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has been made since their appearance in the careful collation and correct deciphering of the best MSS. of Cicero's writings, will be ready to admit, without hesitation, that if nothing more should be attempted, a new and improved text was called for. The labors of Orelli, Madvig, Klotz, and others, have not been without important results for the text of Cicero, and no one will deny that these results are of primary importance to beginners in the study of the classics. The editor felt therefore that he would render an essential service to the cause of accurate scholarship, if he did nothing more than furnish a text as correct as possible. It was not his plan, however, to present a text which should be made up of several others, however good, and correspond entirely with no one. He was convinced that it would more certainly meet the views of scholars and teachers, if he should select the text which might be considered on the whole the best for his object, and give a careful and exact reprint of that. He has accordingly intended in this edition to give the text of Orelli, as revised by him subsequently to his edition of the entire works of Cicero, and published in a volume containing fifteen orations. This remark refers to all the orations given in this volume, except those for Marcellus and for Milo, which are not found in Orelli's revision. The text of the Milo is a reprint of that of Madvig ; and of the Marcellus, of that of Klotz. The principal variations, in the most recent editions, from the text, which has been in either case adopted, are noticed in the notes. This has been done often with what may at first sight appear unnecessary minuteness, but the editor is convinced that a teacher may make use of various readings to the advantage of the pupil, even at this stage of his progress.
The notes have been collected freely from any sources which were within the editor's reach. It will readily appear to those who are acquainted with the subject that they have been largely drawn from the productions of German scholarship. Those which were given in Arnold's edition are here retained in full.
They were there credited, in many cases by initials, to Orelli, Klotz, Bloch, Matthiæ, and Stürenburg, with the remark, that those without an initial letter appended are generally from Matthiæ. It would have been agreeable to the editor's views and feelings to give credit in connection with each note to the source or sources from which it was taken, but this was inconvenient, and seemed hardly necessary in a work of this kind. It is his pleasure however here, as well as his duty, fully and distinctly to acknowledge and specify the authorities which he has so freely and as he hopes profitably used in compiling the notes to this edition.
Of editions by English or American scholars, besides those already mentioned, the editor has had before him Valpy's and M'Kay's; from the latter of which he has taken many notes, especially on the later orations. But, as already remarked, German scholars have furnished him the most abundant aid; and besides the editions of Möbius and Crusius, Matthiæ, Süpfle, Schultz, Steinmetz, Klotz, Madvig, Orelli, which contain all or nearly all the orations given in this volume. the editor has made use of several special editions of most of the orations selected. They are, for the orations against Catiline, Benecke's, Holzapfel's, and Morgenstern's, from the first mentioned of which he has derived much assistance. On the oration for the Manilian law, he has been largely indebted also to Benecke's separate edition of this oration. The recent edition of the same oration by Halm was not received till after the notes to this oration had been stereotyped; and while the editor regrets that he could not make use of Halm's labors, he has been gratified to find that the uses made by him of his resources in so many instances correspond with the results arrived at by the German editor. As neither the revision of Orelli nor the edition of Madvig contained the oration for Marcellus, the text of Klotz was chosen, and the special edition of Wolf, with the essays of Hug and Jacob on the genuineness of this oration, consulted. Again, Benecke's edition of the three
orations next in order for Ligarius, Deiotarus, and Archias was of great service in regard to them. Besides this, Soldan's separate editions of the orations for Ligarius and Deiotarus, and the two editions of Stürenburg of the oration for Archias, contributed greatly to aid the editor in his task. At this point also the editor received the edition by Schmitz and Zumpt, which has just been republished in this country. In regard to the oration for Milo, the editor, in leaving Orelli's text, did not hesitate to follow Madvig, whose principles of criticism mainly harmonize with those of Orelli. For assistance in this oration the editor is greatly indebted to the special edition of Osenbrüggen. He has also consulted the edition with Garatoni's notes, published separately by Orelli.
Besides the editions above specified, to which the editor would be glad to indicate his indebtedness more minutely than it is in his power to do here, he has also made use of programmes and journals, and works on antiquities and on style, as well as various Latin grammars, and remarks of scholars in editions of the classics generally, which came under his notice. The references to Zumpt's Latin Grammar will be found particularly frequent.
With this statement of the design of this edition, and of the sources from which it has been compiled, the editor offers it to the public, in the hope that it may be found useful in its place by the side of others' labors in the same field, in promoting the interests of true and accurate scholarship.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, July, 1850.
HABITA IN SENATU.
I. 1. QUOUSQUE tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? Quamdiu etiam furor iste tuus [nos] eludet? Quem ad finem sese effrenata jactabit audacia? Nihilne te nocturnum præsidium Palatii, nihil urbis vigiliæ, nihil timor populi, nihil concursus bonorum omnium, nihil hic munitissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum ora vultusque moverunt? Patere tua consilia non sentis? Constrictam jam horum omnium conscientia teneri conjurationem tuam non vides? Quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris, ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, quid consilii ceperis, 10 quem nostrum ignorare arbitraris ? 2. O tempora! O mores! Senatus hæc intelligit, consul videt: hic tamen vivit. Vivit ? Immo vero etiam in senatum venit: fit publici consilii particeps: notat et designat oculis ad cædem unum quemque nostrum. Nos autem, viri fortes, satisfa- 15 cere rei publicæ videmur, si istius furorem ac tela vitemus. Ad mortem te, Catilina, duci jussu consulis jampridem oportebat; in te conferri pestem istam, quam tu in nos omnes jamdiu machinaris. 3. An vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio, pontifex maximus, Ti. Gracchum mediocriter labe- 20 factantem statum rei publicæ privatus interfecit: Catilinam orbem terræ cæde atque incendiis vastare cupientem, nos consules perferemus? Nam illa nimis antiqua prætereo, quod C. Servilius Ahala Sp. Mælium, novis rebus studentem, manu sua occidit. Fuit, fuit ista quondam in hac re 25 publica virtus, ut viri fortes acrioribus suppliciis civem perniciosum quam acerbissimum hostem coercerent. Habemus senatus consultum in te, Catilina, vehemens et grave: non
deest rei publicæ consilium neque auctoritas hujus ordinis nos, nos, dico aperte, consules desumus.
II. 4. Decrevit quondam senatus, ut L. Opimius consul videret, ne quid res publica detrimenti caperet. Nox nulla 5 intercessit: interfectus est propter quasdam seditionum suspiciones C. Gracchus clarissimo patre avo majoribus; occisus est cum liberis M. Fulvius consularis. Simili senatus consulto C. Mario et L. Valerio consulibus est permissa res publica. Num unum diem postea L. Saturninum tri10 bunum plebi et C. Servilium prætorem mors ac rei publica pœna remorata est? At vero nos vicesimum jam diem patimur hebescere aciem horum auctoritatis. Habemus enim hujusmodi senatus consultum, verumtamen inclusum in tabulis, tamquam in vagina reconditum: quo ex senatus 15 consulto confestim interfectum te esse, Catilina, convenit.
Vivis et vivis non ad deponendam, sed ad confirmandam audaciam. Cupio, Patres conscripti, me esse clementem; cupio in tantis rei publicæ periculis me non dissolutum videri: sed jam me ipsum inertiæ nequitiæque condemno. 20 5. Castra sunt in Italia contra rem publicam in Etruriæ faucibus collocata: crescit in dies singulos hostium numerus: eorum autem castrorum imperatorem ducemque hostium intra monia atque adeo in senatu videmus intestinam aliquam quotidie perniciem rei publicæ molientem. 25 jam, Catilina, comprehendi, si interfici jussero: credo, erit verendum mihi, ne non hoc potius omnes boni serius a me, quam quisquam crudelius factum esse dicat. Verum ego hoc, quod jampridem factum esse oportuit, certa de causa nondum adducor, ut faciam. Tum denique interficiam te, 30 quum jam nemo tam improbus, tam perditus, tam tui similis inveniri poterit, qui id non jure factum esse fateatur. 6. Quamdiu quisquam erit, qui te defendere audeat, vives: sed vives ita, ut vivis, multis meis et firmis præsidiis obsessus, ne commovere te contra rem publicam possis. Mul35 torum te etiam oculi et aures non sentientem, sicut adhuc fecerunt, speculabuntur atque custodient.
III. Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius exspectes, si neque nox tenebris obscurare cœtus nefarios nec privata domus parietibus continere voces conjurationis [tuæ] 10 potest? Si illustrantur, si erumpunt omnia? Muta jam istam mentem, mihi crede: obliviscere cædis atque incendiorum. Teneris undique: luce sunt clariora nobis tua consilia omnia quæ jam mecum licet recognoscas. 74 Meministine me ante diem XII. Kalendas Novembres dicere