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A NEW Edition of LIVY being called for, it has been judged that the public convenience will be best consulted, by issuing the THIRD DECADE at once, and following it up by the FIRST, the FOURTH, and the fragment of the FIFTH, as soon as they shall be prepared on the same plan. But to bring within a smaller compass what yet remains for publication, the greater portion of the NOTES has been embodied in the present volume.

Explanations of abridgements used in the Marginal References, in the Various Readings, and in the Notes, will be given when the work is complete now, it may only be necessary to premise, that the text is generally that of BEKKER.








IN Italiam belli Punici secundi ortus narratur, et Hannibalis Pœnorum ducis contra fœdus per Iberum amnem transitus, a quo Saguntum, sociorum populi Romani civitas, obsessa octavo mense capta est. de quibus injuriis missi legati ad Carthaginienses qui quererentur. cum satisfacere nollent, bellum iis indictum est. Hannibal superato Pyrenæo saltu per Gallias, fusis Volcis qui obsistere conati erant, ad Alpes venit, et laborioso per eas transitu, cum montanos quoque Gallos obvios aliquot præliis reppulisset, descendit in Italiam; et ad Ticinum amnem Romanos equestri prælio fudit, in quo vulneratum P. Cornelium Scipionem protexit filius, qui Africani postea nomen accepit. iterumque exercitu Romano ad flumen Trebiam fuso Hannibal Apenninum quoque, per magnam militum vexationem propter vim tempestatum, transiit 2. Cn. Cornelius Scipio in Hispania contra Pœnos prospere pugnavit, duce hostium Magone capto.

IN parte operis mei licet mihi præfari quod in princi- Prefatory pio summæ totius professi plerique sunt rerum scriptores 1, Remarks. bellum maxime omnium memorabile, quæ unquam gesta Magnitude sint, me scripturum, quod Hannibale duce Carthagi- of the senienses cum populo Romano gessere2. nam neque vali- war.

1Against' the Romans and their allies in Italy. D. This, however, is a harsh construction. R.

2 Rather transire frustra conatus est: SA. cf. 59; and xxii, 1. C.

cond Punic

3 Rather Hannone: cf. 60. DL.-but cf. Oros. iv, 13. OU, on Fr. Str. ii, 3, 1.


1 Thucydides, for instance. M.
2 For gesserint. B.



Prefatory diores opibus ullæ inter se civitates gentesque contulerunt arma, neque his ipsis tantum unquam virium aut roboris3 fuit. et haud ignotas belli artes inter se, sed expertas primo Punico conserebant bello. et adeo varia belli fortuna ancepsque Mars fuit, ut propius periculum" fuerint qui vicerunt. odiis etiam prope majoribus certârunt quam viribus, Romanis indignantibus quod victoribus victi ultro inferrent arma, Poenis quod superbe Hannibal avareque crederent imperitatum victis esse. fama etiam est Hannibalem annorum ferme novem, pueriliter blandientem patri Hamilcari ut duceretur in Hispaniam, cum P. i, 65-88. perfecto Africo7 bello exercitum eo trajecturus sacrificaret, xxxv, 19; altaribus admotum, tactis sacris jurejurando adactum se, 'cum primum posset, hostem fore populo Romano.' angeN. xxii, 2; bant ingentis spiritus virum Sicilia Sardiniaque amissæ : nam et Siciliam nimis celeri desperatione rerum conii, 349 sq; cessam, et Sardiniam inter motum Africa fraude 10 Romanorum, stipendio etiam insuper imposito, interceptam.

Vows en

mity to the Romans.

P. iii, 11;

ii,1; AH.9;

V. ix, 3;


xiii,744 sqq.

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a' Brought into collision or into play.'-conferebant H. as contulerunt above: R. but cf. conserere pugnam et ex propinquo vires conferre, 50. ED. b F. M.-periculo cet. Mss; propiusque fuere periclo queis superare datum, Sil. i, 13. But Livy seems to prefer the accusative; iv, 17; xxii, 40; xxv, 11; xxxv, 10; xliv, 9: so Cic. fr. Or. Pis. id. Mil. 22; Sall. often. M. G. c imperatum al. Mss; but the other is a favourite word with our author; i, 2; 17; 24; iii, 39; iv, 5; xxii, 41 twice; &c. cf. Sil. ii, 52. D. d F.-superimposito, pl. Mss; G. C. as in xxxviii, 56; xxxix, 50; Cels. M. v, 27, 6; Col. R. R. viii, 3; Pliny H. N. xxix, 6; Quint. I. O. i, 1; but imponere with insuper occurs, 45; G. Virg. Æ. i, 61; iii, 579. cf. also xxii, 2; xliv, 5; Apul. M. i, fin.; Sil. i, 349; Plaut. Quer. pr. D.

3 Robur applies to the mind, vires does not. B.

4 Rome was in more imminent peril after the disastrous battle of Cannæ, xxii, 54; than Carthage was even after Hannibal's defeat at Zama: but the Romans had elasticity of mind to bear up against adverse fortune. C.

5 Ultro denotes a person's doing what is not to be expected, or what does not become him. i, 5. C.

6 Their overbearing temper and cupidity were evinced by their fraudulently grasping at the lands of the vanquished. D. Sardinia is particularly alluded to. C.

7 This war was conducted by Hamilcar, on the part of Carthage, against the revolted mercenaries in Africa and Sardinia. It commenced immediately at the close of the first Punic war, and lasted 3 years and 4 months; Y.R. 513–516. cf. 2, I. S. C. R. 8 Cf. Pol. iii, 13. S. Hamilcar was of

opinion that his countrymen had too soon yielded to despondency: that, even after the blow they received at the gates [Pol. i, 60 sq.], they might have protracted the war, or, at any rate, have concluded a peace on better terms. C.

9 Sicily had been the bone of contention in the first Punic war: vii, 27; Pol. i, 62 sq. iii, 27. S. R.

10 The Romans fabricated some hollow pretext for declaring war against the Carthaginians, before the latter had recovered their breath from quelling the African mutiny. Carthage, rather than involve herself in a fresh war at such an unfavourable juncture, not only surrendered Sardinia, but, in compliance with the demand of the Romans, gave them 1200 talents of silver, (by way of indemnification for the expenses incurred in their military preparations, R.) over and above' (insuper DJ.) the sum stipulated by the treaty made at the gates. C. S.

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