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were kept: his principal arsenal was also in the same place. Amongst these were 2000 cups of onyx set and adorned with gold; with so prodigious a quantity of all kinds of plate, furniture, and military accoutrenients for man and horse, that it cost the questor, or treasurer of the army, thirty entire days in taking the inventory of thein.

Pompey granted Pharnaces the kingdom of Bosphorus, as a reward for his parricide, declared him the friend and ally of the Roman people, and marched into the province of Asia, in order to winter at Ephesus. Here he distributed rewarum wd his victorious

He gave each of his soldiers 1500 drachmas, (about 371. sterling,) and to the officers according to their several posts. The toial sum to which his liberalities amounted, all raised out of the spoils of the enemy, was 16,000 talents; that is to say, about 2,400,000/.; besides which, he had 20,000 more, (3,000,0001.) to put into the treasury at Rome, upon the day of his entry.

His triumph continued two days, and was cele

brated with extraordinary magnificence. Pompey caused 324 captives of the highest distinction to march before his chariot; amongst whom were Aristobulus, king of Judea, with his son Antigonus; Olthaces, king of Colchis; Tigranes, the son of Tigranes, king of Armenia; the sister, five sons, ann wo daughters, of Mithridates. In the place of that king's person, his throne, sceptre, and a colossal busto of gold of eight cubits, un twelve feet in height, were carried in triumph.

A. M. 3943. Ant. J.C.61.





Ptolemy Auletes having been placed upon the throne of Egypt in the . of Alexan

der, is declared the friend and ally of the Roman people by the whice of Casar and Pompey, which he had purchased at a very great price. In consequence, he loads his subjects with taxes. He is expelled the throne. The Alexandria. make his daughter Berenice queen. He goes in Rome, and, by money, obtains the voices of the heads of the commonwealth for bis re-establishment. tie is opposed by an Oracle of the Sybil's; notwithstanding which, Gabinius sets him upon the throne by force of arms, where he remains till his death. The famous Cleopatra, and her bró ther, very young, succeed him.

A. M. 3939. Ant. J. C. 65.

We have seen* in what manner Ptolemy Auletes

ascended the throne of Egypt. Alexander, his predecessor, upon his being expelled by his subjects, had withdrawn to Tyre, where he died some time after. As he left no issue, nor any other legitimate prince of the blood royal, he had made the Roman people his heirs. The senate, for the reasons I have repeated elsewhere, did not judge it proper at that time to take possession of the dominions left them by Alexander's will; but to show that they did not renounce their right, they resolved to call in purt of the inheritance, and sent deputies to Tyre to demand a sum of money left there by that king at his death.

The pretensions of the Roman people were under no restrictions: and it would have been a very insecure establishment to possess a state to which they believed they had so just a claim, unless some means were found to make them renounce it. All the kings of Egypt had been friends and allies of Rome. For Ptolemy to get himself declared an ally by the Romans, was a certain means to his being authentically acknowledged king of Egypt by them. But by how much the more important that qualitication was to him, so much the more difficult was it for him to obtain it. His predecessor's will was still fresh in the memory of every body; and as princes are seldom pardoned for defects which do not suit their

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A. M. 3946. Ant. 53.

condition, though they are often spared for those that are much more hurtful, the surname of Player on the Flute, which he had drawu upon himself, had ranked him as low in the esteem of the Romans as in that of the Egyptians.

He did not, however, despair of success in his undertakings.* All the methods which he took for the attainment of his end, were a long time ineffectual; and it is likely they would always have been so, if Cæsar had never been consul. That ambitious spirit, who believed all means and expedients just that conduced to his ends, being immensely in debt, and finding that king disposed to merit by money what he could not obtain by right, sold him the alliance of Rome at as dear a price as he was willing to buy it; and received for the purchase, as well for himself as for Pompey, whose credit was necessary to him for obtaining the people's consent, almost six thousand talents; that is to say, almost nine hundred thousand pounds. At this price he was declared the friend and ally of the Roman people.

Though that prince's yearly revenues were twice

the amount of this sum, he could not immediately raise the money without exceedingly over-taxing his subjects. They were already highly discontented at his not claiming the isle of Cyprus as an ancient dependance of Egypt, and, in case of refusal, declaring war against the Romans. In this disposition, the extraordinary imposts he was obliged to exact having finally exasperated them, they rose with so much violence, that he was forced to fly for the security of his life. He concealed his route so well, that the £gyptians either believed, or feignied to believe, that he had perished. They declared Berenice, the eldest of his three daughters, queen, though he had two sons, because they were both much younger than she.

Ptolemy,t-in the mean time, having landed at the isle of Rhodes, which was in his way to Rome, was informed that Cato, who after his death was called Cato of Utica, had also arrived there some time before. That prince, being glad of the opportunity to confer with him upon his own affairs, sent immediately to let him know his arrival, expecting that he would come directly to visit him.

We may here see an instance of Roman grandeur, or rather haughtiness. Cato ordered him to be told, that, if he had any thing to say to hin, he might come to him, if he thought fit. Accordingly he went. Cato did not vouchsafe so much as to rise when Ptolemy entered his chamber, and saluting him only as a common man, bade him sit down. The king, though in some confusion upon this reception, could not but inwardly wonder how so much haughtiness and state could unite in the same person with the simplicity and modesty that appeared in his dress and all his equipage." But he was still more

Sueton. in Jul. Cæs. e. liv. Dion. Cass. I. xxxix. p. 97. Strab. I. xvii. p. 796. f Plut. in Cato. Utic. p. 776.

surprised, when, upon entering upon business, Cato blamed him, in direct terms, for quitting the finest kingdom in the world, to expose himself to the pride and insatiable avarice of the Roman grandeos, and to suffer a thousand indignities. He did not scruple to tell him, that, though he should sell all Egypt, he would not have sufficient to satisfy their avidity. He advised him, therefore, to return to Egypt, and reconcile himself with his subjects; adding, that he was ready to accompany him thither, and offering him his mediation und good offices for that purpose.

Ptolemy, upon this discourse, recovered as out of a dream, and having maturely considered what the wise Roman had told him, perceived the error he had committed in quitting his kingdom, and entertained thoughts of returning to it. But the friends he had with him, being gained by Pompey to make him go to Rome, (one may easily guess with what views,) dissuaded him froin following Cato's good advice. He had full time to repent it, when he found himself, in that proud city, reduced to solicit the magistrates upon biz business, from door to door, like a private person.

Cæsar,* upon whom his principal hopes were founded, was not at Rome; he was at that time making war in Gaul. But Pompey, who was there, gave him an apartment in his house, and omitted nothing to serve him. Besides the money which he had received from that prince, in conjunction with Cæsar, Ptolemy had since cultivated his friendship by various services which he had rendered him during the war with Mithridates, and had maintained at his own charge 8000 horse for him in that of Judea. Having, therefore, made his complaint to the senate of the rebellion of his subjects, he demanded that they should oblige them to return to their obedience, as the Romans were engaged to do by the alliance granted bim. Pompey's faction obtained for him a compliance with biz request. The consul Lentulus, to whom Cilicia, separated fronı Egypt only by the coast of Syria, had fallen by lot, wus charged with the re-establishment of Ptolemy upon the throne.

But before his consulship expired, the Egyptians

having been informed that their king was not dead, as they believed, and that he was gone to Rome, sent thither a solemn embassy, to justify their revolt before the senate. That embassy consisted of more than 100 persons, at the head of whom was a celebrated philosopher, named Dion, who had considerable friends at Rome. Ptolemy having received advice of this, found means to destroy most of those ambassadors, either by poison or the sword, and so much intimidated those whom he could neither corrupt nor kill, that they were afraid either to acquit themselves of their commission, or to demand justice for so many murders. But as all the world knew this cruelty, it made him as highly odious as

A. M. 3947. Ant. J. C. 57.

• Dion. Caes. I. XXII. p. 97, 98. Plin. l. Iti. c. 10. Cic. ad Famil. l. 1. ep. 1-5 Id. in Piso. n. 48 50 Cel. n. 23, 4. VOL. VIII.


he was before contemptible; and his immense profusion, in gaining the poorest and most self-interested senators, became so public, that nothing else was talked of throughout the city,

So notorious a contempt of the laws, and such an excess of audacity, excited the indignation of all the persons of integrity in the senate. M. Favonius, the Stoic philosopher, was the first in it who declared himself against Ptolemy. Upon his motion, it was resolved that Dion should be ordered to attend, in order to their knowing the truth from his own mouth. But the king's party, composed of that of Pompey and Lentulus, of such as he had corrupted with money, and of those who had lent him sums to corrupt others, acted so openly in his favour, that Dion did not dare to appear; and Ptolemy having caused him also to be killed some short time after, though he who did the murder was accused in due form of law, the king was exculpated, upon maintaining that he had just cause for the action.

Whether that prince thought that he had nothing farther to transact at Rome that demanded his presence, or apprehended receiving some affront, hated as he was, if he continued there any longer, he set out froni thence some few days after, and retired to Ephesus, into the temple of the goddess, to wait there the decision of his destiny

His affair, in fact, made more noise than ever at Rome. One of the tribunes of the people, named C. Cato, an active, enterprising young man, who did not want eloquence, declared himself, in frequent harangues, against Ptolemy and Lentulus, and was hearkeued to by the people with singular pleasure and extraordinary applause.

In order to put a new engine in motion, he i

waited till the new consuls were elected; and as soon as Lentulus had quitted that office, he produced to the people an oracle of the Sibyl's, which ran thus: “ If a king of Egypt, having occasion for aid, applies to you, you shall not refuse him your amity; but, however, you shall not give him any troops; for if you

you will suffer and hazard much." The usual form was to communicate this kind of oracles first to the senate, in order to examine whether they were proper to be divulged. But Cato, apprehending that the king's faction might occasion the passing a resolution there to suppress this, which was so apposite to that prince, immediately presented the priests, with whom the sacred books were deposited, to the people, and obliged thein, by the authority which his office of tribune gave him, to lay what they had found in them before the public, without demanding the senate's opinion.

This was a new thunder-stroke to Ptolemy and Lentulus. The words of the Sibyl were too express not to make all the impression upon the vulgar which their cnemies desired. So that Lentulus, whose consulship was expired, not being willing to receive the

A. M. 3948. Ant. J. C. 56.


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