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They must bear in mind that at the several examinations which they Candidates of have to pass, the requirements of universities or colleges will not be April 1878. regarded as affording any excuse for imperfect preparation; and instructions. further, that anyone who should accept the position of a selected candidate without the intention of using all diligence to qualify himself for the service, would be acting unfairly alike to the Government of India and to the candidate who might have been selected in his place.
The regulations relating to the periodical examinations to be undergone during the period of probation have already been communicated to every candidate. That there may be no misapprehension on the subject, a second copy of those regulations is herewith enclosed. After each examination, the half-yearly allowance* will be paid to those candidates who shall have passed to the satisfaction of the Commissioners. Deductions may be made from this allowance in the case of candidates whose examination is unsatisfactory, in proportion to the degree of their deficiency. After each examination prizes will be awarded.
The following instructions will suffice to indicate generally the course of study to be pursued in the several subjects, but special instructions with reference to the preparation required for each of the half-yearly examinations will be given at the proper time.
Every candidate will be required to study throughout the period of probation the chief vernacular language of his presidency, viz.:
The final test of qualification in each of these languages will be as nearly as possible that which was formerly imposed on civil servants in India before they were appointed to active duties: it will include a sound knowledge of the grammar, facility in translating from and into the language, familiarity with the written character, and some proficiency in speaking the language.t
Every candidate will be required further to study, during the first year, one of the classical languages, viz.,-Sanskrit, Arabic, or Persian; and, during the second year, either one of the classical languages, or the second vernacular of his presidency, viz.:—
Bengali, if assigned to Bengal (Lower Provinces).
Bengal (N.W. Provinces, &c.)
In addition to the prescribed languages, candidates may take up, at any time, any of the classical languages above-named; and, during the second year, those who continue to study a classical language may take
i.e., 50l. after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, and 150l. after the final examination. Extract from 13th Report of the Civil Service Commissioners as to the necessity of acquiring a competent knowledge of the vernacular languages:-"We consider "that at the Final Examinations' no amount of proficiency in other subjects "should be accepted as compensating for deficiency in this essential qualification."
up also the second vernacular of their respective presidencies. Proficiency in these additional languages will not be accepted as compensating for deficiency in those which are prescribed; and no candidate, who in any of the prescribed subjects shall fail to show satisfactory proficiency, will receive marks in respect of an additional language.
Examinations will be held under the following heads :—
1. Under the head of General Jurisprudence candidates will be expected to have mastered the contents of the following books, or such portions of them as may be indicated by special instructions :Blackstone's Commentaries, edited by R. M. Kerr, LL.D., Vol. I. (containing the "Introduction" and the "Rights of Persons"). Austin's Jurisprudence, Vol. I.
The Institutes of Justinian, edited by Sandars.
Maine's Ancient Law.
Studies in Roman Law, with comparative views of the Laws of
2. (A.) Proceedings in English Courts of Justice.-Every candidate is required to send in, at such times as may be named in the special instructions, reports of a specified number of cases heard by himself in courts of justice,* in accordance with the regulations set forth below. Should, however, the set of reports sent in by a candidate in any halt year fall below a reasonable standard, either in the choice of subjectmatter or in the manner of treating it, or should the vivâ voce examination show that no sufficient knowledge of the meaning and conduct of the proceedings reported has been gained, the candidate may be required to attend and report a further number of cases from such courts as the Civil Service Commissioners may prescribe.
The object aimed at in this course of reporting is, that the candidate should acquire clear ideas as to the conduct of a judicial inquiry into such facts as form the ordinary staple of business in the civil and criminal courts of this country, and some familiarity with the principles on which the rules of evidence and procedure enforced in those courts are founded. Candidates will, therefore, do well to avoid (for the first year at least) cases involving abstruse legal questions or difficult technicalities.
Candidates are advised, before commencing their attendance in court, to read either in Blackstone's Commentaries, or in some other elementary work, an account of the proceedings in a civil action and a criminal trial; and they are required to attend to the following points in the preparation, &c. of the reports :
(a.) Each report should contain the title of the court, the names of the judge and the parties, the time and place of trial, and the
*The Commissioners will, if applied to, endeavour to facilitate the admission of candidates to those courts of justice in which any special arrangement for their accommodation can be made.
matter of the charge, cause of action, &c. The reports should Candidates of
(b.) The candidate is to underline, in the body of his report, such
(c.) In addition to the more extended report, a very short analytical statement of each case is to be given, showing, in criminal cases, the facts necessary to constitute the offence charged, and in civil cases, the exact points in issue, with the bearing of the evidence upon them. In working out this summary, clearness and precision should be steadily kept in view.
(d.) Each candidate is to append to his reports a declaration that they have been obtained by his personal attendance in court, and are bonâ fide his own composition, without revision or help given by another person or derived from another report.
(e.) The reports are to be written on detached sheets of white foolscap paper of the ordinary size. One side only of the paper is to be used; and attention must be paid to handwriting, which should be clear and large.
(B.) Law of Evidence.-Candidates will be expected to master the principles of the Law of Evidence as laid down in the Indian Evidence Act, and in Sir J. F. Stephen's "Digest of the Law of Evidence (Macmillan), 1876. They will also be expected to refer, for the purpose of illustrating and applying the principles of the Law of Evidence, to the reported cases mentioned in Sir J. F. Stephen's book. The reports will be found in any law library, but in case they should not be accessible, such parts of the treatises of Taylor, Best, or Goodeve as illustrate the principles of the Law of Evidence should be read with care. The questions at the first examination will be of an elementary character, but at each succeeding examination candidates will be expected to show a more extended knowledge of the subject and of its illustrations.
At each Periodical Examination a paper will be set, and vivâ voce questions will be asked, to test both the familiarity of the candidates with the Law of Evidence as limited above, and the practical knowledge which they have gained by following the procedure of courts of justice in their course of reporting.
3. The examination in the Laws of India will include papers and vivá voce examination in the following branches :
(a.) The Code of Civil Procedure.
(b.) The Indian Penal Code.
(c.) The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1872.
(f.) Mahommedan Law.
III.-HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA.
The following books may be studied with advantage :-
Marshman's History of India.
Mill's History of British India, edited and continued by Professor
M'Culloch's 'edition of Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, last
J. S. Mill's Principles of Political Economy.
Northcote's Twenty Years of Financial Policy.
Göschen on Foreign Exchanges.
As the duties of civilians in India are such as often require the performance of journeys on horseback, candidates will be expected to produce, before the time fixed for the final examination, satisfactory evidence of their ability in this respect.
Candidates are requested to acknowledge at once all communications from this office, and to inform the Secretary of any change in their adaress.
Civil Service Commission,
Candidates of SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CANDIDATES SELECTED AT EASTER
1878, WITH REGARD TO THEIR FIRST PERIODICAL EXAMINATION, COMMENCING ON THE 31ST OF DECEMBER 1878.
Civil Service Commission.
Candidates will be expected to have studied the grammar of the vernacular languages in which they are to be examined, to be able to translate portions of some simple text-book in each language, and to translate into it a few simple sentences of English. Passages translated from the text-book will also be set for re-translation.
Care should be taken to acquire from the first, as far as possible, a correct pronunciation of the native sounds.
In all Examinations in the vernacular languages special value will be attached to correct and idiomatic writing of the language. Candidates are recommended to practise as much as possible re-translating into the original languages passages translated from the text-books.
In the prescribed languages the books on which candidates will be Candidates of
Hindustani.-Platts' or Williams' Grammar.
examined are :
Bágh-o-Bahár, pp. 10–69.
Telugu.-Brown's or Arden's Grammar.
April 1878. First periodical examination. Special instructions.
Brown's Reader, pp. 5-33.
Sanskrit.-The Grammar; more especially the rules of Sandhi, the regular declensions of the nouns, the pronouns, and the common verbs, as far as the four conjugational tenses, the reduplicated perfect, and the two futures, in the Parasmaipada and Átmanepada.
The Story of Nala, Books 1-8.
Arabic. The Grammar. (Wright, Palmer, or Forbes.)
Alif Laila (Macnaghten's edition), Vol. I., pp. 101-112. Persian.-The Grammar. (Lee's Edition of Sir W. Jones, Forbes, or Mirza Ibrahim.)
Gulistán, [Platts], cap. i., pp. 13-24.
1. General Jurisprudence.-The books or portions of books to be studied are:Blackstone's Commentaries (Kerr's edition), from the beginning of section ii. of the Introduction to the end of chapter viii., Book I.; or, if Kerr's edition cannot be procured, the following portions of Stephen's Commentaries :-Sections 2, 3, and 4 of the Introduction, Book I., and the first seven chapters of the First Part of Book IV.
Austin's Lectures, I., V., and VI.
2. Notes of Cases and Law of Evidence.-Not fewer than nine reports must be supplied by each candidate, drawn up as required by the "General Instructions," and consisting exclusively of cases decided by a single judge or magistrate without the aid of a jury. Three of these reports must relate to civil cases decided by the judge of a county court (or, in Scotland, of a sheriff's court) where both parties are represented by counsel or attorney. Five must relate to proceedings in the police courts of London, Edinburgh, or Dublin, presided over by stipendiary magistrates, embracing—
(a.) Cases in which the magistrate exercises final jurisdiction. (b.) Cases in which the magistrate commits for trial by a jury.
One must consist of a separate report of the whole of the business, of whatever kind, transacted in a police court during any one day.
N.B.- Where pages, &c. are specified, the numbers are to be taken inclusively.
Five of these (including at least one report of a county court case, and at least one of a police court case) must be sent in before July 31st. The remainder (including the Report of the business of a day in a police court) must be sent in before November 23rd.
+ Candidates will be allowed to inspect, at the office of the Civil Service Commission, specimens of reports drawn up in the manner desired.