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of Marius to Rome, when, after adorning the triumph of his conqueror (Jan. 1, B. C. 104), he was thrown into a dungeon, and there starved to death. — Abbreviated from Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Page 1-10. Falso, unjustly, without reason; is the emphatic word, and 13 therefore occupies one of the emphatic positions — the beginning of the sentence. 2. Aevi brevis, of short duration : aevi being a genitive of quality, characteristic, or description. A. & S. & 211, Rem. 6; H. 396, IV.; B. 757 ; A. 50, I. 2. 3. Regatur, it is governed :
: subjunctive to refer the statement to natura sua (principle of oratio obliqua). A. & S. 266, 3; H. 520, II.; B. 1255; A. 66, I. In translating the subjunctive mood, use those auxiliary verbs (when auxiliaries are necessary) which best convey the real meaning: those commonly used in grammars to define this mood are often inadequate to a correct rendering of it. Contra, on the contrary. Reputando, by reflecting = on reflection: the gerund as an ablative of
4. Invenias, you will find. This is a subjunctive of modest or cautious statement - a subjunct. to soften the assertion. A. & S. 260, II., Rem. 4; H. 485; B. 1177–8; A. 60,2; H. and B. call it a "potential subjunctive;” A., a “subjunctive of implied condition.” Some MSS. read invenios. Naturae, dative limiting deesse. A. & S. & 223, and Rem. 2; H. 384-5 (or 386, 2); B. 820; A. 50, I. 5. Hominum limits naturae. — Industriam deesse, that industry (or exertion) is wanting. Industriam is subject accusative of deesse, depending upon invenias. A. & S. 272; H. 551, I.; B. 1135; A. 52, VI. In translation, the subject of the infinitive is commonly preceded by the word that. 6. Mortalium
hominum: a favorite word with Sallust. 7. Via, by the path : instrumental ablative. 8. Pollens, abounding in strength; potens, efficient in the use of one's strength. M. Neque -- eget, and does not stand in need of fortune = and is not dependent on chance. Neque = netque, and is often best rendered and not. Fortuna here has reference to forte, in line 2. A. & S. & 250, (2); H. 419, III.; B. 907; A. 54, VI. 9. Artes, qualities. 10. Cuiquam, from any one. A. & S. 224, Rem. 2; H. 386, 2; B. 829; A. 51, V. Potest, sc. fortuna. Some MSS. read quae after quippe.
11-27. Captus, ensnared. 12. Pessum - est, it has been wholly given up.
The etymology of possum is uncertain. In general, pessum dari = to be sent to the bottom. ' “ The notion of its meaning 'cast under foot,' as if connected with pes, is derived, perhaps, from the apparent similitude of the words.” M. 13. Usus, have
Page 13 ing enjoyed. 14. Difluxere, have drifted away. 15. Suam— trans.
ferunt, the authors (of the blame) transfer each to circumstances their own blame. With auctores supply culpae. 16. Quod si, but if. Hominibus esset=men had, hominibus being a dative of the possessor. 17. Quanto studio must be rendered as is the real with which. Nihil profutura = things that will be of no profit : nihil, accus. of specification. A. & S. & 234, II. ; H. 380; B. 728; A. 52, IV. 18. Regerentur, and esset in line 17, are subjunctives, the latter in protăsis, the former in apodosis. A. & S. 261, 1; H. 510; B. 1267 ; A. 59, IV.2. 19. Eo magnitudinis, to such a pitch (or degree) of greatness. A. & S. & 212; H. 396, III. ; B. 771; A.50, 11. 4. 20. Ubi ut ibi, the preceding eo= ad talem gradum ; hence fierent is subjunctive of result. A. & S. & 262; H. 489; B. 1218; A. 65, I. Pro mortalibus, instead of mortal. So D. and M.; but An. renders,
as far as is consistent with mortal lot.” The former rendering seems to form a better contrast with gloria aeterni, immortal in
24. Nostra. Observe that while this word agrees only with studia, its force belongs equally to res. Alia, alia, etc. Render, pursue, some the nature of the body, others, etc. 25. Facies, beauty. Ad, in addition to. 26. Hujusco modi = hujuscemodi: gen. of description or quality. Brovi, 8c. tempore. 27. At, but, emphatically calls the attention to something different and opposed. Madvig, 437, c. Ingeni. Sallust always employs this contracted form of the genitive from nouns of the second declension in ius and ium. Egregia, i. e. e grege, chosen from the flock choice,
excellent, admirable, splendid. 14 1-17. Order : postremo ut (est) initium sic est finis bonorum (of
the good things = advantages) corporis et fortunae. 2. Orta = that have risen. 3. Senescunt. Cf., “The sun himself shall grow dim with age, and nature sink in years.” Cato's Soliloquy. Incorruptus, not "incorrupt,” but not subject to decay, imperishable. 4. Agit, acts upon, grapples with. 5. Quo, wherefore: strictly, ablat. of cause from the relative qui. 6. Per, in. 7. Aetatem agunt, pass their time, live. Ceterum properly signifies “as for the rest,” being an accus. of specification from ceterus, but is often used in the same sense as sed, but. 2. & 349. 8. Quo, than which. A. & S. & 256, 2; H. 417 ; B. 895; A. 54, V. Render aliud, nothing, and neque — neque, either - or. 10. Cum praesertim, especially as : hence sint, there are, subjunct. of cause. A. & S. § 263, 5; H. 517, I.; B. 1251; A. 63, III. 11. Artes animi, occupations for the mind. 12. Ex eis, sc. artibus animi. Magistratus, imperia, civic offices, military officer. 13. Minume, least of all, by no
Page The old form of the superlative of adverbs and adjectives, 14 in ume and umus, was passing into disuse in the time of Sallust, who, however, always uses it. A similar remark applies to the form cupiunda (for cupienda), as shown in gerunds, gerundives, and fut. pass. participles of many verbs of the third and fourth conjugations. 14. Tempestate, time. A. & S. 2 253; H. 426; B. 949; A. 55, I. 15. Quibus is fuit=who have had it (i. e, civic honor). But the reading of the MSS. varies much. 16. Eo, on that account : abl. of cause. 17. Parentes, lit. those who obey = subjects ; from pareo, not the noun parens.
18–38. Possis, corrigas, subjunct. of possibility (independently of quamquam). A. & S. § 260, II. (and Rem. 4); H. 485; B. 1177; A. 60, 1. 21. Neque quaerere, and not to gain. 22. Extremae — est= is extreme folly: dementiae being a predicato genitive after est. A. & S. $ 211, Rem. 8, (3); H. 401; B. 780; A. 50, I. 1. Quem=one, any one. 23. Potentiae, to the power; dat. limiting gratificari to surrender, to sacrifice. Observe that suam belongs equally to decus and libertatem, though it agrees only with the latter. 26. In primis (=imprimis), lit. among the first things in particular, particularly. Magno usui=of great advantage : dat. of the end. A. & S. & 227, and Rem. 2; H. 390, II. 2; B. 848 and 853; A. 51, VII. Memoria - gestarum, lit. the narration of things transacted = the narration of events. 27. Virtute, the excellence. 28. Praetereundum. The expression written in full is, praetereundum esse mihi I ought to pass over it. Per insolentiam, from vanity: to be connected with extollere. 29. Studium meum, my own profession. 30. Fore, sc. eos, that there will be those : eos, subject accus. of fore; depending on credo. A. & S. 8 272; H. 551, I.; B. 1135; A. 52, VI. 31. Re publica, public affairs; or, the affairs of the commonwealth. 32. Labori. A. & S. § 224; H. 386; B. 826; A. 51, V. Imponant, will apply: subjunct. of result. A. & S. § 264, 6; H. 501, I.; B. 1227; A. 65, IV. 2. Certe commonly means, at least; certo, certainly. Quibus, sc. ii imponent, those to whom, etc. 33. Salutare plebem. The candidate saluted and took by the hand (prensavit). the citizens whose votes he solicited. M. Conviviis, ablat. of means. When Crassus sued for the consulship, he feasted the whole Roman people at ten thousand tables. 34. Gratiam, popularity, favor with the people. Qui si, if these. The relative is often best rendered as a demonstrative. A. & S. & 206, (17); H. 453; B. 701; A. 48, IV. Reputaverint, will consider : fut. perf. indic. 35. Quibus, from qui, because it is used adjectively with temporibus. Adeptus
Page 14 sim, subjunct. of indirect question. A. & S. & 265; H. 525; B. 1182;
A. 67, 1. 36. Quales viri. Sallust here probably alludes to Cato, who about this time was an unsuccessful candidate for the praetorship. 37. Quae genera, etc. The allusion is to the foreigners, soldiers, and unworthy characters thrust into the senate by Antony. 38. Existumabunt. The old form, for existimabunt. Merito, on good grounds, though usually called an adverb, is properly an ablat.
of cause from meritum. 15 1-13. Rei. Dative of advantage, limiting the expression com
mõdum venturum (advantage will accrue). 2. Venturum, 8c. 8880, which is very often omitted (especially in Sallust) in the fut. inf. act., and in the perf. inf. pass. Q. Maximum, Quintus Fabius Maximus, surnamed Cunctator, the opponent of Hannibal in the second Punic War. 3. P. Scipionem, the elder Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, who defeated Hannibal in the battle of Zama. 4. Solitos, 8c. esse. Imagines. These images were figures with painted masks of wax, made to resemble the persons whom they represented. They were kept in the Atrium of the house, accompanied with tituli or names of distinction which the deceased had acquired. The masks were worn in funeral processions. Dict. Antiqq. Only the nobiles (i. e. those whose ancestors had filled a curule office, or who had themselves filled such an office) enjoyed the right of having such images (Jus imaginum). 5. Intnerentur, subjunct. in oratio obliqua (and probably would be subjunct. in oratio recta, after cum in narration; but the former principle takes precedence). A. & S. & 266, 2; H. 530, I., and 531; B. 1295, (2), and 1296, A, E; A. 67, I. 2, and II. Sibi, though properly a dative of advantage, is best rendered their. 6. Scilicet is contracted from scire licet (it is permitted to know) =one may well suppose ; and this resolved force accounts for the infin. with subject accus. (ceram illam, etc.) which follows. 8. Egregiis viris. See note on line 5 above, in fin. 9. Neque sedari, and is not diminished. 10. Adaequaverit, has equalled : subjunct. of time and purpose. A. & S. § 263, 3; H. 521, II.; B. 1241; A. 62, II. 11. Omnium, partitive gen. Eis moribus, amid these morals, i. e. the corrupt morals of the day; ablat, absolute. (Moribus may, however, be regarded as ablat. of quality.) Quin (i. e. qui + non) = qui non, who (does)
Divitiis, ablat. of specification (denoting in what respect). A. & S. 2250, 1; H. 429; B. 889; A. 54, I. 13. Contendat. A. & S. & 262, Rem. 10; H. 498 and 2; B. 1230; A. 65, II.
13–38. Homines novi, new men. A plebeian who first attained a curule office was the founder of his family's Nobilitas. Such a
Page person could have no imagines of his ancestors; and he could have 15 none of his own, for such imagines of a man were not made till after he was dead. He was called by the Romans novus homo." The term novus homo was never applied to a patrician. Dict. Antiqq. 14. Virtutem, their virtuous energy, manly energy. No. bilitatem antevenire, to outstrip the nobility. The descendants of plebeians who had filled curule magistracies formed a class called Nobiles, or men “known,” who were so called by way of distinction from “Ignobiles," or people who were not known. The external distinction of the Nobiles was the Jus Imaginum (Right of Images). Dict. Antiqq. See also note on Homines novi, above, and note on line 4, above. 15. Latrocinia, fraud, villany. 16. Imperia et honores, military commands and civic honors; military and civil offices. Proinde quasi, just as if. 18. Hujusce modi (= hujuscemodi), of this kind; gen. of description (quality). Sint, were (because were expresses a supposition in present time); subjunct. of condition with the conclusion omitted. A. S. 263, 2; H. 506; B. 1277; A. 61, 1. 19. Perinde - ut, just –
- us, exactly Sustinent, hold, fill. We should expect the subjunctive here, as eorum (= talium) refers to a class, and not to certain individuals. But Sallust frequently uses the subjunctive where other good writers of his time would have used the indicative. 20. Virtus, the merit. Altius, too deeply into this subject = too far. 21. Me morum piget. A. & S. $ 229, Rem. 6; H. 410, III.; B. 805; A. 50, IV. 3. Me piget=I am pained, vexed. 24. Primum, in the first place. 25. Victoria, abl. of description or quality. 26. Primum, for the first time. 26. Superbiae — est = opposition was made to the arrogance of the nobility. A literal and verbal rendering of this and similar passages would be devoid of elegance, and would besides be questionable English. With intransitive impersonal verbs in the passive voice, like itum est, either (a) a personal subject should be supplied, or (6) such an impersonal subject should be used as the sentiment suggests. Thus, obviam itum est, a going to meet took place = opposition was made. Superbiae, dat. limiting obviam. A. & S. & 228, 1; H. 392; B. 870; A. 51, I. 28. Eo vecordiae, to that degree of mad folly. See references to note on line 19, p. 13. Studiis civilibus, to the party spirit of the citizens : dative. 29. Bellum, etc., (only) war, etc. Faceret, put : the subjunctive of result is generally translated like the indicative. 30. Expediam. Some MSS. read expedio. 31. Pauca - repetam, I will review a few things (mentioned) above I will briefly revier. Cognoscendum, understanding (them). 32. In aperto = clear; as