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it is of no consideration at all in the view of God and the saints.'-Father Barry.


'It is lawful to use ambiguous terms, to give the impression in a different sense from that which you understand yourself.'-Father Sanchez.

'He who has outwardly promised any thing, without an intention of promising it, on being asked whether he did make such a promise, may reply, No; meaning within himself that he made no promise which implied any obligation to keep it. Nay, he may go much further than this, for he may confirm his denial by an OATH; because, otherwise he would be compelled to pay what he does not owe.'-Father Filliutius, one of the four-and-twenty Elders.

'Though you may be aware that you have made a vow or an oath, it is, in my judgment, probable that you are under no obligation to observe either, supposing you are in any doubt as to your intending to bind yourself by that oath or vow.'-Father Tambourim.

Though a man have deliberately intended to bind himself, he is not bound, unless he had an intention of executing what he promised. The vow remains null so long as the man is unwilling to execute it.'Father Valentia, one of the four living creatures.


To say URO, I burn, instead of JURO I swear, when we take an oath, would not be more than a venial sin.'-Father Sanchez.


A man may swear that he has NOT done a thing,

though in fact he has done it, meaning in himself, that he did not do it on a certain specified day, or before he was born; or understanding any other circumstances of a similar nature. This will be found in numberless instances extremely convenient, and is always very just when it is necessary to your health, honour, or property.'-Father Sanchez.

After saying in an audible voice, I swear that I did not do this, you may add inwardly to-day; or after affirming aloud I swear, you may repeat in a whisper, I say; and then resuming the former toneI did not do this.'-Father Filliutius.


Is it lawful to eat and drink inordinately and without necessity, for the mere gratification of a voluptuous appetite? With Sanchez I answer, YES, if

it do not injure your health.'-Escobar.

Is gluttony a sin? At most only a venial one, even if a person without any necessity stuff himself with eating and drinking till he vomit, supposing it to be attended with no material inconvenience with respect to his bodily health.'-Escobar.

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Gluttony is not a mortal sin, even if a person designedly eat and drink till he vomit.'-Escobar.


'Idleness is a grief that spiritual things should be spiritual, as if it should be regretted that the sacraments are the source of grace: and it is a mortal sin.' -Escobar.


To be ignorant of the being of a God ought to be regarded as a great blessing and favour; for, as sin is essentially an offence committed against God, it follows that a man who is without knowledge of him, has neither offence, sin, nor eternal punishment to bear.'-Father Molina, one of the four living


'A man ignorant of God will not commit a mortal sin, even if he kills another, and supposes he is doing wrong.'-Father Roderic de Arriaza.


There are some general principles of the law of nature, of which a man may be invincibly ignorant, not indeed through the whole of his life, but during a short time, and even for a considerable time-as thou shalt not steal; thou shalt not kill; thou shalt not commit adultery; thou shalt honour thy parents, and the like.'-Father Merat.


'However enormous, or repugnant to nature, a sin may be that is committed by a man invincibly ignorant of God, or not bearing in mind that there is a God, or that he is offended with sin, that sin is not mortal.'-Father Platelle.

If men, who have become adepts in sin, have neither light nor remorse, when they blaspheme and plunge themselves into debauchery, and if they have

no knowledge of the wickedness of such conduct; I maintain, with all the theologians, (the Jesuits) that they do not sin at all by these actions, which savour more of the brute than the man: because there can be no sin without liberty, and, to be at liberty to avoid sin, it is requisite for us to know the good or the evil of the object which is proposed to us.'— Father Pirot, the famous author of the Apology for the Casuists.'



If you are unavoidably led to believe that to tell a lie for the purpose of saving your friend is a virtuous act, your lie is in that case a work of mercy. If you think it good to kill a man who blasphemes, such an homicide is converted into an act of religion.'-Father de Rhodes.

If any one commit adultery or homicide, and at the same time reflect on the wickedness and enormity of these actions only in a very imperfect and superficial manner, his sin is merely venial, though the acts themselves are exceedingly heinous. The reason is, that as knowledge of the wickedness of an action is necessary to render it sinful, so in order to be guilty of heinous sin a man must have an entire knowledge of its wickedness, and must duly consider this at the time of committing the sin.'-Father de Rhodes.


'A servant may, in compliance with the wishes of his master, watch a female on her way home to discover where she resides. He may carry her little

presents; and also accompany his master, either for the maintenance of his dignity, or to take care of him, when he visits her. He may, if it be necessary, assist him in entering her chamber by the window; he may procure for him her portrait; he may go to her and say my master calls you? he may also accompany her to his master's house, et januam aperire, et iis lectum sternere.'-Gaspar Hurtado, one of the four-and-twenty elders.

'A son may do the same for his father in obedience to his commands; particularly, if he apprehend that by refusing he should incur his father's displeasure. And that which a servant or a son may do with respect to such practices, would of course be lawful for persons in any other relation or capacity.'Gaspar Hurtado.

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It is lawful for any other person to do the same, if he hope to gain something considerable by it; and more especially, if by such meas he be likely to avoid some great loss, or escape anything that would be particularly hurtful for himself.'-Gaspar Hurtado.


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'When is a person obliged to cherish a real affection for God?' Suarez says, 'it is sufficient to love him a little previous to the moment of death,' without fixing the precise time :-Vasquez, that it is enough to love him in the very moment of dying: -others, at Baptism: '-others again, at seasons of contrition: '—and some, upon festival days: '— but our Father, Castro Palao, opposes all these opi

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