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governor and first minister, who coincided with Achillas, gave him advice of all that passed, and encouraged him to push the siege with vigour. One of his letters was at last intercepted; and his treason being thereby discovered, Cæsar ordered him to be put to death.

Ganymedes, another eunuch of the palace, who educated Arsinoe the youngest of the king's sisters, apprehending the same fate, because he had shared in that treason, carried off the young princess, and escaped into the camp of the Egyptians; who not having had, till then, any of the royal family at their head, were overjoyed at her presence, and proclaimed her queen. But Ganymedes, who entertained thoughts of supplanting Achillas, caused that general to be accused of having given up the fleet to Cæsar that had been set on fire by the Romans, caused him to be put to death, and the command of the army to be transferred to himself. He took also upon him the administration of all other affairs : and undoubtedly did not want capacity for the office of a prime minister, probity only excepted, which is often reckoneå little or no qualification: for he had all the necessary penetration and activity, and contrived a thousand artful stratagems to distress Cæsar during the continuance of this war.

For instance, he found means to spoil all the fresh water in his quarter, and was very near destroying him hy that means. For there was no other, fresh water in Alexandria, than that of the Nile. In every house were vaulted reservoirs,* where it was kept. Every year, upon the great swell of the Nile, the water of that river came in by a canal, which had been cut for that purpose ; and by a sluice, made with that design, was turned into the vaulted reservoirs, which were the cisterns of the city, where it grew clear by degrees. The masters of houses and their families drank of this water; but the poorer sort of people were forced to drink the running water, which was muddy and very unwholesome ; for there were no springs in the city. Those caverns were made in such a manner, that they all had communication with each other. This .provision of water made at one time served for the whole jear. Every house - had an opening like the mouth of a well, through which the water was taken up either in buckets or pitchers. Ganymedes caused all the communications with the caverns in the quarters of Cæsar to be stopped up; and then found means to turn the sea-water into the latter, and thereby spoiled all his fresh water. As soon as they perceived that the water was spoiled, Cæsar's soldiers made such a noise, and raised such a tumult, that he would have been obliged to abandon his quarter, very much to his disadvantage, if he had not immediately thought of ordering wells to be sunk, where, at last, springs were found which supplied

There are to this day exactly the same kind of caves at Alexandria, which are alled once a year, as at that unc. Theocnot's Travels



them with water enough to make amends for that which was spoiled.

After that, upon Cæsar's receiving advice that the legion which Calvinus had sent by sea was arrived upon the coast of Libya, which was not very distant, he advanced with his whole fleet to convoy it safely to Alexandria. Ganymedes was apprized of this, and immediately assembled all the Egyptian ships he could get, in order to attack him upon his return. A battle actually ensued between the two fleets. Cæsar had the advantage, and brought his legion without danger into the port of Alexandria ; and had not the night come on, the ships of the enemy would not have escaped.

To repair that loss, Ganymedes drew together all the ships from the mouths of the Nile, and formed a new fleet, with which he entered the port of Alexandria. A second action was unavoidable. The Alexandrians climbed in throngs to the tops of the houses next the port, to be spectators of the fight, and awaited the success with fear and trembling; lifting up their hands to heaven to implore the assistance of the gods. The all of the Romans was at stake. as they had no resource left if they lost this battle.

Cæsar was again victorious. The Rhodians, by their valour and skill in naval affairs, contributed exceedingly to this victory.

Cæsar, to make the best of it, endeavoured to seize the isle of Pharos, where he landed his troops after the battle, and to possess himself of the mole, called the Heptastadion, by which it was joined to the continent. But after having obtained several advantages, be was repulsed with the loss of more than 800 men, and was very near falling himself in his retreat. For the ship in which he had designed to get off, being ready to sink on account of the great number of people who had entered it with him, he threw himself into the sea, and with great difficulty swam to the next ship. Whilst he was thus swimming, he held one hand above the water, in which were papers of consequence, and swam with the other so that they were not wetted.

The Alexandrians, seeing that ill success itself only served to give Cæsar's troops new courage, entertained thoughts of making peace, or at least pretended such a disposition. They sent deputies to demand their king of him; assuring him, that his presence alone would put an end to all differences. Cæsar, who well knew their subtle and deceitful character, was not at a loss to comprehend their professions; but as he hazarded nothing in giving them up

their king's person, and, if they failed in their promises, the fault would be entirely on their side, he thought it incumbent on him to grant their demand. He exhorted the young prince to take advantage of this opportunity to inspire. subjects with sentiments of peace and equity; to redress the evils with which a war very imprudently undertaken had distressed his dominions; to approve himself worthy of the confidence he reposed in him, by giving him his uberty;

and to show his gratitude for the services he had rendered his father. Ptolemy,* early instructed by his masters in the art of dissimulation and deceit, begged of Cæsar, with tears in his eyes, not to deprive him of his presence, which was a much greater satisfaction to him, than to reign over others. The sequel soon explained how much sincerity there was in those tears and professions of amity.. He was no sooner at the head of his troops, than he renewed hostilities with more vigour than ever. The Egyptians endeavoured, by means of their fleet, to cut off Cæsar's provisions entirely. This occasioned a new fight at sea, near Canopus, in which Cæsar was again victorious. When this battle was fought, Mithridates of Pergamus was upon the point of arriving with the army which he was bringing to the aid of Cæsar.

He had been sent into Syria and Cilicia to assemble all the troops he could, and to march them to Egypt. He acquitted himself of his commission with such diligence and prudence, that he had soon formed a considerable army. Antipater, the Idumaan, contributed yery much towards it. He had not only joined him with 3000 Jews, but engaged several neighbouring princes of Arabia and Crele syria, and the free cities of Phænicia and Syria also, to send him troops. Mithridates, with Antipater, who accompanied him in persón, marched into Egypt, and upon arriving before Pelusium, they carried that place by storm. They were indebted principally to Antipater's bravery for the taking of this city; for he was the first that mounted the breach, and got upon the wall

, and thereby opened the way for those who followed him to carry the town.

On their route from thence to Alexandria, it was necessary to pass through the country of Onion, all the passes of which had been seized by the Jews who inhabited it. The army was there put to a stand, and their whole design was upon the point of miscarrying, if Antipater, by his influence and that of Hyrcanus, from whom he brought them letters, had not engaged them to espouse Cesar's party. Upon the spreading of that news, the Jews of Memphis did the same, and Mithridates received from both all the provisions his army had occusion for. When they were near the Delta, Ptolemy detached a flying army to dispute the passage of the Nile with them. A battle was fought in consequence. Mithridates put himself at the head of part of his army, and gave the command of the other to Antipater. Mithridates's wing was soon broken, and obliged to give way; but Antipater, who had defeated the enemy on his side, came to his relief. The battle began afresh, and the enemy were defeated. Mithridates and Antipater pursued them, made a great slaughter, and regained the field of battle. They took even the enemy's camp, and obliged those who remained repass

the Nile, in order to escape. * Regius animus disciplinis fallacissimis eruditus, ne à gentis suæ moribus degeneraret, flens orare contra Cæsarem cæpit, ne se dimitteret: non enim regnum ipsum sibi conspectu Cæsaris esse jucundius, Hist. de Bell. Alez. t Joseph. Antiq. I. xiv. c. 14, 15.


Ptolemy then advanced with his whole army, in order to overpower the victors. Cæsar also marched to support them; and as soon as he had joined them, came directly to a decisive battle, in which he obtained a complete victory. Ptolemy, in endeavouring to escape in a boat, was drowned in the Nile. Alexandria and all Egypt submitted to the victor.

Cæsar returned to Alexandria about the middle of our January; and not finding any further opposition to his orders, gave the crown of Egypt to Cleopatra, in conjunction with Ptolemy her other brother. This was in effect giving it to Cleopatra alone; for that young prince was only eleven years old. The passion which Cæsar had conceived for that princess was properly the sole cause of his embarking in so dangerous a war. He had by her one son, called Cæsarion, whom Augustus caused to be put to death when he became master of Alexandria. His affection for Cleopatra kept him much longer in Egypt than his affairs required. For though every thing was settled in that kingdom by the end of January, he did not leave it till the end of April, according to Appian, who says he stayed there nine months. Now he had arrived there only about the end of July the year before.

Cæsar passed whole nights in feasting with Cleopatra.* Having embarked with her upon the Nile, he carried her through the whole country with a numerous fleet, and would have penetrated into Ethiopia, if his army had not refused to follow him. He had resolved to bring her to Rome, and to marry her; and intended to have caused a law to pass in the assembly of the people, by which the citizens of Rome should be permitted to marry such and as many wives as they thought fit. Helvius Cinna, the tribune of the people, declared, after his death, that he had prepared a harangue, in order to propose that law to the people, not being able to refuse his assistance upon the earnest solicitation of Cæsar.

He izrried Arsinoe, whom he had taken in this war, to Rome, and she walked in his triumph in chains of gold; but immediately after that solemnity he set lier ui liberty. He did not permit her, however, to return into Esynt, lest her presence should occasion new troubles, and frustrate the regulations he had made in that kingdom. She chose the province of Asia for her residence; at least it was there that Antony found her after the battle of Philippi, and caused her to be put to death at the instigation of her sister Cleopatra.

Before he left Alexandria, Cæsar, in gratitude for the aid he had received from the Jews, caused all the privileges they enjoyed to be confirmed; and ordered a column to be erected, on which, by his command, all those privileges were engraven, with the decree coule firining them.

What at length made him quit Egyptet was the war with Phar



• Suet. in J. Cos, c. 52.

| Plut. in Cæs. p. 731.


naces, king of the Cimmerian Bosphorus, and son of Mithridates, the last king of Pontus. He fought a great battle with him near the city of Zela,* defeated his whole army, and drove him out of the kingdom of Pontus. To denote the rapidity of his conquest, in writing to one of his friends, he made use of only these three words, Veni, vidi, vici; that is to say, I came, I saw, I conquered.

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Cleopatra causes her younger brother to be put to death, and reigns alone. The death

of Julius Cæsar having made way for the triumvirate formed beiween Antony, t.e. pidus, and young Cæsar, called also Octavianus, Cleopatra declares herself for the triumvirs. She goes to Antony at Tarsus, gains an absolute ascendant over him, and brings him with her to Alexandria. Antony goes to Rome, where he espouses Octavia. He abandons himself again to Cleopatra ; and after some expeditions returns to Alexandria, which he enters in triumph. He there celebrates the coronation of Cleopatra and her children. Open rupture between Cæsar and Antony. The latter repudiates Octavia. The two fleets put to sea. Cleopatra determines to follow Antony. Battle of Actium. Cleopatra flies, and draws Antony after her. Cæsar's victory is complete. He advances some time after, against Alexandria, which makes no long resistance. Tragical death of Antony and Cleopatra. Egypt is reduced into a province of the Roman empire.

Cæsar, after the war of Alexandria, had re-established Cleopatra upon the throne, and, for form only, had associated her brother with her, who at that time was only eleven years of age. During his

A. M. 3961. minority, all power was in her hands. . When he Ant. J. C. 43. attained his fifteenth year,t which was the time when, according to the laws of the country, he was to govern for himself, and have a share in the royal authority, she poisoned him, and remained sole queen of Egypt,

In this interval Cæsar had been killed at Rome by the conspirators, at the head of whom were Brutus and Cassius; and the triumvirate, between Antony, Lepidus, and Octavianus Cæsar, had been formed, to avenge the death of Cæsar.

Cleopatra declared herself without hesitation for the triumvirs. She gave Allienus, the consul, Dolabella's lieutenant, four legions, which were the remains of Pompey's and Crassus's armies, and

A. M. 3962, formed part of the troops which Cæsar had left with Ant. J. C. 42. her for the defence of Egypt. She had also a fleet in readiness for sailing, but it was prevented by storms from setting ont. Cassius made himself master of those four legions, and frequently solicited Cleopatra for aid, which she resolutely refused. She sailed some time after with a numerous fleet, to join Antony and Octavianus. A violent storm occasioned the loss of a great number of her ships, and falling sick, she was obliged to return into Egypt.

* This was a city of Cappadocia.

Joseph. Antiq. 1. XV. c. 4. Porphyr. p. 226. 623 1. v. p. 675.

* Appian. l. ii. p. 576. 1. I. p.

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