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Page 39 XXIII. 8. Domum. Terminal accusative. — 11. Utramque,

each of them. — 15. Tectis dirutis. See chapter xxix. — Duo, the two. — 16. Ingenti exercitu. The modal ablative (of a noun and adjective) is often used for the force with which anything is done in war. So infesto exercitu (27). – 28. Ducit (sc. Mettius). Used absolutely, like åyew. -- 31. Satis scire, sc. se, that he was confident. — 34. Adferri rebatur. Tanaquil Faber, Madvig. – Codd., adferrebuntur. Wsb. e coni. I. H. Vossii, tamen, si vana adferantur. — 36. Instructi. Mg. — Codd. structi. — 38 sqq. Et ego regem n. C. audisse videor (dicentem) injurias et n. r. r. ex

f. q. r. s. causam hujusce esse belli, nec dubito, etc. 40 4. Recte, sc. id fiat. - 5. Fuerit, may have been, was perhaps. —

7. Illud monitum, advised of this. — Velim. The subjunctive softens the expression. — 8, 9. Quo, hoc. Ablatives of measure of the difference implied in the comparative degree. — Tuscis, Stroth's correction. Codd. Vvlscis. — 10. Esto. Notice that this future imperative stands with cum dabis.—Jam cum, when once.11. Spectaculo fore, sc. Etruscis. — 12. Adgrediantur, sc. Etrusci. - 19. Quaerentibus. The so-called dative of the agent. — 20. Materiam, the opportunity, the means.

XXIV. 25. Error, a confusion, a discrepancy. – 30. Ibi, with that people. — 33. Legibus, conditions, terms. — 39. Pater patratus seems to mean one who is made father.' The pater patratus seems not a president of the College of Fetials, but a president of a particular deputation from it elected for the occasion, (hence ‘patratus.') Some passages suggest that the title is connected with

the doctrine of 'patria potestas.' S., Fr. 41 1. Sagmina, a tuft of gra88 plucked from the summit of the

Capitoline. (Plin. H. N. 22, 2, 5.) — 2. Puram, sc. herbam. The word is bracketed by Ussing and Frey. “Perhaps we should have pura.” — 5, 6. Vasa and comites are like me) governed by facis, and regio8 (or regiu) populi Romani Quiritium is to be supplied as a factitive-object. Regium, royal, i. e. authorized to represent the king. Among the vasa are the sagmina and silex (line 22). — 6, 7. Quod fiat, 80 far as it can be done. Quod with the subjunctive in a restrictive clause. — Fraude mea, etc., injury (or prejudice) to me and to the Roman people, etc. Populi is objective genitive. — 10, 11. The pater patratus (it) is appointed to pronounce the oath, etc. — 12. Carmine, formulo. — Operae, sc. pretium. See the first line of Livy's preface. – 14. Populus. A Page nominative in apposition to a vocative. M. 299, Obs. 1.-15. Ut, 41 as. - Prima postrema, from first to last. Such asyndeta are common with opposites; e. g. bona mala, digna indigna, velim nolim. – 16. Tabulis cerave, upon tablets (of stone) or (thin tablets of wood covered over with) wax. — - Utique, and ar. — 18. Prior non deficiet, will not be the first to (be wanting or) prove faithless to those stipulations. — Defexit for defecerit. — 19. Illo die. A suggestion of Madvig, who reads however ille dies, as the MSS. except M, in which Iup is crossed out and ille altered to illo. Wsb. ille Diespiter. Seeley, illo die, Diespiter : in itself an admirable reading.–20. Porcum. A pig was the usual offering at the ratification of a treaty.-22. Silice. This flint was kept in the temple of Juppiter Feretrius, and seems to have been a symbol of Jove himself. It is conjectured that a meteoric stone was taken, as the symbol of the power of the Thunderer. Cf. Verg. Aen. xii. 200. Cf. also the expression Jovem lapidem jurare. S.

XXV. 30. Feroces — pleni, ardent both from their natural disposition and as inspired by, etc. S. — 34. Quippe, for. — 36. Suspensi, nervous. S. — 37. Intenduntur. Mg., Hz., after Harl. 1., instead of incenduntur. — 38. Why terni and not tres ? - 39. “Animus is the heart; animi, courage,spirit.

4. Arma, i. e. shields. -5. Spectantis. Accusative plural. — 42 8. Agitatio anceps, movement from both sides. — 10. Alium alius for alterum alter. -- 14. Vice. Ablative of cause. Mg. reads vicem, which is more commonly used in this sense. — 16. Ut... sic, though (or indeed)... yet. - 17. Ferox, spirited, confident. S. – Eorum, with them. — 21, 22. Sequentes ... unum abesse. The accusative with the infinitive states a fact with more special emphasis and greater particularity than the participle. — 26. Faventium. The appropriate word for encouraging combatants with shouting. S. – Solet, sc. esse, which Mg. supplies after qualis. Livy refers to the applause given at gladiatorial shows (for instance) when a combatant who had seemed overborne again gains the upper hand. — 28. Nec, indeed not. — 34. Ante se, before his eyes. — 35. Obicitur = objicitur. - Nec, also not. -Not a praelium, but a trucidatio. — 36, 37. Fratrum manibus, to (appease) the shades of my brothers. - 38. Arma, i, e. shield.

5. Dicionis alienae facti, brought under a foreign jurisdiction. 43 Dicionis possessive genitive in the predicate after fio. M. 281, obs. — 13. Princeps, at the head.

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Page 43 XXVI. 15, 16. The porta Capona, which was a gate in the wall

of Servius Tullius, was not then in existence. Livy uses the word to designate the site. — Umeros = humero8. – 19. Feroci juveni, the triumphant soldier. Seeley. On the dative, see note on Namitoti, page 21, line 33. Our English idiom almost compels us here to translate this dative as genitive, to the loss of the delicate meaning of the Latin case.-22. Inmaturo, unseasonable.-24. Sic eat, 80 may she fare.–26. Meritum, service.-Facto obstabat, shielded his deed, “ was a set-off against the deed.” — 27. Ad regem, to the king (as the supreme judge).—28. Ab – supplicii, and for a punishment in accordance with the judgment. — Auctor esset, “ might be responsible for.” — 30. Qui judicent. Relative with the subjunctive denoting purpose. Translate by the English infinitive.Perduellio, properly used of treason, here a crime against the state. We should expect parricidium ; but the murder could be called perduellio, as a usurpation of the power of the state to punish the guilty. — 32. Carminis, strain, formula. — 33. Provocarit,

- 34. Vincent, sc. duumviri. Obnubito (and the two following verbs), sc. lictor. 34, 35. Infelici arbori, on a barren

A true locative, like domi, humi, Carıhagini, Corinthi, etc. It is not strange that we should meet this old case in an ancient formula. Infelici. “ Unfruitfulness, and darkness of color, were qualities of things dedicated to the infernal gods." — 37. Non - ne quidem. “Ne quidem'can follow a general negative

without destroying the negation. 44 1. Iniciebat (=injiciebat). Imperfect of an action merely

öegun or attempteil. — 2. Auctore Tullo, by the permission of Tullus. — 3. Ita-que, and thus. T. Faber, Mg. The MSS. ita de. — 7. Patrio jure. The putria potestas gave the father the right over the life and death of his children. – 11. Pila Horatia.

A pillar at the corner of one of the arcades containing shops was called the Pila Horatia, in memory of the battle of the Horatii and Curiatii. Upon it, according to Dionysius, bad been fixed the armor taken by the surviving Horatius from the vanquiched Curiatii. The word pila may mean either the column or the weapons themselves; the Latin writers seem to understand it as referring to the weapons," thus line 20 inter illa pila,while Dionysius translates it by orulís.” Burn, p. 104.-12. Modo, just 1010.

- 13. Decoratum ovantemque victoria, with the ornaments and in the exultation of victory. — 15, 16. Spectaculum tam deformo


Page quod (=ut id) vix Albanorum oculi ferre possent. - 19. Arbore. 44 Here we have the ablative (and not the antiquated locative of the formula on page 43) as the ordinary mode of expression. — 20, 21. Modo, if only, provided it be. — Pila, the lances on which the spoils hung.–27. Admiratione. Ablative of cause. Jure. The ablative means in accordance with. — 31. Deinde, thenceforward. — 33. Publice, at the public expense. — Semper, from time to time. The Sister's Beam is mentioned as still in existence in the fourth century of the Christian era. It was a plank or beam laid from one house to another in a lane which led from the Carinae to the Vicus Cyprius. Near it was an altar of Juno Sororia, at which sacrifices were offered by the gens Horatia, and an altar of Janus Curiatius was also in the neighborhood. The legend may have been invented to account for these names.

XXVII. 37. Nec, but not. - 39. Vanum ingenium, the weak character. S.

5. Ex edicto, with a formal declaration. 7. Livy spoke of 45 the conquest of Fidenae in chap. xiv., but did not mention the fact that a colony was sent thither. — 8, 9. Pacto – Albanorum, by the assurance that the Albans would desert (to their party). – 11. Ab Alba. In the names of towns in reply to the question, wbither? Livy uses almost always the preposition a with the ablative, not the ablative alone; with the names of countries the preposition ex. Ellendt. — 12. Confluentis (accusative plural). Anienem et Tiberim. – 17. Legionem, army. – 18. Animi, courage. — Fidei, good faith. - 22. Consilium erat = decrevit, and hence takes the infinitive and not the genitive of the gerund. M. 417, Obs. 2; Z. 659, note. — 22, 23. Qua, on which side ; ea, on that side. We might have had quo - - Rem, i. e. the victory. — 23, 24. Miraculo — Romanis, the astonishment of the Romans was first excited. Esse (historical infinitive) with two datives. — Ut, when. — 25, 26. Citato equo, galloping up. — 28. Increpans. Used absolutely, and not governing equiten. - 31. Item. Wsb., Mg.-Codd. idem, Gronovius eidem.— 32. Id factum, the doing of this, i. e. the carrying out of this command. — 34. Id, 8C. esse, that was going on which had been heard from the king : i. e. that the apparent desertion of the Albans was a movement to attack the Fidenates in the rear. - 37. Ut qui with the subjunotive, inasmuch as they. — Coloni, etc. A Roman colony having been sent to Fidenae, the former Etruscan inhabitants were




NOTES. Page 45 allowed to join with them. Cf. Liv. viii. 14, 8: Antium nova

colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi

coloni vellent. 46 1. Oppido, i. e. Fidenae.

XXVIII. 12. Quod bene vertat, with a prayer that it would turn out well. Vertat for verteret, attracted to the formal time of the historical present jubet. — 16. Ab extremo orsi, etc. the heralds began at the further part of the camp, where the Albans were, the Albans were summoned first. They stood ncarest both for this reason and also (etiam) from curiosity to hear a Roman king harangue.” — 18, (15). Contionantem, contio. Sometimes wrongly written with c for t.–19. Ex conposito (composito), by agreement. — 23. Fuit, quod, there was reason, that. — 30. Consilium, a stratagem. — Nec, both not ; followed by et in line 32.31. Vos deseri. Acc. with inf.—33. Fuga, a disposition to flee.Iniceretur=injiceretur.—37. Audeat, may perhaps dare to do.

38. Documentum, a lesson. 47 5. Civitatem, citizenship. Patres here refers to the senators.

See chapter 30. — “Urbem ... rem publicam, đotu ... . πόλιν.”.
6. Ex uno, etc. Refers to Romulus's having founded Rome from
Alba. – 7. Res, state. - 12. Disciplina, instruction. — 14. At,
yet or at least.

Z. 756. — 21. Concitati, sc. sunt. — Qua, as. — 24. Supplicium ... exempli. One rather expects exemplum. supplicii. 8. – 25. Legum humanarum, of the laws of humanity.

XXIX. The student will hardly need to have his attention called to the vividness and brilliancy with which the scene in this chapter is described. Among the various beauties of construction and expression, observe the skilful use of the imperfect and pluperfect tenses. — 30. S. takes ille to mean “What followed was not indeed tumult and panic, such as," etc. W. translates, “ There arose not indeed that tumult and panic, which is wont,” etc. 31. Captarum urbium, in captured cities. — 35. Defixit, petrified. S. — 38, 39. Ultimum illud, then for the last time. So hoc

primum means now for the first time. 48 1, 2. Jam instabat, began to pre88. — 5. Quibus — elatis.

Attraction for iis, quae quisque efferre poterat, elatis. — 13. Urbem. Livy construes egredior both with the accusative, as here, and with the ablative, as xxi. 12, 5, (page 93, line 35.) — 14. Quadringentorum. According to this reckoning, Alba was founded 300 years before Rome.

XXX. 21. Habitavit. The preceding historical presents give a lively narration of events; this perfect states a result of them.

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