Resource Selection by Animals: Statistical Design and Analysis for Field Studies
Springer Science & Business Media, 1993 - 177 pagine
We have written this book as a guide to the design and analysis of field studies of resource selection, concentrating primarily on statistical aspects of the comparison of the use and availability of resources of different types. Our in tended audience is field ecologists in general and wildlife biologists in particular who are attempting to measure the extent to which real animal populations are selective in their choice of food and habitat. As such, we have made no attempt to address those aspects of theoretical ecology that are concerned with how animals might choose their resources if they acted in an optimal manner. The book is based on the concept of a resource selection function, where this is a function of characteristics measured on resource units such that its value for a unit is proportional to the probability of that unit being used. We argue that this concept leads to a unified theory for the analysis and interpretation of data on resource selection and can replace many ad hoc statistical methods that have been used in the past.
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Introduction to resource selection studies
12 THE DATA FOR RESOURCE SELECTION STUDIES
14 SAMPLING PROTOCOLS
15 INDICES OF SELECTION
16 HYPOTHESIS TESTS AND CONFIDENCE INTERVALS
Examples of the use of resource selection functions
52 ESTIMATING THE LOGISTIC FUNCTION
Estimating a resource selection probability function from a census of resource units at several points in time using the proportional hazards model
62 ESTIMATING THE PROPORTIONAL HAZARDS FUNCTION
Estimating resource selection functions from samples of resource units using proportional hazards and loglinear models
72 EXPECTED SAMPLE FREQUENCIES FOR RESOURCE UNITS
73 THE PROPORTIONAL HAZARDS MODEL
23 SAMPLE DESIGNS
Statistical modelling procedures
33 LOGLIKELIHOOD CHISQUARED TESTS
34 ANALYSIS OF RESIDUALS
35 MULTIPLE TESTS AND CONFIDENCE INTERVALS
Studies with resources defined by several categories
43 RATIOS OF RANDOM VARIABLES
44 CHISQUARED TESTS
45 DESIGN I WITH KNOWN PROPORTIONS OF AVAILABLE RESOURCE UNITS
46 TESTS ON PROPORTIONS OF USED UNITS
47 INFERENCES CONCERNING SELECTION RATIOS
48 COMPARISON OF SELECTION RATIOS
49 DESIGN I WITH ESTIMATED PROPORTIONS OF AVAILABLE RESOURCE UNITS
410 DESIGN II WITH SAMPLING PROTOCOL A
412 Sample of available resource units
413 DESIGN III WITH SAMPLING PROTOCOL A
415 SAMPLE OF AVAILABLE RESOURCE UNITS
Estimating a resource selection probability function from a census of resource units using logistic regression
74 SMALL PROPORTION OF RESOURCE UNITS USED
75 ONLY SAMPLES OF UNUSED RESOURCE UNITS AVAILABLE
77 INFERENCES WITH SAMPLE DATA
Estimating a resource selection function from two samples of resource units using logistic regression and discriminant function methods
82 LINEAR DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION ANALYSIS
83 QUADRATIC DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION ANALYSIS
General loglinear modelling
92 FITTING MODELS TO DATA
Analysis of the amount of use
102 ANALYSIS OF COUNTS OF THE AMOUNT OF USE
103 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS MEASURES OF THE AMOUNT OF USE
104 MIXTURES OF ZEROS AND POSITIVE MEASURES OF THE AMOUNT OF USE
The comparison of selection for different types of resource unit
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allow amount analysis animals approximately aspect assumed assumption available resource units calculated canopy censused chapter chi-squared coefficients compared comparison confidence intervals considered constant corixids counts cover degrees of freedom different types discussed distance distribution effect equal equation estimated estimated resource example expected expected frequencies Figure five follows frequencies given gives groups habitat Hence independent indices individual involves known limits log-likelihood log-linear model logistic regression mean measured methods nest normal distribution observed obtained parameters percentage plots points population possible present proportion providing quadrats range reasonable relative resource selection function resource selection probability sample of available sampling probabilities selection probability function selection ratios shown in Table shows significant situation species standard standard errors standardized residuals statistic taken taking trout unused unused resource units unused units values variables variance white-tailed deer zero
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