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subject, acting that faith in himself; crisy, &c.” to answer to "giving heed but is passive, to signify that Christ to seducing spirits, &c. and doctrines is the object of our faith built on of devils.' But the first mentioned him. Thus Acts iii, 16, “ Through words (speaking lies, &c.) are in the faith of his name" TY TISEL T8 ovo- genitive case, (yevdoloywv,) and conparos avós,) which our translators sequently they cannot agree with the render " through faith in his name.' words ' giving heed,' which are in the So Phil. iii, 9,—“ Having that right nominative case pooexovreg.: Nor eousness which is through faith of do they mend the matter that say, Christ,”-that is, through faith con- those last genitives (speaking lies in cerning or in Christ; (the Greek hypocrisy, having their consciences allows me to put out the word the;') seared, forbidding marriage, &c.) as if the sentence should run thus— should be construed with that first “Not having mine own righteous- genitive, devils : for it were most imness, &c. but the righteousness of proper to say, that the devils have Christ through faith.'
consciences seared, &c. Therefore we must adopt another translation ;
wherein we make εν υποκρισει (in 1 Tim. iii, 16, and iv, 1-3.
hypocrisy,) to note the cause and Read~" And confessedly (ouolo- means of this apostasy, (through youevws) great is the mystery of hypocrisy ;) and Jevdoloywv, speakgodliness, -God manifested in the ing lies, to be as the latter of two
flesh, &c. But the Spirit speaketh substantives, hypocrisy being the • verbatim (ontws, or, in the written former ; and so all the last genitives, • word) that in the latter times (or (having their consciences seared,
seasons) some shall apostatize from forbidding meats, &c.) to agree with • the faith, giving heed to errone- the first genitive liars. Further, the
ous spirits, and doctrines touching Apostle here intends to set forth the dæmons, (or deified souls of deceas- apostasy of the christian Church in ed men, &c.) through the hypocrisy the latter times; and it is not likely ' of liars, having seared consciences, that he would only give instances forbidding to marry, and com- of petty, circumstantial errors, (such manding to abstain from meats.” as forbidding meats and marriage,)
All I intend to notice on chap. iii, and omit the fundamental errors of 16, considered by itself, is its rela- those times, which other Scriptures tion to chap. iv, 1; the antithesis tell us plainly to be spiritual fornibeing, that though many have con- cation, -viz. idolatry. Neither are fessed this mystery of godliness, (viz. errors about meats and marriage peGod manifested in the flesh,) yet, culiar to the latter times; but such notwithstanding, the Spirit speaketh as were extant in the Apostles' days, in express words, that some shall as their Epistles intimate. Seel Cor. apostatize from their confession of 2. As I have departed from the that faith. Some ancient Greek order of the words, so must I from the copies do indeed unite these chap- translation of some of them; viz." of ters.
devils.” First'of' must be rendered But my eye is chiefly intent on touching, or concerning : seeing it is chap. iv, 1–3; wherein I am forced not an active genitive case, signifyto depart from our English Bibles. ing devils to be the authors of those First, in the order of the words; doctrines; but a passive genitive, to which makes " speaking lies in hypo- signify the subject matter of those
doctrines, that should be sown in “ when those happy men of the the latter days. For though it is ·golden age of the world were detrue, that the devil is the author of 'parted this life, great Jupiter proerroneous opinions; yet that is ‘moted them to be dæmons; that is common to all ages, and not peculiar 'to be keepers, protectors, and to the last days. For so rendering patrons of earthly mortals, overthe genitive we have many in- seeing good and evil works, givstances : let one, for brevity's sake, ‘ing riches, &c.” Further, they suffice; viz. Heb. vi, 2. The doc. would have all those that died trine of baptisms, of laying on of valiantly in the field, to be achands, of the resurrection of the counted of the golden age, and to dead;" means concerning baptisms, be made dæmons; and all such as &c. If any object, that devils are lived virtuously likewise. Abundant persons, and therefore that Heb. vi, antiquity shows, that the souls of 2 is not pertinent, let such con- these dæmons (or sancta animalia, as sider Acts xiii, 12; where the they also called them) were worgenitive of a person is to be ren- shiped throughout every city of the dered passively. The words are- heathens; who built certain images, “ The deputy, when he saw what pillars, &c. in honour of them, in was done, believed, being astonished order that they might thus find them at the doctrine of the Lord :"—that ready for their use. For assurance is, evidently, at the doctrine con- of this, let the reader look into Plato cerning the Lord Christ. Tit. ii, 10, in Sympos. &c. Plutarch de Defect. is another instance.
Orac. &c. Hesiod, Origen contra Secondly, Aaipoviwy (which our Celsum, Augustine de Civ. Dei, common translation renders devils) Eusebius de Præp. Evangel. we must translate dæmons; which The holy Scriptures use the same in its own nature and derivation distinction, in reproving the idolasignifies no such evil as a devil : for tries of the times. For example, in Aapwv (dæmon,) is as much as to Numb. xxv, their celestial sovereign say Aanuwv, (dæmon) i.e. one that gods are called, the host of heaven ; knows much, or is skilful. In the the other inferior sort are called gentile theology it constantly sig- baalim, that is lords. The same disnifies deastros ;-that is, an inferior tinction exists in 2 Chron. xxxiii, 3; sort of deified powers, of a middle 2 Kings xxiii, 5; and Psalm cvi. nature between the sovereign gods Thus again we are told of the Israeland mortal men; and so of a mid. ites, " that they joined themselves dle office, viz. to be mediators be- ' to Baal Peor, (Baal coming of the tween them both. For their highest old Belus, the deceased monarch) gods they called Ocot, whom they and ate the sacrifices of the dead." supposed to be in the heavens, And in Deut. xxxii, 17, the Septua(distinguishing them by the titles, gint has" Israel in their apostasy dii superi, dii cælestes';) and there. sacrificed to dæmons, and not to fore, for their sublimity and purity, God." Many more places of the not to be profaned with approach of Old Testament may be referred to, earthly things, or with the care containing allusion to these dæmons or management of the affairs of and to the worship offered to them : mortal men.
The original of these see 1 Kings xviii ; Lev. xix, 18; dæmons was, the deified souls of Deut. xiv, 1 ; Isa. viii, 19; lxv, 3, men after death : for (say they) 4; Jer. xvi, 6; xli, 5; xlviii, 37.
The same distinction of sovereign like signification. Some also of the gods and dæmon gods is also inti- Fathers use the word dæmon, when mated in the New Testament, 1 Cor. they expound our text. For Epiphaviii, 5 ;- Though there be that are nius, observing some in his days to called gods, whether in heaven, or in have made a goddess of the virgin earth, (as there be Okol molloi, gods Mary, and to have offered a cake to many,
and κυριοι πολλοι, lords many,d her as queen of heaven, urges this text but to us (Christians,) there is but eis against them, with a little variation Okos, one sovereign God, the Father, in words only, viz,—“ That also is of whom are all things ; and we (ELS fulfilled on these, that some shall autov) to him, (that is, to whom, as apostatize from sound doctrine, supreme, we direct all our services :) • giving heed to fables, and doctrines and but £is Kupios, one Lord Jesus of dæmons ; for they shall be worChrist, by whom are all things, and shipers of dead men, as they worwe by him.” There is only wanting shiped in Israel.” By which dead here in the Greek, the actual expres
persons he means their Baalim ; of sion-dæmon, when he said “lords which he brings two examples : one many;" but then, in the application of the Sichemites, in his time, who of the distinction, he must have said had a goddess under the name of of Christ, that he was our only Jephtha's daughter; another, of the dæmon ; with which idolatrous word Egyptians, who worshiped Therhe would not pollute Christ's honor. mutis, the daughter of Pharaoh,
To make this exposition of dæmon that brought up Moses. clearer, let us observe, that though The intent of the Apostle therethe sacred Scriptures take Aaquwv fore, in this phrase“ doctrine concernand Aaluoviol (dæmon, and dæmons) ing demons,” is to point out a main in an evil sense ; yet do they also corruption of the last times; charguse it in an opposite or an indifferent ing them with great idolatry, in
Thus in Acts xvii, 18, when praying to glorified saints as mediaPaul preached that Jesus was risen tors and agents with God. So from the dead, the heathen philo- that, in the Apostle's sense, those sophers there oppose him with nominal Christians, the Papists, or “ This fellow seemeth to be a setter others that shall so pray, are not forth of strange dæmons ; (Aaipov- only guilty of practising “a needWV;) because they preached unto less, foolish, and fruitless ceremony;" them Jesus and the resurrection :" (which is all the harm some Proupon which ground, Celsus in Ori- testants can see in it;) but are guilty gen calls Christ, the Christian's da- of foul idolatry, lineally descended mon. (Lib. viii, Origen contra Cel. from heathens, the worst of men. sum.) Paul, in his reply, tells them, For why does the Apostle, imme. Ye men of Athens, I perceive that diately on mentioning that Christ in all things you are deloldaluov- was received up into glory,(see chap. asepes,—too much given to dæmon iii, 16,) infer, that « shall worship. So in Rev. ix, 20, the apostatize from that faith, &c.;' worshiping devils, there mentioned, but to signify that this embracing is dæmons in the original ; meaning the “ doctrines touching dæmons” is these dæmon gods ; as is explained
idolatry,—is a denial of by the " idols of gold and silver” Christ's glory and majesty, wherefollowing. And in 1 Cor. x, 20, 21, unto he is installed by his assumpthe word occurs three times with a tion into heaven, there to sit at the
right hand of God? The Popish v. 8; (said there to be a thousand party therefore, or whosoever they years ;) yet ought they to have faithbe that pray to or through angels or fully kept to the idiom of the Aposdeceased saints, are great idolaters; tle, leaving others to have inferred and therein the great idolaters of as God should enlighten them. “ the last times," intended by the Apostle in this text.
Revelation xiii, 8.
“ And all that dwell on the earth 2 Timothy ii, 6.
shall worship him, whose names are Read --" “The husbandman ought, the world in the Book of the Life of
not written from the foundation of first labouring, afterwards to partake of the fruits,”
the Lamb that was slain.” The two previous comparisons,
The words from the foundation of verses 3, 5, to animate Timothy to the world are to be referred to, and endure hardship, before he receive construed with, the words in the eternal glory,—the one from a
Book of Life ;' which, speaking figsoldier, who must fight before he be uratively, the Lamb hath always paid and honored; the other from kept by him ; writing in it every one a champion, who is not crowned till of his own people that hath lived after lawful striving,—do undeniably from the foundation of the world, require this translation. That jeta
and believed on him to eternal life ; signifies afterwards, and metalau
and who therefore have never worBavel to take afterwards, I need shiped nor wondered after the beast. not prove to any scholar.
That they are not to be adjoined to
those words—' of the Lamb slain,' 2 Peter iii, 18.
appears plainly; not only by the
matter, (Christ not having been “But grow in grace, and in the slain from the foundation of the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour world, but “ in these last days;” Jesus Christ. To him be glory, (compare Heb. i, 1, 2, with v, 7, &c.) both now, and unto the day of eter- but also by a parallel place, in the nity, Amen.”
self-same words, repeating the same I have altered only the last clause, matter, only leaving out the menrendering es quepay alwvos, with tion of the slaying the Lamb ;—viz. due justice to the original. If trans- Rev. xvii, 8, · Whose names were lators will not see that Peter
may not written in the Book of Life from intend that same day he mentioned, the foundation of the world.”