], instruct, enjoin, direct, bid.

prae-clārus, -a, -um, adj., most brilliant, splendid, magnificent, remarkable, illustrious, most glorious, most noble. praeda, -ae, [prae+HED, seize],

f., booty, spoils, plunder. prae-dicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [dico,

proclaim], assert, declare. prae-dicō, -ere, -dixi, -dictus, foretell, predict.

praeditus, -a, -um, [prae + datus], adj., gifted, endowed, possessed.

praedium, -1, [prae+HED, seize], n., estate. praefectūra, -ae, [praefectus],

f., prefecture, a city governed by a prefect, see praefectus.

praefectus, -ī, [part. of prae-
ficio, place in authority over],
m., prefect, either (1) a Ro-
man governor of an allied city,
or (2) a captain in command
of the auxiliary troops of a
Roman army.
prae-ferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus,

with acc. and dat., prefer. prae-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus, send forward, dispatch in ad


praemium, -1, [prae+EM, take],

n., reward, recompense, prize. prae-scribō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrip

praeter- in composition, past,
by, beyond, besides.
praeter-ea, adv., in addition to
this, besides, moreover.
praeter-eō, -īre, -ii, -itus, pass
praeter-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -mis-

sus, omit, pass over, overlook. praetor, -ōris, [for unused praeitor from prae + 1, go], m., praetor, title of a number of Roman magistrates who administered justice; in B.C. 63 there were eight praetors; after their year of office they were sent as propraetors to govern a foreign province; prō praetōre, vested with the powers of a praetor or governor.

tus, order, prescribe, direct. praesēns, -entis, [part. of praesum], adj., present; in praesēns, for the time being. praesentia, -ae, [praesēns], f., praetōrius, -a, -um, [praetor],

adj., of a praetor; cohors praetoria, bodyguard of the general (originally praetor). praetūra, -ae, [prae+1, go], f.,


praesertim, [prae + SER, bind],

adv., especially, particularly. praesideō, -ēre, -sēdī, —, [prae

+sedeo], be in command. praesidium, -ī, [praeses, guard],

n., protection, safeguard, precaution, security; aid, assistance; guard, garrison; force, reinforcement.

with be in

office of praetor, praetorship. prāvus, -a, -um, adj., depraved,

perverse, vicious.

premō, -ere, pressi, pressus, press down, weigh down, overwhelm.

praestō, adv., at hand, ready. prae-stō, -āre, -stiti, -stātus and -stitus, be superior; be notorious; praestat, impers., it is preferable, it is better. prae-sum, -esse, -fui, dat., have charge of, command of, govern. praeter, [comp. of prae], adv. prīmō, [abl. n. of prīmus], adv., and prep., past:


prīdiē, [PRI, before+diēs], adv., the day before.

at first.

(1) As adv., except, save.
(2) As prep. with acc., past,
beyond; in addition to; ex-
cept, besides.

pretium, -ī, [PRA, sell], n., price;

bribe; operae pretium est, it is worth while.

prīdem, [PRI, before], adv., long; iam pridem, long ago, long since.

prīmum, see prius.
prīmus, see prior.

princeps, -cipis, [prīmus + CAP,
take], adj., foremost; as noun,

princeps, -cipis, m., chief, leader.

principium, -1, [princeps], n.,

beginning, commencement. prior, -us, gen., -ōris, [PRI, before], adj., comp., former; priōre nocte, night before last; superl., prīmus, -a, -um, the first, first, foremost, front; of the first importance; in prīmīs, especially, (among the foremost, 56, 13). pristinus, -a, -um, [for unused prius-tinus], adj., former, oldtime.

prius, [n. sing. of prior], adv., | comp., before, sooner, first; prius quam, before, until; superl., primum, [acc. n. of prīmus], adv., first, in the first place, for the first time; quam prīmum, as soon as possible; ubi prīmum, as soon as. prīvātim, [prīvātus], adj., individually, privately, in a private capacity; from individuals.

prīvātus, -a, -um, [part. of

prīvō], adj., personal, individual, private, unofficial; as noun, prīvātus, -ī, m., private citizen.

prīvīgnus, -1, [prīvus, one each

+GEN, beget], m., step-son. prīvō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [prīvus,

one each], with abl., deprive of. prō, prep. with abl., of place, in front of, before; of substitution, in place of, instead of, for; pro praetōre, vested with the powers of a praetor; of equivalence, as, equivalent to; prō certō habēre, be assured; prō certo credere, positively

believe; of defence, in behalf of, for; of proportion, in proportion to, considering, in view of, in comparison with, in accordance with, on account of. prō- and old prōd-in composition,

forth, forwards, before, for. prō, interj., with acc., O! Oh! probitās, -ātis, [probus], f., honesty, integrity.

probō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [probus], approve of.

probrum, -ī, n., shame, disgrace; disgraceful behavior; shameful life.

probus, -a, -um, adj., good, serviceable; virtuous.

procāx, -ācis, [PREC, pray], adj., bold, pert.

prō-cēdō, -ere, -cessi, -cessus, go forth; advance, proceed, progress, succeed. procul, [prō + CEL, drive], adv., far, afar; apart, aloof. prōcūrātiō, -ōnis, [prō-cūrō, care

for], f., charge, management. prodigium, -ī, [prōd + AG, say],

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