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3. If you are now at home, write and tell me what you are about.

4. If you come to Rome you will repent it.

5. If he saw a rose, he would think that the spring had arrived.

6. If he had asked my pardon, I should have forgiven him. 7. If he were to ask my pardon now, I should not forgive

I him.

8. If he had said so, I should not have believed him. If he were to say so on oath, I should not believe him.

9. The whole army would have been destroyed if the consul had pursued the fugitives.

10. The whole army might have been destroyed had we pursued the fugitives.

II. He will die unless he changes his mode of life. He will die if he does not change his mode of life.

12. Whether he was absent by chance or intentionally is of little consequence : what we wish to discover is whether he was absent or present.



(Conditional Clauses in Oratio Obliqua. See Bradley, lix.) 1. If I say so, I am wrong.

I know that if I say so I am wrong.

If Caesar were to conquer Pompey, the commonwealth would be overthrown. It is certain that if Caesar were to conquer Pompey the commonwealth would be overturned. Cicero declared that if Caesar were to conquer Pompey the commonw alth would be overthrown.

3. If Pompey had not left Italy Rome would not have fallen. Cicero declared frequently that if Pompey had not left Italy Rome would not have fallen. All men are now of opinion that had not Pompey left Italy Rome would not have been captured.

4. Did you suppose that if Pompey had been victorious he would have spared you alone? Acknowledge that if he were now to return you would be the first to pay the penalty. It is certain that if he had returned you would have been the first to pay the penalty.

5. He announced that he would give a crown of gold as a prize to the man who should first enter the city.

6. I ask what you would have done had you seen the enemy entering the city.

7. I was so closely connected with Caesar that if he had been slain in his attack upon the city I should have fallen with him.


(Temporal Clauses.

See Bradley, liv. lv., and L. P., p. 163.)

1. As soon as he heard this he determined on taking the field at once, that he might bring on an engagement before the citizens should repent of having declared war. 2. Scouts brought word that as soon as the enemy

landed they began to plunder.

3. Knowing that there were not sufficient soldiers left to guard the city, he determined to use the utmost caution.

4. This being the case, I cannot help asking you from what source you obtain the means of subsistence.

5. Whenever he heard a man blaming his friends and praising his enemies, he would ask him in which category he placed himself.

6. No sooner had he been made aware of the defeat of the enemy than he proposed that the senate should ordain a public thanksgiving.

7. Whilst one of the consuls presided at the elections, the other marshalled the army in the Campus Martius.

8. Forbear to ask the question until he has recovered from his illness.

9. Let them do what they like, provided only they do not betray a man who has deserved so well of his country.

10. He did not enter upon political life until the death of his father enabled him to espouse openly the cause which he had long secretly favoured.


(Concessive and Comparative Clauses. See Bradley, lx. and lxii.,

and L. P., p. 165.)

1. In spite of the fact that the public land had been acquired by the whole people, the patricians for a long time kept the use of it exclusively to themselves.

2. Even though I were innocent, I should be condemned all the same.

3. However guilty a man may be, it is right that a jury should hear patiently all that can be urged in his defence.

4. In spite of the extreme cold, and the great difficulties encountered in his ascent, Hannibal carried a large part of his army over the Alps.

5. He behaved very differently from what I had expected.

6. The consul, with his usual timidity of disposition, determined to carry on the war with deliberation rather than with vigour.

7. The longer we delay, the smaller is our hope of victory : you are in reality stronger than the enemy, yet you act as though you expected to be defeated in every encounter.

XXXII. (QuI with Subjunctive. See Bradley, lxiii. and lxiv., and L. P., p. 166.)

1. Those of the enemy who had escaped, seeing that their only hope of safety lay in reaching some place of refuge before day-break, made straight for Athens.

2. He at once despatched a messenger to inform his father of his situation.

3. The men who were condemned yesterday ought not to be forgiven. We ought not to forgive men who do not repent of the injury which they have done us.

4. It is useless to address so great a multitude, which no human voice can possibly reach.

5. He was not the man to allow himself to be insulted with impunity.

6. I will send you a letter to inform you how I am, and on what day I intend to arrive at Mantua.

7. How fortunate I deem myself to be to have heard him in his best days ! for though I am no orator myself, I am unable to listen to commonplace speakers.

8. There are many nations who deem themselves invincible; there is but one which never has been conquered.

9. He had no place on which to set his foot.
10. He was unworthy of being raised to the throne.

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XXXIII. (QUOMINUS, QUIN. See Bradley, xvii., and L. P., p. 167.) 1. There is no doubt that the Romans had no just ground for war with the Carthaginians.

2. It is quite impossible that you do not love me, considering that you have always preferred to obtain for me an honour rather than to get it for yourself.

3. I could not but accuse Verres, seeing that the Sicilians had shown me such forbearance when I was amongst them.

4. There is no one who does not think that he is guilty.

5. So convinced were the jury of his guilt, that they could scarcely be restrained from condemning him unheard.

6. He was very near meeting his death on that day: had he not been protected by an armed force, nothing would have prevented the mob from tearing him to pieces.

7. The more silent a man is, the wiser he is generally esteemed.

XXXIV. (Subjunctive used independently. See Bradley, xix., and L. P., p. 152.)

1. What was I to do? Was I to pronounce him innocent, when I knew he had been guilty of the gravest crinies?

2. What am I to say? I can scarcely affirm that he is mad, but I do assert that his acts are the acts of a madman.

3. I would do anything rather than disbelieve the evidence of my own eyes.

4. Granted that Hannibal was a general of consummate ability, are we on that account to forget Alexander, Hamilcar, Camillus, and the other great commanders whom various countries have produced ?

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