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in -ius and -ium-needs especial notice. The rule for Cicero (A. J. P. XXVIII, p. 75, from Zielinski p. 769) "ordinary substantives have only -ii; Roman proper names sometimes -ri, sometimes -2”, can, with slight modification, be maintained for Livy also. The Weissenborn - Mueller edition has a few exceptions to the first part of the statement, but of the 594 occurrences noticed, perhaps only one in -i should be retained, 27, 27, 13 laudatione fili, which may possibly be an exact transcript of the title. The latter part of the statement also applies to Livy, but should be modified to read “i is the more common ending in the earlier books, but it decreases regularly and gives way to iï after Book XXXV”.. Owing to the large number of genitives in -i used in the first Decade, this ending is found in a majority of the 540 occurrences noticed. “Cura non deesset” if the text were definitely fixed, but any attempt to determine the exact number for each ending would be futile.

The position of the genitive is dependent on considerations other than the case force, though some collocations are stereotyped, as operae pretium, used throughout the work as at the beginning of the Preface. Contrasted with this is the arrangement of primum omnium. Preceded by a monosyllable, the arrangement of the introductory words of the narrative 1, 1, 1 iam primum omnium is maintained 3, 19, 12; and 21, 62, 7 iam; 1, 10, 7 quod; 3, 9, 11 ut; 41, 24, 3 ac; 42, 66, 2 cui. But we find in 5, 51, 6; 22, 37, 44, 18, 2; and 44, 38, 5 iam omnium primum; and, preceded by other monosyllables, 29, 34, 4 id; 35, 12, 15 et; 37, 52, 3 tum; by two syllables ending in a vowel, in 1, 19, 6; 45, 12, 4 atque; 2, 2, 5 ibi; 26, 14, 7 is cum; 35, 28, 8 et tum. This order of the words is regular at the beginning of a clause 1, 19, 4; 2, 1, 9; 3, 54, 11; 3, 55, 3; 5, 10, 4; 5, 19, 4; 5, 50, 1; 29, I, 17; 31, 5, 2; 37, 36, 2; 45, 18, 1; 45, 29, 4; and also within, 3, 46, 5 placuit o. p.; 24, 10, 2 decretumque o. p.; or with several words preceding, as in 22, 10, 1; 22, 27, 5; 22, 52, 1; 32, 28, 1; 42, I, I. When the adjective form is used, it occasionally follows: 8, 8, 9 hastati o. p.; 26, 41, 13 vos

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0. P.; 40, 38, 9 hi o. p.; but the reverse order is the more common: 10, 21, 15 tum primus 0.; 26, 2, 12 cum p. 0.; at the beginning of a statement 7, 33, 11; 24, 15, 1; 33, 34, 2; 41, 4, 2; 42, 59, 2; 42, 67, ui primi omnium Macedones; or within 31, 31, 12; 32, 10, 7; 37, 43, 8; 41, 27 5. Klein, p. 10, 8, gives illustrations of some fixed collocations, but his words, p. 9, 5, "Genitivus cum adiectivo coniunctus aut praemittitur aut postponitur nomini regenti"; and also 10, 6, "Sed plerumque Livius genitivum locutionibus compositis aut postponit aut praeponit”, fairly indicates the flexibility of the arrangement.

The case of the word with which the genitive is construed seems a matter of indifference, for a genitive dependent on a genitive was noticed in more than 600 passages, and instances of the cumulation of genitives and of secondary dependence are not infrequent: Praef. 3 rerum gestarum memoriae principis terrarum populi ... consuluisse; cf. 42, 39, 3 populi principis terrarum omnium legatos; and 34, 58, 8; 9, 46, 7 iniussu senatus aut tribunorum plebei partis maioris; 27, 35, 12 utrius mallet consulum prioris anni; 23, 30, 3 frugum alimentis carnisque omnis generis quadrupedum; 32, 36, 10 uxoris Quincti sororis filius; 40, 52, i dedicationis templorum reginae Junonis et Dianae; 41, 21, 3 socium Latini nominis quinque milia peditum; 43, 22, 4 praefectus equitum gentis Aetolorum. Where there are two genitives, some are stereotyped terms or titles associated with other words, as in 38, 48, 2 umbilicum orbis terrarum; 39, I, 8 discrimen summae rerum; 39, 39, 4 pars tribunorum plebis; 5, 1, 2 tribunorum militum numerum; 45, 35, 8 tribunus militum secundae legionis; 22, 23, 3 temeritate magistri equitum. At times one of the genitives gives the date, e. g. 9, 7, 14 taedebat populum omnium magistratuum eius anni; or the material, as in I, 43, i centum milium aeris; or the substance measured, in 23, 38, 13 ducenta milia modium tritici; or there may be a genitive in apposition, as in 36, 11, i amore captus virginis Chalcidensis, Cleoptolemi filiae; 37, 20, 2; 39, 36, 5 quia Philopoemenis, auctoris omnium, quae Lacedaemone acta fuerant, factionis erat.

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Many of the genitives indicate possession, yet many are construed with verbs or verbal derivatives, more commonly the latter. These, with the descriptive and the partitive genitives, form the larger part of those not indicating possession. Equivalent constructions are also found, but no attempt will be made here to point them out, as it is possible to lose sight of the genitive amid the variations and equivalents. Different readings also might cut some figure in the presentation, but in a matter where certainty is impossible, excepting in a few instances, we have not sought to be wise above what is written in the Weissenborn-Mueller edition.

A. OBJECTIVE GENITIVE. The objective genitive is associated with verbs and verbal derivatives either nouns or adjectives. The Latin was not symmetrically developed, and we rarely find three forms derived from the same root, though two are not uncommon, giving to the writer a choice in form of expression, as both indicate an attitude toward some object or action. Only a few illustrations of some of these doublets need be given. Paenitet: paenitentia 1, 8, 7 cum iam virium haud paeniteret: 40, 54, 2 Demetriade hibernabat, cum desiderio anxius filii, tum paenitentia crudelitatis suae; piget: pigritia 26, 37, 7 ita pigebat inriti incepti: 1, 31, 5, pigritia militandi; pudet: pudor 3, 31, 2 pudere se numeri sui nequiquam aucti: 21, 16, 2 pudor non lati auxilii: taedet: taedium 1, 53, 6 liberorum eum frequentiae taedere: 8, 2, 2 ipsos belli culpa sua contracti taedium ceperit: miseret: miseratio 39, 15, 13 non misèreat vos eorum solum, sed etiam pudeat: 5, 45, 6 miseratio sui. As a still further indication of a mental attitude may be given oblivisci: oblivio 8, 7, 8 oblitus imperii patrii consulumque edicti: 38, 46, 12 oblivio deorum capiat pectora vestra. Other pairs indicate judicial attitudes, suspectum habere: suspicio 24, 9, 10 s. cupiditatis imperii consulem haberet: 2, 8, I regni suspicione; accusare: accusatio 31, 38, 1 fuere, qui hoc die regem temeritatis, consulem segnitiae accusarent: 2, 56, 7 ipse accusationem Appi familiaeque superbissimae ac crudelissimae in plebem Romanam exorsus; damnare: damnatio 27, 45, 8 damnarentur ipsi votorum: 22, 35, 3 ex damnatione collegae; arguere: argumentum 41, 19, 6 senatus nec liberavit eius culpae regem nec arguit: 3, 33, 9 moderationis eorum argumentum exemplo unius rei notasse satis erit. A verb and kindred adjective are found in implere: plenus 1, 46, 8 celeriter adulescentem suae temeritatis implet: 5, 28, 4 religionis iustae inplevit: 2, 38, 6 irarum pleni: 38, 21, 14 castra repetunt pavoris et tumultus iam plena.

Kindred nouns and adjectives occur with greater frequency. Prudentia: prudens 4, 41, 2 prudentia rei bellicae: 34, 28, 11 locorum prudentes; 31, 14, 7 inprudentes religionis; 23, 36, 2 nec eum provida futuri fefellit opinio; potestas: potens 8, 33, 17 potestas omnium rerum: 22, 42, 12 consules imperii potentes; 27 50, 10 inter inpotentes eius animos; aviditas: avidus 32, 12, 2 aviditate certaminis: 7, 12, 10 avidi certaminis; cupiditas: cupido : cupidus 1, 12, I ira et cupiditate recuperandae arcis; 1, 23, 7 cupido imperii: 1, 32, 2 civibus otii cupidis; inopia: inops 38, 16, seu inopia agri seu praedae spe: 34, 38, 7 nec inops modo consilii sed vix mentis compos. The complement of the noun is occasionally a present participle. Neglegentia: neglegens 5, 51, 4 neglegentiam divini cultus: 5, 46, 3 (religio) cuius ... neglegens gens est; patientia: patiens 30, 28, 5 exercitum ... duratum omnium rerum patientia: 35, 5, 7; 34, 47, 5 corpora ... minime patientia sitis; metus: metuens 1, 21, i legum ac poenarum metu: 22, 3, 4 et non modo legum aut patrum maiestatis sed ne deorum quidem satis metuens. To these perhaps may be added moderatio: moderatus 6, 25, 6 moderatione animi: 4, 7, 6; 8, 33, 15 moderatum irae; intemperantia: intemperantes 44, 30, 5 intemperantia vini: 24, 25, 9 avidos atque intemperantes suppliciorum animos. The preceding examples give an indication of the possibilities of rhetorical variation, although not of the frequency, for the three elements, verbs, nouns and adjectives, are not of equal value as factors in Livy's style.

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a. VERBS.

The impersonal verbs are only fairly well represented. Piget occurs 1, 13, 3 si adfinitatis inter nos, si conubii piget; 26, 37, 6 p. incepti pudebatque se spretos; and also with the accusative of the person 10, 31, 15 quem pigeat longinquitatis bellorum. Pudet is used a few more times: 3, 31, 2; 40, 8, 14 p. regii nominis; 3, 19, 7 p. deorum hominumque; 22, 14, 4 si nullius alterius nos, ne civium quidem horum pudet; and in connection with paenitet 27, 13, 5 cuius et ipsius pudere ac paenitere vos oportet; 45, 10, u quarum Rhodios semper non minus puderet quam paeniteret; 45, 39, 18 nec magis me eius quam cicatricum harum pudet paenitetque. Notice also 3, 52, 7 non pudet ... conspici. Paenitet is used most freely, generally with a personal object (38 times), as in 10, 6, 2 Samnitem ... foederis novi paenitebat; and 44, 38, 4 ut me hesternae quietis paeniteat; and also without, 1, 8, 7; 2, 49, 12; 7, 20, 2; 23, 12, 6; 9; and 10 p. belli; 28, 29, 7 erroris; 4, 58, 10 laboris. Taedet is met with in only a few passages: 1, 53, 6; 3, 67, 6 taedet vos patriciorum, nos plebeiorum magistratuum; 9, 7, 14 t. populum omnium m. eius anni; 28, 27, 13; 34, 55, 1; 32, 37, 6 taedere belli senatum: 10, 31, 14; 21, 19, 7 taedebat imperii Punici. Pertaesum is used in the same way 3, 39, 4 nec nominis homines tum pertaesum esse; 3, 67, 7 decemvirorum vos pertaesum est. Miseret occurs 39, 15, 13; and 2, 5, 6 miserebat non poenae magis homines quam sceleris. The deponent form is generally used, as in 5, 45, 4 urbis ... miseriti sunt; but more commonly as a participle 22, 55, 5; 27, 33, 11; 27, 34, 12 sordidati rei miseritos; 31, 30, iI miseriti Atheniensium; or in a subordinate clause 3, 58, 5; 35, 38, 4; 36, 35, 2; and 38, 8, 6 orare ... ut misereretur gentis.

Oblivisci was noticed in thirty-four passages construed with the genitive, though with 30, 30, 16 ut omnium obliviscaris aliorum, compare 2, 38, 2 ut omnia obliviscamini alia. The verb occurs most frequently as nominative of the perfect participle, indicating the mental attitude of the actor, as in 1, 26, 4 oblita fratrum mortuorum vivique, oblita patriae; and 8, 35, 3 contentionis obliti; and less

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