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espelled their kings. The Romans re-establish them. He

calises all the Romans and Italians in Asia Minor to be put to

death in one day. First war of the Romans with Mithridates,

who had made himself master of Asia Minor and Greece, and

had taken Athens. Sylla is charged with this war. He be.

sieges and retakes Athens. He gains three great batlles

against the generals of Mithridates. He grants that prince

peace in the fourth year of the war. Library of Athens, in

which were the works of Aristotle. Sylla causes it to be

carried to Rome

46

Sect. II. Second war against Mithridates, under Murena, of only

three years' duration. Mithridates prepares to renew the war

He concludes a treaty with Sertorius. Third war with Nich.

ridates. Lucullis the consul sent against him. He obliges

him to raise the siege of Cyzicum, and defeats his troops. He

gains a complete victory over him, and reduces him to fly into

Pontus. Tragical end of the sisters and wives of Mithridates.
He endeavours to retire to Tigranes, his son-in-law. Lucul-
lus regulates the affairs of Asia

63

Secr. III. Lucullus causes war to be declared with Tigranes,

and marches against him. Vanity and ridiculous self-suffi.

ciency of that prince. He loses a great battle. Lucullus

takes Tigranocerta, the capital of Armenia. He gains a se-

cond victory over the joint forces of Tigranes and Mithridates.

Mutiny and revolt in the army of Lucullus

77

Sect. IV. Mithridatés, taking advantage of the discord which

had arisen in the Roman arm>, recovers all his dominions.

Pompey is chosen to succeed Lucuilies. He overthrows Mith.

ridates in several battles. The latter ties in vain to Tigranes,

his son-in-law, for refuge, who is engaged in a war with his

own son. Pompey marches into Armenia against Tigranes,

who comes to him and surrenders himself. Weary of pursus

ing Mithridates to no purpose, lie returns into Syria, makes

himself master of that kingdoin, and puts an end to the empire

of the Seleucidæ. He marches back to Ponlis. Pbarnaces

makes the army revolt against his father Mithridates, who kills

himself. That prince's character. Pompey's expeditions into

Arabia and Judea, where he takes Jerusalem. After having

reduced all the cities of Pontus, he returns to Rome, and re-

ceives the honour of a triumph

90

Sect. I. Ptolemæus Auletes having been placed upon the throne

of Egypt in the room of Alexander, is declared the friend and
ally of the Roman people, by the influence of Cæsar and Pom-
pey, which he purchases at a very great price. In conse-

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quence, he loads his subjects with taxes. He is expelled the

tirone. The Alexandrians make his daughter Berenice queen.

He goes to Rome, anı!, by money, obtains the voices of the

hearls of the commonwealth for his re-establishment. He is

opposed by an oracle of the Sibyl's; notwithstanding which,

Gabinius sets him upon the throne by force of arms, where he

Temains ti!l his death. The famous Cleopatra, and her brother,

very young, succeed him

· 107

Sect. li. Pothinus and Achillas, ministers of the young king,

expel Cleopatra. She raises troops to re-establish herscif.

Pompey, after having been overthrown at Pharsalia, retires

into Egypt. He is assassinated there. Cæsar, who pursued

him, arrives at Alexandria, where he is informed of his death,

which he seems to lament. He endeavour's 10 reconcile the

brother and sister, and for that purpose sends for Cleopatra,

of whom he soon becomes enamoured. Great commocions

arise at Alexandria, and several battles are fought between the

F.gyptians and Casar's troops, wherein the latter have almost

always the advantage. The king having been drowned in Hye

ing after a sea-fight, all Egypt submits to Cæsar. He sets

Cleopatra, with her younger brother, upon the throne, and

returns to Rome

115

SECT. III. Cleopatra causes her younger brother to be put to

death, and reigns alone. The death of Julius Cæsar having

made way for the triumvirate formed between Antony, Le-

pidus, and young Cæsar, called also Octavius, Cleopatra de-

clares herself for the triumvirs. She goes to Antony at Tarsus,

gains an absolute ascendant over bim, and brings him with her

to Alexandria. Antony goes to Rome, where he espouses

Octavia. He abandons himself again tu Cleopatra, and after

some expeditions returns to Alexandria, which he enters in

triumph. He there celebrates the coronation of Cleopatra

and her children. Open rupture between Cæsar and Antony.

Tl'e latter repudiates Octavia. The two fleets put to sea.

Cleopatra determines to follow Antony. Battle of Actium.

Cleopatra Alies, and draws Antony after her. Cæsar's victory

is complete. He advances some time after against Alesana

dria, which makes no long resistance. Tragical death of An-

tony and Cleopatra. Egypt is reduced into a province of the

Roman empire

· 125

Conclusion of the Ancient llistory

• 147

The Chronological Table

• 151

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