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ADVERTISEMENT. CHRONOLOGY is the knowledge of the just computation of time. It shows to what year the events related in history are to be referred. The years used for measuring the duration of time are either Solar or Lunar.

The Solar year is that space of time which elapses between one equinox and another of the same denomination the next year : for instance, from the vernal equinox to the vernal equinox following, which contains 365 days, five hours, and forty-nine minutes.

The Lunar year is composed of twelve Lunar months, each of which consists of twenty-nine days, twelve hours, and forty-four mi. nutes, that make in all 354 days, eight hours, and forty-eight minutes.

Both of these years are called Astronomical, to distinguish thein from that in common use, which is termed Civil or Political.

Though all nations may not agree with one another in the manner of determining their years, some regulating them by the motion of the sun, and others by that of the moon, they, however, generally use the solar year in chronology. It seems at first, that as the lunar years are shorter than the solar, that inequality should produce some error in chronological calculations, But it is to be observed, that the nations who used lunar years, added a certain number of intercalary days to make them agree with the solar: which makes them correspond with each other; or at least, if there be any difference, it may be neglected, when the question is only to determine the year in which a fact hapo pened.

In Chronology there are certain times distinguished by some great event, to which all the rest are referred. These are called Epocks, from a Greek word, * which signifies to stop, because we stop there to consider, as from a resting place, all that has happened before or after, and by that means to avoid anachronisms, that is to say, tbcse errors which incluce confusion of times.

The choice of the events which are to serve as epochs, is arbitrar, i and a writer of history may take such as best suit his plan.

When we begin to compute years from one of these points distin. guished by a considerable event, the enumeration and series of such years is called an Era. There are almust as many eras as there have been different nations. The principal, and whose most in use, are that of the Creation of the World, of the Birth of Jesus Christ, of the Olyon. piads, and of the Building of Rome. I made use only of the two most famous, that is to say, that of the World, and that of Jesus Christ.

Every body knows, that the Olympiads derived their origin from the Olympic games, which were celebrated in Peloponnesus, near the city of Olympia. These games were so solemn, that Greece made

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them her epoch for computing her years. By an Olympiau is meant the space of four years complete, which is the time that elapsed be. tween one celebration of the games and another. The first used by chronologers begins, according to Usher, in the summer of the year of the world 3228, before Christ 776. When the time in which an event happened is reckoned by Olympiads, authors say, the first, second, or third, &c. year of such an Olympiad: which being once known, it is easy to find the year of the world to which the same fact is to be referred: and in like manner, when the year of the world is known, it is easy to find that of the Olympiad which agrees with it.

Rome was built, according to Varro's Chronology, in the year of the world 3251, and the 753d before Jesus Christ. Cato dates the foundation of that city two years later, in the year of the world 3253, before Jesus Christ 751. I shall follow the opinion of the latter in my Roman history. The years reckoned from this epoch are called indifferently years of Rome, or years from the foundation of the city.

The Julian period is also a famous era in chronology, used princi. pally for reckoning the years before Christ. I am going to explain, in a few words, whierein this period consists, and its use: but first I must give the reader an idea of the three cycles of which it is composed. By the word cycle, is understood the revolution of a certain number

The Solar cycle is a term of twenty-eight years, which includes all the variations that the Sundays and days of the week admit: that is to say, at the end of twenty-eight years the first seven letters of the alphabet, which are used in the calendar for noting the day of the week, and which are called Dominical letters, return in the same oriler in which they were at first. To understand what I have now said, it must be observed, that if the year had only fifty-two weeks, there would be no change in the order of the Dominical letters. But as it has a day more, and two in leap-year, that produces some variations, which are all included in the space of twenty-eight years, of which the solar cycle consists.

The Lunar cycle, called also the Golden Number, is the revolution of nineteen years, at the end of which the moon returns, within an hour and a half, to the same point with the sun, and begins its lunations again in the same order as at first. We are indebted for the invention of this cycle to Meto, a famous Athenian astronomer. Before the invention of the epacts, it was used for marking the days of the new moon in the calendar.

Besides these two cycles, chronologers admit a third also, called Indiction. This is a revolution of fifteen years, of which the first is called the first indiction, the second the second indiction, and so on to the fifteenth, after which they begin again to count the first indiction, &c.

The first indiction is generally supposed to have begun three years before the birth of Christ.

If these three cycles, that is to say, 28, 19, and 15, are multiplied by each other, the product will be 7980, which is what is called the Juliun period.

One of the properties of this period, is, to give the three character. istic cycles of each year, that is to say, the current year of each of the three cycles : for example, every body knows that the vulgar era commences at the year 4714 of the Julian period. If that number be divided by 28, what remains* after the division shows the solar cycle of that year. In the same manner the lunar cycle and the indiction may be found. It is demonstrated, that the three numbers which express these three cycles cannot be found again in the same order in any other year of the Julian period. It is the same in respect to the cycles of other years.

If we trace this period back to its first year, that is to say, to the year when the three cycles, of which it is composed, began, we shall find it precede the creation of the world 710 years: supposing the creation to precede the vulgar era only 4004 years.

This period is called Julian, because it is made to agree with the years of Julius Cæsar. Scaliger invented it to reconcile the systems that divided chronologers concerning the length of time elapsed since the beginning of the world. There are some who believe that only 4004 years of the world are to be reckoned before Jesus Christ. Others give more extent to that space, and augment the number of years of which it consists. These variations disappear when the Julian period is used, for every body agrees in respect to the year in which that began, and there is nobody who does not allow, that the first year of the vulgar era falls in with the 4714th of that period. Thus in the Julian period there are two fixed points, which unite all systems, and reconcile all chronologers.

It is easy to find the year of the Julian period, that answers to any year whatsoever of the vulgar era of the worid. For as the beginning of the Julian period precedes that era 710 years, by adding that num. ber to the year proposed of the era of the world, we have the year of the Juliun period that answers to it. For instance, we know that the battle of Arbela was fought in the year of the world 3673. If to that number we add 710, it will be 4383, which number expresses the year of the Juliun period to which the battle of Arbela is to be referred.

The reader knows that hitherto I have not entered into chronological discussions, and undoubtedly does not expect that I should do so now. I shall generally follow Usher, whom I have chosen for my guide in this subject.


Á. ĐI. A. c.




Niiprod, founder of the first empire of the Assyrians.
Ninus, the son of Nimrod.
Semiramis. She reigned forty-two years.
The history of the successors of Ninyas for thirty generations, except

of Phul and Sardanapalus, is unknown.

* I say, what remains, and not the quolient, as some authors do; for the quotient expresses the number of cycles, elapsed since the beginning of the period, and was

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A. M. A. C.





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2188 Menes or Mesram, first king of




Foundation of the kingdom of Sic

2084 The Shepherd-kings seize Lower

Egypt. They reign 260 years.
1920 Abraham enters Egypt, where Sa-

rah is in great danger from one of

the Shepherd-kings. 1856

Foundation of the kingdom of Art








gos. Deluge of Ogyges in Attica. 1925 Thethmosis expels the Shepherd

kings, and reigns in Lower Egypt. 1728

Joseph is carried into Egypt, and

sold to Potiphar.
1706 Jacob goes into Egypt with his

1577 Rameses-Miamum begins to reign

in Egypt. He persecutes the Israel

1556 Cecrops conducts a colony from Foundation of the kingdom of

Egypt, and founds the kingdoin of Athens by Cecrops. He institutes

the Areopagus.

Under Cranaus, successor of Ce crops, happens Deucalion's flood.

Foundation of the kingdoin of Lacedæmonia, of which Lelex is the

first king. 1510

Amenophis, the eldest son of Ra

meses, succeeds him.
1491 The Israelites quit Egypt. Ame-

nophis is swallowed up in the Red
Sea. Sesostris his son succeeds him.
He divides Egypt into thirty nomes,
or districts, renders Ethiopia tribu-
tary, conquers Asia, and subjects the
Scythians as far as the Tanais. On
his return into Egypt he kills himself,

after a reign of 33 years. 1474

Danaus, brother of Sesostris, leaves Egypt, and retires into the Peloponnesus, where he makes himself mas

ter of Argos. 1457 Pheron succeeds Sesostris.

Perseus, the fifth of Danaus's successors, having unfortunately killed his grandfather, abandons Argos,

and founds the kingdom of Mycene. 1376

Sisyphus, the son of Æolus, makes

himself master of Corinth. 1294

The descendants of Sisyphus are driven out of Corinth by the Hera

clidæ. 1284

Ægæus, the son of Pandion, king of Attica. The expedition of the Argonauts is dated in the reign of

this prince. 1204 Protens. In his reign Paris is The Heraclidæ make themselves

driven into Egypt on his return to masters of Peloponnesus; from Troy with Helen.

whence they are obliged to retire Rhampsinit. -Cheops. soon after.









A. M. A. C.











Chephrem.- Mycerinus. -

The six preceding reigns were 170
years in duration, but it is hard to
assign the length of each of them in

particular. 1184

Troy taken by the Greeka 1104

The Heraclidæ re-enter Pelopounesus, and seize Sparta, where the two brothers, Eurysthenes and Pro

cles reign together. 1070

Institution of the Archions at Atheus. Medon, the son of Codrus,

is the first. 1055

Cadınus builds the city of Thebes, and makes it the seat of his govern

ment. 1013 Pharaoh king of Egypt gives his

daughter in marriage to Solomon. 978 Sesac, otherwise called Seson

chis. It was with him that Jero

boam took refuge.
971 Sesac marches against Jerusalem,

and conquiers Judea.
941 Zara king of Egypt makes war

with Asa king of Judah.

Anysis. In his reign Sabacus, king of Ethicpia, makes himselt master of Egypt, reigns there fifty years; after which he retires, and

leaves the kingdom to Anysis. 884

Lycurgis. 814

Homer. Hesiod lived about the

same time. 794

Caranus founds the kingdom of

Macedonia. 776

Beginning of the common æra of

Ithe Olympiads. I return to the chronology of the Assyrians, which I discontinued, because from Ninyas down to this time, nothing is known of their history.

ASSYRIANS. 771 Phul. This is the king of Nineveh, who repented upon Jonah's

preaching. 767 Sardanapalus, the last king of the first empire of the Assyrians. After a reign of twenty years, he burns himself in bis palace.

The first empire of the Assyrians, which ended at the death of Sardanapalus, had subsisted more than 1450 years. Out of its ruins three others were formed; that of the Assyrians of Babylon; that of the Assyrians of Ninevel, and that of the Medes.


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