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CHAPTER I.

THE BEAST PROVED TO BE THE PAPACY.

THE POPE may be called the BEAST, inasmuch as the power of the Papacy is concentrated in him. -Use of this Observation.

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"AND I STOOD UPON THE SAND OF THE SEA, AND SAW A BEAST RISE UP OUT OF THE SEA, HAVING SEVEN HEADS AND TEN HORNS."-Verse 1.

THE beloved disciple stood upon the sand of the sea, doubtless meditating much on what he had just witnessed, which is recorded, in the preceding chapter. He cast his eyes on the heaving billows: all was turmoil and confusion. The strife was ominous: the blackness was portentous. "The four winds of heaven strove" together: conflict was tremendous: all nature seemed in elemental war; the abyss of waters was dark and rife, and boiled with agitation.

(Daniel vii. 2.) the

He saw a BEAST rise out of the sea; the BEAST

(To Onpox) was WILD exceedingly; WILD as the troubled element from which it sprang, which "could not rest, though its waters cast up mire and dirt."

A BEAST, in the language of scripture, denotes a tyrannical, idolatrous empire. This, however, does not preclude the idea that such a tyrannical, idolatrous empire may be considered as vested and concentrated in one individual. Thus, in Nebuchadnezzar's vision, the Head of Gold represented the Babylonish empire; and yet Daniel scrupled not to say, THOU ART THIS HEAD. (ii. 8.) By parity of argument, the first of the four BEASTS, which Daniel saw, which was like unto a lion, which also represented the Babylonish empire, may be interpreted to represent Belshazzar, the then king of Babylon. interpreting his vision to Belshazzar, Daniel would say, THOU ART THIS BEAST! In like manner the Beast before us will be shewn to represent the Papacy or the Papal Power: but this does not preclude the idea that the Pope himself may be the Beast. As Daniel might say to Belshazzar, so we may say to the Pope, THOυ art this BEAST!

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Having made this preliminary observation, we turn for the explanation of the Beast to the seventeenth chapter, eleventh verse, where we find it recorded: "THE BEAST IS THE EIGHTH;" i. e. the Eighth Head. For the explanation of the preceding verse, we, with pleasure, refer to Bishop Newton. excellent and learned Prelate, whose Dissertation on the Prophecies is invaluable, has shewn most clearly that the seven heads there referred to, are Kings,

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Consuls, Dictators, Decemvirs, Military Tribunes, with Consular Authority, Emperors and Dukes. Instead of Dukes, Mr. Faber would prefer the Carlovingian Patriciate. We are inclined to adhere to the Bishop's interpretation, because the Patriciate was, in fact, only the rising again of the Imperial Head, in which it finally merged: these seven heads. were succeeded by the Papal Head.

The Pope is, therefore, the Eighth.
But the Beast is the Eighth."
The Pope is therefore the Beast.

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It is worthy of remark, that the Roman empire is no where represented as a Beast having eight heads. That it has had eight heads is true; but the Eighth Head is considered as engrossing all the power to itself. It is the Eighth and is of the seven. It succeeds to all the power of the seven, and exalts itself in a manner that none of the seven ever did; it is therefore represented as a Beast. And the Papacy, as the Roman empire of old, has seven heads and ten horns.

What is meant by the Pope "being the Eighth and of the seven," is illustrated by an expression of Boniface VIII.

In 1298, Albert of Austria caused himself to be saluted king of the Romans; and, having slain his competitor in battle made the usual overture to the Pope for confiscation: but this favour Boniface was so far from according, that he placed the crown upon his own head, and, seizing a sword, exclaimed, "It is I who am Casar: it is I who am Emperor: it is I

who will defend the right of the empire." (Vide Mr. Waddington's History of Church. p. 432.)

When the Pope exclaimed, "It is I who am Cæsar it is I who am Emperor: " he not only shewed that "he set himself above all that is worshipped," or above all August Imperial power, as the word reBarua denotes, but he declared himself to be the Imperial Head. Because he was Pope, therefore he was "the Eighth :" because he was Cæsar, and because he was Emperor, therefore he was the Sixth, i. e. one" of the seven."

It is remarkable that the Pope is not only the Eighth Head, but also the Eighth Horn; for he is the little horn of Daniel, which plucks up three horns by the roots, and leaves seven, himself being the eighth. Other horns, however, sprung up.

state.

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Daniel's fourth Beast, which represents, in general, the Roman empire, may be considered in a twofold In the former state we behold it without the little horn in this state it denotes the Pagan Roman Empire. In the latter state we behold it with " little horn, which plucks up three horns by the roots, which has eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things." In this state it denotes the Papal Roman Empire or the Papacy.

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Daniel's fourth Beast, in its second state, corresponds to the Beast which we are now considering. This should be carefully borne in mind. The little Horn of Daniel is the Pope; and the whole power of the Papacy is centered in the Pope. We may therefore say to the Papacy, Thou art

Daniel's fourth Beast in its latter state! and to the Pope, Thou art this little horn! And as Daniel said to Nebuchadnezzar, Thou art this Head of Gold! so we may say to the Pope, Thou art Daniel's fourth Beast in its second state! Thou art also the

Beast like unto a Leopard!

The remarkable resemblance which exists between Daniel's description of the little horn, and St. John's description of the Leopard-Lion-Bear, has been noticed by Bishop Newton.

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Wonderful as the Beast was, his words and actions are no less wonderful. He perfectly resembles the little horn in Daniel. As the little horn (Dan. vii. 8, 25.) had a mouth speaking great things, and spake great words against the Most High: so there was given unto the Beast a mouth speaking great things, and he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God. As the little horn (Dan. vii. 21.) made war with the saints, and prevailed against them: so it was given unto the Beast to make war with the saints, and to overcome them. As the little horn prospered (Dan. vii. 25.) until a time and times and the dividing of a time, that is, three prophetical years and a half: so power was given unto the Beast to continue, to practise, and prosper, forty and two months, which is exactly the same portion of time as three years and a half. We see that not only the same images, but also the same words are employed; and the portraits being so perfectly alike, it might fairly be presumed, if there was no other argument, that they were both drawn for the same person: and having before clearly

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