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T is incumbent on every man, who would attain a fuperiority over other animals, induftriously to avoid fpending his life in obfcurity, as the brute creation, which by nature is form'd in an inclining posture, and fubfervient to the gratification of its wants. For our human fyftem confifts of two diftinct parts, the foul and the body. And all the minifters of fenfation make their reports to the former for government, flighting a fubjection to the slavery of the body. One of which ranks us with the Gods, the other with the brutes. On which confideration, I am inclined to judge it more advisable to acquire glory by the energy of the genius, than to attain it by the abilities of the body; and fince the life we enjoy is tranfitory, to endeavour as much as poffible to perpetuate our memories. For the glory of wealth and beauty is frail, and liable to decay; but virtue is always great and permanent. Notwithstanding this, there has been for fome time a lively contest amongst men, whether fuccefs in war was more dependant on the abilities of the body, than on the faculties of the mind: For, on the one hand, before you enter on any measures, a mature confultation is neceffary; and, on the other hand, when you have deliberated on the concerns, they






MNIS homines, qui fefe ftudent præftare cæteris animali

bus, fummâ ope niti decet, ne vitam filentio transeant,

veluti pecora ; quæ natura prona, atque ventri obedientia finxit. Sed noftra omnis vis in animo & corpore fita eft. Animi imperio, corporis fervitio magis utimur. Alterum nobis cum dîs, alterum cum belluis commune eft. Quo mihi rectius videtur, ingenii, quàm virium opibus gloriam quærere; &, quoniam vita ipfa, quâ fruimur, brevis eft, memoriam noftrî quàm maximè longam efficere. Nam divitiarum & formæ gloria, fluxa atque fragilis eft; virtus clara, æternáque habetur. Sed diu magnum inter mortalis certamen fuit, víne corporis, an virtute animi, res militaris magis procederet. Nam & priùs, quam incipias, confulto: &, ubi confulueris, maturè facto

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must be push'd on with vigour, and executed with refolution. Thus both being of themfelves infufficient, and mutually tending one to the fupport of the other, require an union.

2. For this reafon it was that kings (for monarchy was the first government establish'd amongst mankind) did in the early ages of the world, agreeable to their feveral characters, fome promote the abilities of the body, and others the faculties of the mind: then indeed the life of man was unaffected with inordinate defires, every one acquiefced in the poffeffion of his own territories. But when Cyrus feized upon the cities of Afia, the Athenian and Lacedemonian republics on thofe in Greece, and reduced feveral nations, 'twas then they term'd their immoderate paffion for dominion a just cause for declaring war, defined true glory to be the extent of empire, and found that men of fuperior qualities were most advantageous in war. But if princes had equally exerted their talents in peace and in war, the foundation of all governments would be much firmer, and the conftitution of ftates more calm and undisturb'd; neither would one see the earth in fuch convulfions. For empire is eafily retain'd by those arts that first procur'd it; but when a remiss indulgence banishes industry, and self-will and pride expels continence and exactness from the minds of men, then a change of fortune accompanies an innovation of manners. So empire is transferr'd from kings of an inferior character to thofe more diftinguifh'd; and the profits which accrue to men from tillage, voyages and buildings, are the produce of virtue. But But many perfons furrendering themselves to the indulgence of their fenfual inclinations, unciviliz'd and ignorant, have pass'd over life as mere ftrangers in this world, whofe fole happinefs, in oppofition to nature, confifted in gratifying their carnal defires, whilst promoting the faculties of the mind was as it were a burden to them. I look upon their life and death to be equally the fame, because in both stations they are buried in oblivion. But he seems really to live, and enjoy the advantages of life, who applying his mind to a particular purfuit, endeavours, by a noble attempt, or his fuccefs in fome laudable, art to enhance his character. But in the great variety of employs, nature points out to each man his purfnit.

8. It is an honourable thing to act in fuch a manner as may be of advantage to the state, and eloquence is no groveling qualification. A man may attain an eminent character in peace and in war, and many

opus eft. Ita utrumque per fe indigens, alterum alterius auxilio eget,

2. Igitur initio reges (nam in terris nomen imperii id primum fuit) diverfi, pars ingenium, alii corpus exercebant: etiam tum vita hominum finè cupiditate agitabatur: fua cuique fatìs placebant. Poftea verò quàm in Afiâ Cyrus, in Græciâ Lacedæmonii & Athenienfes, cœpere urbes, atque nationes fubigere; lubidinem dominandi, caufam belli habere: maxumam gloriam in maxumo imperio putare; tum demum periculis atque negotiis compertum eft, in bello plurimum ingenium poffe. Quòd fi regum atque imperatorum animi virtus in pace ita, ut in bello, valeret, æquabiliùs atque conftantiùs fefe res humanæ haberent: neque aliud aliò ferri, neque mutari, ac misceri omnia cerneres. Nam imperium facilè iis artibus retinetur, quibus initio partum eft. Verùm, ubi pro labore defidia, pro continentiâ & æquitate lubido atque fuperbia invafere; fortuna fimul cum moribus immutatur. Ita imperium femper ad optumum quemque à minùs bono transfertur. Quæ homines arant, navigant, ædificant, virtuti omnia parent. Sed multi mortales, dediti ventri atque fomno, indocti, incultíque, vitam ficuti peregrinantes tranfiere: quibus profectò, contra naturam, corpus voluptati, anima oneri fuit. Eorum ego vitam mortémque juxtà æftumo: quoniam de utrâque filetur. Verumenimvero is demum mihi vivere, & frui animâ videtur, qui aliquo negotio intentus, præclari facinoris, aut artis bonæ famam quærit. Sed in magnâ copiâ rerum, aliud alii natura iter oftendit.

3. Pulchrum eft bene facere reip. etiam bene dicere haud abfurdum eft. Vel pace,vel bello clarum fieri licet : & qui fecere, & qui facta ali


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