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tical use ;

been handed down to us in a given form, and which is to be learned in this given form. It would have been easy to go back to certain primitive forms which constitute the first elements in the formation of the lan guage, and thereby to explain many an irregularity in the mixture of forms; but in teaching a language which is learned, not only for the purpose of training the intellect, but of using it in speaking and writing, the eye and memory of the pupil ought not to be troubled with hypothetical or assumed forms which he is expected to forget, but frequently does not forget, and which he is rather apt to take for real forms. In etymology, a complete analogy alone can be of prac

hence I have endeavoured to make the list of irregular verbs and the section on the formation of words-important branches of grammar which had been much neglected by my predecessors—as complete as possible. In the syntax, on the other hand, it is right that there should be a philosophical development of the complex from the simple, taking that which is peculiarly Latin as the groundwork. This part of my grammar has arisen from dictations which I made the basis of a course of lectures on Latin syntax; and I still believe that this method is best suited to teach pupils—not indeed the first beginners, but those who have already made some progress in the understanding of Latin sentences—the whole of the Latin syntax in a manner which is at once a training of their intellect and their memory. Some example or other must be made the basis; it must be explained and impressed upon the memory as a model for imitation. The examples given in the text of the present grammar may serve this purpose ; all have been selected

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with special care, and each contains a complete thought expressed in a classical form. The teacher must cause his pupils to form a number of other similar sentences, and make the pupils translate them from the vernacular tongue into Latin. It is desirable that such sentences should be chosen with taste, or be carefully prepared for this purpose beforehand; but as their object is only to impress the rule upon the mind of the learner, it is advisable to pay attention to variety of expression rather than to particular neatness or elegance.

My grammar farther contains a section on the sig. nification of the adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, which, properly speaking, does not belong to grammar, but to a dictionary. But it is, nevertheless, necessary, since the

since the ordinary dictionaries are partly incorrect and partly incomplete in their explanations of these particles, which contain the life and soul of a language, and since special books on the particles, such as were formerly used in schools, are either no longer consulted, or do not answer the purposes for which they were written. The syntax has been enlarged by what is called Syntaxis ornata ; and it is strange, that for this part of my work I have been censured by several scholars, who thought it inconsistent with the strictly progressive spirit of the grammar, and the philosophical development of the grammatical laws, because the observations which form the substance of the Syntaxis ornata are not given as necessary principles, but in the form of suggestions, which may be followed or not at discretion. But this is the very point which I myself have expressly stated in the introduction to that part of my work where I direct attention to the difference between the Syntaxis regularis and

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the Syntaxis ornata. But as those observations on style point out so much that is correct, ingenious, and peculiar to the Latin language, should they not be made at all because their application is left to choice? or shall we allow them to stand in a somewhat looser connexion, and arrange the different observations under rational and intelligible heads? Surely the latter course must be preferred ; and I see that my critics have, in fact, adopted the very same method, except that what I have discussed in separate chapters on “ Peculiarities in the Use of the Parts of Speech," on “ Pleonasm," “ Ellipsis,” “ Arrangement of Words and

" Construction of Periods,” is treated of by them under the heads of first, second, and third Appendices. The real appendices in the present work on metres, measures and weights, calendar, &c., are of a different nature. They do not, indeed, belong to grammar ; but, as they contain information on matters important and necessary for the understanding of the authors read in schools, and as this information is either not to be found elsewhere, or is not sufficiently correct, no one, I hope, will grudge it a place at the end of this grammar.

I cannot part from the English reader without expressing my delight at the vigour and energy with which classical studies are prosecuted in Germany and England. In the former country, a fresh impulse was given to these studies some thirty years ago, just at the time when the nation was on the point of losing its independence; in England, the revival of classical studies must be dated, I believe, from the time that the contest between idealism and realism became settled; and these two branches of human knowledge have now arrived at a point where they recognise each other in

xii AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION.

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peaceful harmony, the one exerting itself in exploring the treasures of nature, and the other those of mind. Germany owes her safety to her free schools and universities, and builds her hopes upon them; England to the energy of her people, and to her public institutions ; and the two countries might with advantage exchange some of their excellences. In England, the educational establishments and teachers appear to be fettered by old traditional and conventional forms; while in Germany the sublimest truths which are promulgated from the professorial chair die within the lecture-rooms of the universities, and produce no fruit.

But be the difference between the two countries ever so great, the characteristics of the educated men in both consist in their rising above the immediate necessities of time, place, and occupation, and in their recognition of the connexion existing between the individual and the spirit of all mankind. Hence a knowlege of antiquity, and of what it has produced, is necessary to every educated person in proportion to the influence it has exercised upon subsequent ages; and the study of antiquity will ever have the most salutary effect upon man in elevating him above the trivial wants of ordinary life, and affording him the means of mental and intellectual culture. To those among my contemporaries who are anxious to obtain these advantages, I offer the present work as a means of penetrating more deeply and more easily into the spirit of the Roman classics and of Roman antiquity.

C. G. ZUMPT. Berlin, February 23d, 1845.

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TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.

When the honourable task of preparing a translation of the ninth edition of Professor Zumpt's Latin Grammar had been intrusted to me by the publishers, the author himself most willingly consented to co-operate with me in endeavouring to present his work to the English public in as perfect a form as possible. His professional engagements in the University of Berlin have enabled him continually to improve the successive editions of his grammar, which has thus become infinitely superior to what it was when originally translated. Scarcely a year has elapsed since the publication of the ninth edition of the original, yet the author's unceasing labours in this department of philology

have enabled him already to collect a large number of corrections and additions for future use; and all these improvements he has been kind enough to communicate to me in manuscript for incorporation in the English translation, which hence possesses considerable advantages over the German work.

In the etymological part of the present grammar, some additions might have been made here and there from English sources, and some English scholars may, perhaps, be inclined to censure me for having neglected to do so, since the etymology of the Latin language has been studied by a few scholars in this country more comprehensively than on the Continent. But Professor Zumpt has abstained, on principle, from introducing into his work etymological disquisitions which would have led his readers beyond the immediate objects of his grammar; and it was impossible

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