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Q. 70. What is justification?

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A. Justification is an act of God's free grace unto sinners *, in which he pardoneth all their sins, accepteth and accounteth their persons righteous in his sight; not for any thing wrought in them, or done by them, but only for the perfect obedience and full satisfaction of Christ, by God imputed to them, and received by faith alone ".

Q. 71. How is justification an act of God's free grace? A. Although Christ, by his obedience and death, did make a proper, real, and full satisfaction to God's jus

70. x Rom. iii. 22. Even the righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe; for there is no difference. Ver. 24. Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ: Ver. 25. Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God. Rom. iv. 5. But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righte

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y 2 Cor. v. 19. To wit, that God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. Ver. 21. For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. Rom. iii. 22. Even the righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe; for there is no difference. Ver. 24. Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ: Ver. 25. Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God. Ver. 27. Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law? of works? Nay; but by the law of faith. Ver. 28. Therefore we conclude, that a man is

justified by faith without the deeds of the law.

z Tit. iii. 5. Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost. * Ver. 7. That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life. Eph. i. 7. In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace.

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* Rom. v. 17. For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ. Ver. 18. Therefore, as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so, by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. Ver. 19. For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners; so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. Rom. iv. 6. Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works, Ver. 7. Saying, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Ver. 8. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin.

b Acts x. 43. To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name, whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins. Gal. ii. 16. Knowing that a man is not justi

tice, in the behalf of them that are justified; yet in as much as God accepteth the satisfaction from a surety, which he might have demanded of them, and did provide this surety, his only Son, imputing his righteousness

fied by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified. Phil. iii. 9. And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith.

71: c Rom. v. 8. But God commendeth his love towards us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Ver. 9. Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. Ver. 10. For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son; much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. Ver. 19. For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners; so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.

d1 Tim. ii. 5. For there is one God, and one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus; Ver. 6. Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time. Heb. x. 10. By the which will we are sanctified, through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. Mat. xx. 28. Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many. Dan. ix. 24. Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people, and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgres sion, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteous. ness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy. Ver. 26. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the

prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. Isa. liii. 4. Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our. sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. Ver. 5. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. Ver. 6. All we, like sheep, have gone astray we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. Ver. 10. Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. Ver. 11. He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. Ver. 12. Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death; and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors. Heb. vii. 22. By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament. Rom. viii. 32. He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things? 1 Pet. i, 18. Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers; Ver. 19. But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.

to them, and requiring nothing of them for their justification but faith, which also is his gift, their justification is to them of free grace.

Q. 72. What is justifying faith ?

A. Justifying faith is a saving grace', wrought in the heart of a sinner by the Spirit and word of God', whereby he, being convinced of his sin and misery, and of the disability in himself and all other creatures to recover him out of his lost condition, not only assenteth to the truth of the promise of the gospel, but receiveth and resteth upon Christ and his righteousness, therein held forth, for pardon of sin, and for the accepting and accounting

e 2 Cor. v. 21. For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin: that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.

f Rom. iii. 24. Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemp. tion that is in Jesus Christ; Ver. 25. Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God.

8 Eph. ii. 8. For by grace are ye saved, through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God.

b Eph. i. 7. In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace.

72. i Heb. x. 39. But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition; but of them that believe, to the saving of the soul.

k 2 Cor. iv. 13. We having the same spirit of faith, according as it is written, I believed, and therefore have I spoken: we also believe, and therefore speak. Eph. i. 17. That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him: Ver. 18. The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, Ver. 19. And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us

ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power.

/ Rom. x. 14. How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher? Ver. 17. So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.

m Acts ii. 37. Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their. heart, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brethren, what shall we do? Acts xvi. 30. And brought them out, and said, Sirs, what must I do to be saved? John xvi. 8 And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment: Ver 9. Of sin, because they believe not in me. Rom. v. 6. For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. Eph. ii. 1. And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins. Acts. iv. 12. Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name underheaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.

n Eph. i. 13. In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation : in whom also, after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise.

o John i. 12. But as many as re ceived him, to them gave he power to

of his person righteous in the sight of God for salvation P. Q. 73. How doth faith justify a sinner in the sight of God?

A. Faith justifies a sinner in the sight of God, not because of those other graces which do always accompany it, or of good works that are the fruits of it, nor as if the grace of faith, or any act thereof, were imputed to him for his justification; but only as it is an instrument by which he receiveth and applieth Christ and his righ

teousness.

Q. 74. What is adoption?

A. Adoption is an act of the free grace of God', in and for his only Son Jesus Christ", whereby all those that are justified are received into the number of his children ", have his name put upon them, the Spirit of his Son

become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name. Acts xvi. 31. And they said, believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house. Acts x. 43. To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name, whosoever believeth in him thall receive remission of sins.

p Phil. iii. 9. And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith. Acts xv. 11. But we believe that, through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, we shall be saved, even as they.

73. q Gal. iii. 11. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. Rom. iii. 28. Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.

Rom. iv. 5. But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness. Compared with Rom. x. 10. For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.

s John i. 12. But as many as received him, to them gave he power to

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become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name. Phil. iii. 9. And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith. Gal. ii. 16. Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.

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74. t1 John. iii. 1. Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God!

u Eph. i. 5. Having predestinated us to the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will. Gal. iv. 4. But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, Ver. 5. To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.

w John i. 12. But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name.

x 2 Cor. vi. 18. And will be a Fa

given to them, are tions, admitted to

under his fatherly care and dispensaall the liberties and privileges of the sons of God, made heirs of all the promises, and fellowheirs with Christ in glory. a,

Q. 75. What is sanctification?

A. Sanctification is a work of God's grace, whereby they whom God hath, before the foundation of the world, chosen to be holy, are in time, through the powerful operation of his Spirit applying the death and resurrection of Christ unto them, renewed in their whole man after the image of God; having the seeds of repentance unto life, and all other saving graces, put into their hearts, and those graces so stirred up, increased, and strengthen

ther unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Rev. iii. 12. Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name.

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Gal. iv. 6. And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

Psal. ciii. 13. Like as a father pitieth his children; so the Lord pitieth them that fear him. Prov. xiv. 26. In the fear of the Lord is strong confidence; and his children shall have a place of refuge. Mat. vi. 32. For your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things.

a Heb. vi. 12. That ye be not slothful, but followers of them, who through faith and patience inherit the promises. Rom. viii. 17. And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ: if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.

75. b Eph. i. 4. According as he háth chosen us in him before the foundation.of the world, that we should be holy, and without blame before him in love. 1 Cor. vi. 11. And such were

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some of you: but ye áre washed, bat ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God. 2 Thess. ii. 13. But we are bound to give thanks to God alway for you, brethren, beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation, through sanctification of the Spirit, and belief of the truth.

c Rom. vi. 4. Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. Ver. 5. For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection: Ver. 6. Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.

d Eph. iv. 23. And be renewed in the spirit of your mind; Ver. 24. And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.

e Acts xi. 18. When they heard these things, they held their peace, and glorified God, saying, Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life. 1 John iii. 9. Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remainethin him; and he cannot sin, because he is born of God. ̧

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