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L I V Y,

BOOKS XXI-XXIV.

WITH SHORT ENGLISH NOTES

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS.

OXFORD,
Axd 377, STRAND, LONDON ;

JAMES PARKER AND CO.

M PCCC LXXVII.

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PRINTBP PT JAMES PARKER AND SO: FROWN-YARD. OXFORD:

BY

CARTHAGE

The following notice, containing matter which could not conveniently be brought into the Notes, may be found useful.

1. Its situation. From the Pillars of Hercules, the north coast of Africa runs eastward to a point nearly due south of Florence; it then turns abruptly to the south. Just before it takes this turn there is a deep bay, formed by the easternmost promontory (Cape Bon), and another (Cape Farina) more westward. Carthage stood nearly inidway in the bend of this bay, on a headland forming tlie northern side of ai inner and smaller bay, now known as the Bay of Tunis.

2. Foundation. The legend of the foundation of Carthage is well known in its main points from Virgil. The intro. duction of Æneas is, of course, due to him, and has no foundation in the original legend.

It is not doubted that Carthage owed its origin to Phonician Tyre, about seventy years, as it is supposed, before the foundation of Rome. It is probable that, established at a period of great commercial enterprize and prosperity, it was at rst only an emporium or factory, but fro its advantageous position, and the influx of inliabitants from

other colonies, especially from Utica, (likewise a Phe. nician settlement, though of nearly three hundred years earlier date,) it gradually rose into sovereign importance, extending its dominion from the Pillars of Hercules almost as far as the great Syrtis.

3. History. The history of Carthage occupies three periods:

i. From the foundation to B.c. 410, which is the period of the great development of her power.

ii. From B.C. 410 to the commencement of her wars with Rome, B.c. 264.

iii. The period of her decline and fall, B.c. 264 to B.C. 146.

Of the first two of these periods it is beyond the purpose of this sketch to speak fully. It is enough to say that, partly from her superior situation, and partly, perhaps, from her being the latest and the favourite offspring of the mother state, partly from the shocks which the old Tyre received from the Assyrian and Babylonian conquests, her importance became greatly and soon developed, until her supremacy was established, not only over the surrounding peoples, but over the older Phænician colonies in Africa, -Tunis, Hippo, Hadrumetum, and even Utica.

At the commencement of the third period, the period of the Punic wars, B.C. 264, and of her decline and fall, the power and resources of Cathage were very great.

In Africa she had absolute dominion over the Libyan, of comparatively settled peoples of the provinces of Zeugitana and Byzacium, from Hippo Regius on the west, to the lake Triton on the south. The nomad tribes on the east, south, and west, from the Pillars of Hercules to the borders of Cyrene, furnished her abundantly with mercenary soldiers, especially with the splendid irregular cavalry so famous in Hannibal's wars, and were her channels of wealth from the countries bordering on the Niger and the Nile. Her colonies, too, extended all along the coast from Cyrenaica westward; and these, besides their commercial importance, formed so many points of command over the nomad tribes, contributed regularly to the revenue of the mother city, and bore the chief expense of her wars. Out of Africa, Carthage possessed numerous dependencies, or provinces. Sardinia, which belonged to her as early as the year B.c. 509; Corsica, which was also early occupied; Sicilythe western half-which might be marked by a straight line drawn from Himera to Agrigentum; the Balearic. islands, Malta and others less important, and the coast of Spain from Gibraltar to Carthagena.

4. Population. The population of the empire was composed chiefly of three classes :-(i.) The Carthaginians themselves; (ii.) A mixed population of Liby-phænicians, who occupied and cultivated the soil in the vicinity of the city and colonial towns; (iii.) Native Libyan tribes, partly settled, (whose condition was little better than that of slaves), partly nomad. Of these last mention has already been made. Carthage itself, after all the drain of the war, is said to have contained, a little before its fall, 700,000 people.

5. Government. We have very little information re

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