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5. Let us rather die with honour than fall into the hands of a perfidious enemy.

6. Under all circumstances you should study moderation, and avoid ever the “Too much,' whether in word or deed.

7. Would that we had shown courage at the time when it was most needed! May we even now learn to bear our misfortunes with equanimity.




Demetrius had taken the city of Megara. Upon his asking Stilpo, the philosopher, if he had lost anything, the other answered, “I have lost nothing; for all my property is still mine." Yet his patrimony had been plundered, his sons carried off, and his country conquered.


Hannibal, being conquered by Scipio, fled to Antiochus, King of Syria. Ambassadors were sent from Rome to Antiochus, among whom was Scipio, who asked Hannibal whom he thought to be the greatest general. Hannibal replied, that Alexander, King of Macedon, seemed to him to have been the greatest, because with small forces, he had routed innumerable armies.


Regulus was conquered by the Carthaginians under the leadership of Xanthippus. Only two thousand men remained out of the whole Roman army. Regulus himself was captured and thrown into prison. Afterwards he was sent to Rome to consult about an exchange of prisoners after giving an oath that he would return to Carthage if he did not accomplish what he wished.


Titus after entering the ruins of the city, and admiring the impregnable strength of the towers, declared that he was indeed the leader of the army, but God was the author of the victory. He commanded his soldiers wearied with slaughter to cease from carnage except where any still chanced to resist; that the leaders concealed in the subterraneous passages should be sought after, that the youths distinguished by their beauty and stature should be reserved for his triumph, the more advanced in years be sent into Egypt to the mines. A vast number also were selected to perish in the theatres by the sword and wild beasts : all under seventeen was sold by auction.


XXXIX Then turning again to the conscripts he cried : “Your Emperor can kill me, but he cannot compel me to be a soldier! Before God I deny his right. I will not fight for him, for he is a devil. . If every man in France had my heart, he would not reign another day; he would have no army; he would have no sheep to lead to the slaughter. Go to your Emperor and do his bloody work! I shall remain at home.'

XL. Translate the following passage into the Oratio Obliqua :

Imperator, milites hortatus, ‘Instate'inquit. “Cur nunc hic moramur ? Num hostis morabitur ? Ne dubitate de

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vestra virtute aut de mea vigilantia. Si ignavus fuissem, vos deseruissem; urbs enim, ut opinor, non facile capietur, neque frigoris vis mitescet. Sed nolo ignavia vitam emere. Quod imperatorem decuit id perfeci; quod si pro patria moriar, mortem non invitus oppetam.'


For nine years and more the Greeks had besieged the city of Troy, and being more numerous and better ordered, and having very strong and valiant chiefs, they had pressed the men of the city very hard, so that these dared not go outside the walls. This being so, it was the custom of the Greeks to leave a part of their army to watch the besieged city, and to send a part on expeditions against such towns in the country round about as they knew to be friendly to the men of Troy, or as they thought to contain good store of provision and treasure. For having been away from home now many years, they were in great want of things needful, nor did they care much how they got them.


As King Numa one morning, from the ancient palace at the foot of the Palatine, raised his hands in prayer to Jove, beseeching his protection and favour for the infant state of Rome, the god let fall from heaven, as a mark of his favour, an oblong brazen shield. At the same time a voice was heard declaring that Rome should endure as long as this shield was preserved. Numa then caused the sacred shield, which was recognised as that of Mars, to be carefully preserved. The better to prevent its abstraction, he ordered

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eleven others to be made exactly similar, and instituted for their protection the college of the Salii, twelve in number, like the shields, who were selected from the noblest families in Rome.


They were now about to fight, when from the ranks of the Trojans Paris rushed forth. He had a panther's skin over his shoulders, and a bow and a sword, and in either hand a spear, and he called aloud to the Greeks that they should send forth their bravest to fight with him. But when Menelaus saw him he was glad, for he thought that now he should avenge himself on the man who had done him such wrong. So a lion is glad when, being sorely hungered, he finds a stag or a wild goat: he devours it, and will not be driven from it by dogs or hunters.


The two daughters of Servius were married to their cousins, the two young Tarquins. In each pair there was a fierce and a gentle one. The fierce Tullia was the wife of the gentle Aruns Tarquin; the gentle Tullia had married the proud Lucius Tarquin. Aruns' wife tried to persuade her husband to seize the throne that had belonged to his father, and when he would not listen to her, she agreed with his brother Lucius that, while he murdered her sister, she should kill his brother, and then that they should marry. The horrid deed was carried out, and old Servius, seeing what a wicked pair were likely to come after him, began to consider with the Senate whether it would not be better to have two consuls or magistrates chosen every year than a king.

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