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ARTICLE II

8pct. I. Hieronymus, grandson of Hiero, succeeds him, and causes him to be regret

ted by his vices and cruelty. He is killed in a conspiracy. Barbarous murder of the princesses. Hippocrates and Epicydes possess themselves of the government of Sy. racuse, and declare for the Carthaginians as Hieronymus had done

The death of Hiero occasioned great revolutions in Sicily. The kingdom was fallen into the hands of Hieronymus his grandson, a young* prince incapable of making a wise use of his indepeudence, and far from possessing strength to resist the seducing allurements of sovereign power. Hiero's apprehensions, that the flourishing condition in which he left his kingdom would soon change under an intant king, suggested to him the thought and desire of restoring their liberty to the Syracusans. But his two daughters opposed that design with all their influence; from the hope, that the young prince would have only the title of king, and that they should have all the authority, in conjunction with their husbands, Andranodorus and Zoippus, who were to hold the first rank ainongst his guardians.f It was not easy for an old man of ninety to hold out against the caresses and arts of those two women, who besieged him day and night, to preserve the freedom of his mind in the midst of their pressing and assiduous insinuations, and to sacrifice with courage the interests of his family to those of the public.

To prevent as far as possible the evils he foresaw, he appointed him fifteen guardians, who were to form his council ; and earnestly desired them, at his death, never to depart from the alliance with the Romans, to which he had inviolably adhered for fifty years, and tu teach the young prince to tread in his steps, and to follow the principles in which he had been educate. till then.

The king dying after these arrangements, the guurdians whom he had appointed for his grandson immediately suminoned the assembly, presented the young prince to the people, and caused the will to be read. A small number of people, expressly placed to applaud it, clapped their hands, and raised acclamations of joy. Al} the rest, in a consternation equal to that of a family who have lately lost a good father, kept a mournful silence, which sufficiently expressed their grief for their recent loss, and their apprehension of what was to come. His funeral was afterwards solemnized, and more honoured by the sorrow and tears of his subjects, than the care and regard of his relations for his memory. I

Andranodorus's first care was to remove all the other guardians, by telling them roundly, the prince was of age to govern for himself.

* Puerum, vixdum libertatem, nedum dominationem, modicè laturum. Liv. | Non facile erat nonagesiinum jam agenti annum, circunsesso dies noctesque mujebribus blanditiis, liberare animuin, et convertere ad publicam privata curain.

Funus sit regiuni, magis amore civiuiu et caritate, quàm curà suoi um celebre. Liv

Lir.

He was at that time near fifteen years old. So that Andranodorus, being the first to renounce the guardianship held by him in common with many colleagues, united in his own person all their power. The wisest arrangements made by princes at their deaths, are often little regarded, and seldom executed afterwards.

The best and most moderate prince in the world, * succeeding a king so well beloved by his subjects, as Hiero had been, would have found it very difficult to console them for the loss they had sustained. But Hieronymus, as if he strove by his vices to make him still more regretted, no sooner ascended the throne, than he made the people sensible how much all thinys were altered. While neither Hiero, nor Gelon his son, had ever distinguished themselves from the other citizens by their habits, or any outward ornaments, Hieronymus was presently seen in a purple robe, with a diadem on his head, and surrounded by a troop of armed guards. Sometimes he affected to imitate Dionysius, the Tyrant, in coming out of his palace in a chariot drawn by four white horses. All tlre rest of his conduct was suitable to this equipage :ť a visible contempt for all the world, haughtiness and disdain in hearing, an affectation of saying disobliging things, so difficult of access, that not only strangers, but even his guardians, could scarce approach him; a refinement of taste in discovering new methods of excess; a cruelty so enormous, as to extinguish all sense of humanity in him: this odious disposition of the young king terrified the people to such a degree, that even some of his guardians, to escape his cruelty, either put themselves to death, or condemned themselves to voluntary banishment.

Only three men, Andranodorus and Zoippus, both Hiero's sons in-law, and Thraso, had a great freedom of access to the young king. He paid little more notice to them than to others; but as the two first openly declared for the Carthaginians, and the latter for the Romans, that difference of sentiments, and very warm disputes, which were frequently the consequence of it, drew upon them that prince's attention.

About this time a conspiracy against the life of Hieronymus happened to be discovered. One of the principal conspirators, named Theodotus, was accused. Being put to the torture, he confessed the crime as far as it regarded himself; but all the violence of the most cruel torments could not make him betray his accomplices. At length, as if no longer able to support the pains inficted on him, he accused the king's best friends, though innocent, amongst whom he named Thraso, es the ringleader of the whole enterprise; adding, that they should never have engaged in it, if a man of his credit had not been at their head. The zeal he had al ways expressed for the Roman interests rendered the evidence probable, and he was accordingly put to death. Not one of the accomplices, during their companion's being tortured, either fled or concealed himself, so much they relied upon the fidelity of Theodotus, and such was his fortitude to keep the secret inviolable.

* Vix quidem ulli bono moderatoque regi facilis erat favor apud Syracusanos, succedenti tantæ caritati Hieronis. Verum enimvero Hieronymis, velut suis vitiis desiderabilem efficere vellet avum, primo statim cor pectu, omnia quàm disparia ess ostendit. Liv.

1 Hunc tam superbum apparatum habitumque convenientes sequebantur contemptus omnium hominum, superbæ aures, contumeliosa dicta, rari aditus, non alienis modd led tutoribus etiam; libidines novæ, inhumana crudelitas. Liv.

The death of Thraso, who was the sole support of the alliance with the Romans, left the field open to the partisans of Carthage. Hieronymus despatched ambassadors to Hannibal, who sent back a young Carthaginian officer, of illustrious birth, named also Hannibal, with Hippocrates and Epicydes, natives of Carthage, but descended from the Syracusans by their father. After the treaty with Hieronymus was concluded, the young officer returned to his general; the two others continued with the king by Hannibal's permission. The conditions of the treaty were, that after having driven the Romans out of Sicily, of which they fully assured themselves, the river Himera, which also divides the island, should be the boundary of their respective dominions. Hieronymus, puffed up by the praises of his flatterers, even demanded, some time after, that all Sicily should be given up to him, leaving the Carthaginians Italy for their part. The proposal appeared idle and rash; but Hannibal gave very little attention to it, having no other view at that time than of drawing off the young king from the party of the Romans.

Upon the first rumour of this treaty, Appius, prætor of Sicily, sent ambassadors to Hieronymus to renew the alliance made by his grandfather with the Romans. That proud prince received them with great contempt; asking them, with an air of raillery and insult, what had passed at the battle of Cannæ ; that Hannibal's ambassadors had related incredible things respecting it; that he was happy in an opportunity of knowing the truth from their mouths, that he might thence determine upon the choice of his allies. The Romans made answer, that they would return to him, when he had learnt to treat ambassadors seriously, and with respect; and, after having cautioned rather than desired him not to change sides too rashly, they withdrew.

At length his cruelty, and the other vices to which he blindly abandoned himself, drew upon him an unfortunate end. Those who had formed the conspiracy mentioned before, pursued their scheme; and having found a favourable opportunity for the execution of their enterprise, killed him in the city of the Leontines, on a journey be made from Syracuse into the country.

We here evidently see the difference between a king and a tyrant; and that it is not in guards or arms that the security of a prince consists, but the affection of his subjects. Hiero, from being convinced, that those who have the law in their hands for the government of the people, ought always to govern themselves by the laws, behaved in such a manner, that it might be said the law, and not Hiero, reigned. He believed himself rich and powerful for nò other end than to do good, and to render others happy. He had no occasion to take precautions for the security of his life: he had always the surest guard about him, the love of his people: and Syracuse was afraid of nothing so much as of losing him. Hence he was lamented at his death as the common father of his country, Not only their mouths but hearts were long after filled with his name, and incessantly blessed his memory. Hieronymus, on the contrary, who had no other rule of conduct than violence, who regarded all other men as born solely for himself, and valued bimself upon governing them not as subjects but slaves, led the most wretched life in the world, if to pass his days in continual apprehension and terror, can be callcd living. As he trusted nobody, nobody placed any confidence in him. Those who were nearest his person were the most exposed to his suspicions and cruelty, and thought they had no other security for their own lives, than by patting an end to liis. Thus ended a reign of short duration, but abounding with disorders, injustice, and oppression.

Appius,* who foresaw the consequence of his death, gave the senate advice of all that had passed, and took the necessary precautions to preserve that part of Sicily which belonged to the RoThey, on their side, perceiving the war in Sicily was likely

to become important, sent Marcellus thither, who

had been appointed consul with Fabius, in the beginning of the fifth year of the second Punic war, and had distinguished hunself gloriously by his successes against Hannibal.

When Hieronymus was killed, the soldiers, less out of affection for him, than a certain natural respect for their kings, had thoughts at first of avenging his death upon the conspirators. But the grateful name of liberty by which they were flattered, and the hope that was given them of the division of the tyrant's treasures amongst them, and of additional pay, with the recital of his horrid crimes and shameful excesses, all together appeased their first heat, and changed their disposition in such a manner that they left, without interment, the body of that prince for whom they had just before expressed so warm a regret.

As soon as tie death of Hieronymus was known at Syracuse, Andranodorus seized the Isle, which was part of the city, with the citadel, and such other places as were most proper for his defence in it, putting good garrison

sons into them. Theodotus and Sosis, heads of the conspiracy, having left their accomplices with the army, to keep the soldiers quiet, arrived soon after at the city. They made themselves masters of the quarter Achradina, where, by showing the tyrant's bloody robe, with his diadem, to the people,

mans.

A. M. 3790. Ant. J. C. 214.

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* Liv, l. xxiv. n. 21-35.

and exhorting them to take arms for the defence of their liberty, they sbon saw themselves at the head of a numerous body.

The whole city was in confusion. The next day, at sun-rise, all the people, armed and unarmed, ran to the quarter Achradina, where the senate was holden, which had neither assembled nor been consulted upon any affair since Hiero's death. Polyænus, one of the senators, spoke to the people with great freedom and moderation. lle represented, “ that having experienced the indignities and miseries of slavery, they were more sensibly affected with them; but that as to the evils occasioned by civil discord, they had rather heard them spoken of by their fathers, than been acquainted with them themselves: that he coinmended their readiness in taking arms, and should praise them still more, if they did not proceed to use them, till the last extremity: that at present it was his advice to send deputies to Andranodorus, and to let him know he must submit to the senate, open the gates of the Isle, and withdraw his garrisons: that if he persisted in his usurpation, it would be necessary to treat him with more rigour than Hieronymus had experienced.”

This deputation at first made some impression upon him; whether it were, that he still retained a respect for the senate, and was moved with the unanimous concurrence of the citizens: or whether the best fortified part of the Isle having been taken from him by treachery and surrendered to the Syracusans, that loss gave him just apprehensions. But his wife Demarata,* Hiero's daughter, a haughty and ambitious princess, having taken him aside, put him in mind of the famous saying of Dionysius the Tyrant, “ That it was never proper to quit the saddle (i. e. the tyranny,) till pulled off the horse by the heels: that a great fortune might be renounced in a moment, but that it would cost abundance of time and pains to attain it; that it was therefore necessary to endeavour to gain time; and whilst he amused the senate by ambiguous answers, to treat privately with the soldiers at Leontium, whom it would be easy to bring over to his interest by the attraction of the king's treasures in his possession."

Andranodorus did not entirely reject this counsel, nor think proper to follow it without reserve. He chose a mean between both. He promised to submit to the senate, in expectation of a more favourable opportunity; and the next day having thrown open the gates of the Isle, repaired to the quarter Achradina; and there after having excused his delay and resistance, from the fear he had entertained of being involved in the tyrant's punishment, as his uncle, he declared that he was come to put his person and interest into the hands of the senate. Then turning towards the tyrant's

* Sed evocatum eum ab legatis Demarata uxor, filia Hieronis, inflata adhuc regiis animis ac muliebri spiritu, admonet sæpe usurpata. Dionysii tyranni vocis : quæ, pedi bus tractum, non insidentem equo, relinquere tyrannidem dixerit debere.

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