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cus and others, as a whole, are too full of political allusions and crabbed passages to be adapted for those who are only beginning the study of his writings.

Yet in the dramatic excellences of narrative Cicero is perhaps unsurpassed, and in the command of the Latin language, in reference to any subject whatever, he stands absolutely alone.

These considerations have led the editor of the present volume to believe that a selection from the works of Cicero, arranged under certain divisions, with an especial reference to the purposes of school instruction, would be found a useful book ; and this belief was confirmed by the appearance of several works on a somewhat similar plan in Germany, which have been used with great

The editor may here mention in particular Dr. Kraft's Chrestomathia Ciceroniana," and Dr. Friedemann's " Ciceronische Chrestomathie," from which he has derived valuable aid.

At the end of the volume will be found some extracts from the Commentaries of Gaius, which have been added at the suggestion of Mr. Long; and when the editor states that he has been indebted to Mr. Long himself for the selection of

success.

them, he gives sufficient guarantee for their value and importance.

It may be affirmed that some knowledge of Roman law is absolutely necessary to a full understanding of the works, especially of the orations and De Oratore, of Cicero, and if some knowledge, of course an accurate knowledge. Nor could anything convey such information so well, as the definitions and explanations of terms, given by one of the most eminent of the Roman lawyers, whose commentaries are written in a pure and classical style. The table of Cicero's Life has been drawn

up from Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, and Professor Key's Life of Cicero, in the Cyclopædia published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. References to the places from which the extracts have been made will be found at the end of the

volume.

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Cicero.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero was born at Arpinum

on the 3rd of January, in the consulship of M. Servilius Cæpio and C. Atillius Serranus, and was thus a few months older than Pompey, who was born on the last day of September in the same year, and six years older than Cæsar, who was born B. C. 100. He was removed by his father at an early age to Rome, where he received instruction from some of the most celebrated rhetoricians and philosophers of his time, and particularly from the poet Archias. After he had assumed the toga, he studied law under Q. Mutius Scævola, the augur, and subse

quently under the pontifex of the same name. Served under Pompeius Strabo, the father of the

great Pompey, in the Marsic war, and was present when Sulla captured the Samnite camp

before Nola. Heard Philo and Molo at Rome. Made his first appearance as an advocate, and

delivered his speech pro Quinctio. Defended Sextius Roscius who had been accused

of parricide. Went to Athens, and received instruction from

Antiochus of Ascalon, a philosopher of the old
academy, and from Phædrus and Zeno of the

Epicurean school.
Visited Asia Minor, and heard Molo at Rhodes.
Returned to Rome; married Terentia; was en-

gaged in pleading causes.
Quæstor in Sicily. The island was under the

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government of S. Peducæus as prætor. Returned to Rome. Accused Verres.

74 70

680
684

32
36

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Ædile.
Prætor. Spoke in favour of the Manilian law, by

which the command of the war against Mithri.
dates was transferred to Pompey. Defended
Cluentius. Betrothed his daughter Tullia, who
could not have been more than ten years old,

to C. Piso Frugi. Declined the government of a province in order to

devote his energies towards the attainment of

the consulship. Consul with C. Antonius. Suppressed Catiline's

conspiracy. Opposed the agrarian law, which had been proposed by Rullus. Defended C. Calpurnius Piso, who had been consul B.C.

67, and L. Murena, the consul elect. Defended P. Sulla, who was implicated in the

crimes of Catiline, but was screened from pun

ishment by the aristocratical party. Defended L. Flaccus, who had been prætor in the

consulship of Cicero, and who was accused of

extortion in the province of Asia. Cicero went into exile towards the end of March.

He first proceeded to Brundisium, crossed over to Dyrrhacium, and thence went to Thessalonica ; but returned to Dyrrhacium towards

the close of the year. Recalled from exile. Defended Sextius, who had been instrumental in

his restoration from banishment. Attacked in a speech in the senate Vatinius, who had been

one of the chief witnesses against Sextius. Attacked Piso, who had been consul at the time of

his exile. Composed his work De Oratore in

three books. Defended Plancius, who had received him in his

exile, and was now accused of bribery. Com

posed his work De Republica in six books. Defended Milo, who was accused of the murder of

Clodius, and about the same time wrote his

treatise De Legibus. Appointed against his consent to the government

of Cilicia. Returned to Rome on the 4th of January. The

senate bad just passed a decree that Cæsar should dismiss his army; but on the rapid approach of Cæsar towards Rome, the consuls fled from the

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