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Page 76 1-39. Siti, ablat. 3. Cum — tum. See note on line 8, p. 18.

8. Jugi, from jugis. Cetera, sc. aqua. 9. Id, i. e. the scarcity of water. 10. Incultius agebat=lived more rudely, quae being used for qui= Afri. 13. Advorsus (=adversus), i. e.

to appease. 19. Arvo, lit. to ploughed land, i. e. to agriculture. Natum fuerat, had been produced, from the soil. 22. Pro considering. 23. Ex. ornat agrees with consul, line 15. 24. Agendum, to be driven along. The part. in dus here expresses purpose. A. & S. 274, Rem. 7, (a); H. 578, V. 31. Centurias refers to the infantry, tur. mas to the cavalry. 34. Cum, after. 39. Aqua modo, with water

only. 77 1-39. Visum, sc. est, seemed proper. 2. Proxuma, &c. nocte.

3. Tertia, &c. nocte. 5. Intervallo, ablat. of extent of space. Amplius does not influence the case of milium. A. & S. & 256, Rem. 6, (a); H. 417, 3; B. 900; A. 54, V. 10. Obsidere, probably from obsīdo. Cf. Cat. 45. 12. Res trepidae = their alarmed condition. 14. Coegere, compelled, is followed by the object-clause uti — facerent. 15. Incensum (est). 16. Venum dati (sunt). See note on line 29, p. 32. 17. Contra jus belli. Because the citizens had surrendered. 19. Aditu may be either a supine or a noun. (There seems to be good reason for regarding the supine in u as simply one of the different forms of verbal nouns, and as possessing little of the distinctive verbal character). 26. Ferre, sc. eum=Marium. 29. Nutu= by the will. 32. Igni, ablat. 34. Plerisque (most of thene), sc. locis. 35. Qua (as) (res) Capsensium (erat). Qua is ablat. of description or quality, by attraction from asperitate. 38. Inter ceteram, lit. in the midst of the rest of =in the midst of; there was a single inountain, the rest was plain.

39. Castello, dat. limiting patens. 78 5-39. Consilio, from deliberation: ablat. of cause. 8. Iter cas

tellanorum, the paih of the occupants of the castle, for going out and coming in. 12. Pro opere, in front of the works, i. é. the vinea. 13. Optumus quisque=all the bravest. A. & S. & 207, Rem. 35, (b); H. 458, 1; B. 1052; A. 17, V. 4. 17. Trahere, deliberated. 20. Aestuans = in great agitation, perplexity. 23. Proeliantibus, 8c. iis, from those fighting=from the combatants : ablat. gov. by a in composition. 25. Legundi= legendi. 26. Summum montis, instead of summum montem. 28. Faciundi (=faciendi), of undertaking. Vortit, diverts, from its previous purpose. 30. Modo =now; at first. Inflexa, aucta= bending, growing. 31. Cuncta gignentium, all (of) plants. Cujus = hy its. 35. Eadem, &c. via. 38. Ab - parte, in that direction. 39. Temptet, 8c. ut.

Page 1-38. Order: Marius misit (quosdam) ex (iis) praesentibus cum 79 Ligure cognitum ejus promissa. 5. Copia, the whole number. 10. Ex, in accordance with. 11. Pergit, 8c. Ligus. 14. Nisusque, and their clambering. 16. Gratia simul=both on account. Offen. 82, when struck against anything. 18. Vinciebat, 8c. eas=radices: the imperf. of completed action frequently performed. Quibus ut eis, and hence escenderent, subjunct. of purpose. 20. Insolentia, on account of the strangeness : ablat. of cause after timidos. 23. Potissumus, he first of all. 24. Eadem, vc. via. Digrediens, stepping aside. 31. Testudine acta succedere, a testudo having been formed he began to advance. A testudo (tortoise) is a body of soldiers arranged in a compact mass, each holding his shield over his head, and the shields of the entire body fitting so closely together as to form a protection against stones, arrows, darts, etc. Also, a military machine moving upon wheels and roofed over, used in besieging cities, under which the soldiers worked in undermining the walls, plying the battering-ram, etc. Dict. Antiqq. 37. Jugurthae=under Jugurtha, as their master. Genitive. 38. Rebus, ablat. of cause.

2–38. Signa canere, the siynals sounded. So R. J., but M. sup- 80 plies cornicines as the subject. 4. Uti quisque, etc., i. e. they fled back to the fortress in the order in which they were nearest to the wall. 7. Tantummodo sauciare, in their haste to secure the fortress. 13. Quos agrees with the plural idea implied in equitatu. Ex Latio, i. e, such Italian towns as had the Latin franchise (ex sociis Latini nominis). 15. Nos viri. A. & S. & 218; H. 410, I.; B. 793 ; A. 50, IV.1. Res, the subject. 16. Cultuque, and character, habits. 19. Persecutus, having treated. Parum libero ore, in a style not sufficiently free, i. e. from partiality. 24. Otio luxurioso, of voluptuous ease,

6 debauched in his intervals of ease.” 25. Remorata (est eum). De uxore, lit. in regard to a wife=in regard to his marriages. Plutarch says Sulla married five wives, and was besides a man of the most profligate morals. Potuit - consuli (sc. ab eo) =he might have acted more honorably: potuit is used impersonally. 27. Ad — negotia, for giving a false color to affair:=in the arts of dissimulation. 29. Felicissumo. Sulla assumed the title of Felix. 30. Victoriam, over the Marian party. 31. (Utrum) fortior, etc. 32. Quae fecerit =ea (=talia) quae fecerit (subjunct. of result). Pudeat, sc. me,=I should be ashamed. 37. Tempestatibus=time, but the idea seems to be “after a few trials” at the business. 33. Multis, dative. Per se, of his own accord, unasked. 1-39. Aes mutuum, borrowed money.

2. Magis —- laborare, he 81 13 Sal.

Page 81 strove rather for this. Illi= sibi. 5. Solet, sc. facere. 7. Mann,

in action. 14. Quem=that he. 15. Belli rationes, the arguments for war, the considerations, the reasons, for and against. 18. Expulsi (forent). 23. Victis, if conquered, supplies the protasis (condition), and=si victi essent. A. & S. & 261, Rem, 4; H. 503, III. 2; B. 1354. 24. Nullo is by most editors regarded as an old form of the dative (frequent in the early writers), but nullo impedimento may be ablat. of quality, and is so taken by R. J. 25. Contra, on the other hand. 26. Difficiliorem, more difficult, to attain, in case of victory; to mitigate, in case of defeat. 27. Simul, together=at one and the same time. 30. Signum, the watchword. 37. Latrocinio, a contest with robbers. 38. Equites - caedere refers to the enemy: An. says, to the Romans and Numidians. 39. Alios,

alios, multos, refer to the Romans. 82 1–38. Advorsos (=adversos) =-those opposed to them. 4. Et ob

ea. If the passage is not corrupt, the sense must be that the Romans were skilled in war because composed of veterans and recruits who had been associated with veterans. Some editors omit novique, others enclose it in brackets. The words are found in the best MSS. 5. Orbes, circular lines of battle, the advantage of which was that every part of such lines became a point of resistance. 9. Demisso animo, of downcast spirit=downcast in spirit. 13. Manu, with his own hand, wielding the sword. 17. Pro se, for them =in their favor. 18. Ex — rerum, in accordance with the condition of affairs: lit. out of a given number of things (which he might do). Trahit=forms. 20. Inter se = to one another. 25. Neque=non. 26. Pleno gradu, at a quick step. The ordinary step was at the rate of twenty miles in five hours; the quick step, twenty-four miles in the same time. Vegetius, cited by An. and M. 28. Longius, too far from the field of battle. 33. Pro like, as if. Ex, on account of, because while the Romans were in darkness, the enemy had made numerous camp-fires. 38. Per vigilias, during the watches, at the end of each, when the trumpet was sounded and the guard relieved in turn. M. translates “for

the watches." 83 6–38. Providere, to guard against. 7. Strepitu, by reason of the

uproar : ablat. of cause. 9. Vecordia is the subject. 17. Pariter atque =the same as if, just as if. 18. Quadrato agmine =with his army in column, in regular order of battle, in the form of a parallelogram, “arranged for defence in front, flanks, and rear, with the baggage in the middle.” 19, Dextumos, the extreme right. 21. Primos extremos, in the front and rear. 24. Imposito=had been placed Page over (the army). 27. Milites cogebat, he compelled the soldiers 83 (to act in the same manner). Neque — atque, nor otherwise than

=and just as, taking the same precautions. 28. Excubitum, supine. 31. Non — futurum, not 80 much from a distrust (that those things) would be done. We must supply ea as antecedent of quae and subject of futurum (esse), which ought then to be futura (esse). M. remarks that “ Aulus Gellius shows by many instances that the fut. in rus was used by old writers as an infinitive, without regard to concord in number and gender. This unusual construction has perplexed the transcribers, and occasioned great variations in the MSS.” R. J. suggests that Sallust wrote factum iri. 32. Militibus volentibus = willingly performed by the soldiers, lit. to the soldiers desiring it, in imitation, as previously remarked, of a well-known Greek construction. 35. Pudore, from their sense of shame. Malo = poena. 37. Consuetam habuisset=he had been accustomed to. 38. Nisi tamen, but yet.

1-37. Res, welfare. Pariter ac, just as well as (under). 2. Decore, 84 an adv. 4. Citi=at full speed. 6. Divorsi, in different directions. 11. Ex - venturos (esse), that out of all (the whole number) some in any case (aeque) would come in the rear of the enemy. Aeque, lit. equally, i. e. some part of the line, no matter what: ohne Unterschied in jedem Falle. R. J. Hostibus is dat. of disadvantage. 15. In loco, in position. 16. In manus, to close quarters. 20. Invadunt. A. & S. 2209, Rem. 12, (6); H. 461, 4; B. 645. 24. Loqui, sc. Latine. 29. Atrocitate, “at the dreadful nature.35. Adeptam, here passive. 37. Omnibus, i. e. who were near him.

5–39. Niti modo, &c. surgere, they merely made an effort (to 85 rise). 6. Qua, where far as. 8. Ea loci = that time. Also written postea loci. 10. Post-- quam, five days after, or, the fifth day after. Postquam is considered an adv. and diem accus. of duration of time (=post quinque dies). The expression admits of great variety of form. Z. 2 477. 13. Mitteret. Supply ut. 17. Aut - aut has the force of if or if. 19. Aetati, to his age, because Sulla was the more eloquent. Concessum (est)=the concession was made : or, Manlius yielded. 20. Rex Bocche. “In prose addresses the vocative is usually put after some other words in the proposition. Yet it may be prefixed with a kind of solemn dignity.” Madvig, $ 299, Obs. 3. 22. Neu=and - that -- not. 23. Miscondo, the gerund. 24. Nobis is probably dat. (of advantage), but may also be taken as ablat. 27. [Inopi) is found in good MSS., and agrees with populo. 29. Nulla, sc. amicitia, the

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Page 85 amicitia expressed being in the ablat. 30. In quo, i. e. the great

distance between them. Minumum, sc. est. 31. (Et in quo est) gratia par (as much favor), etc. Parentes (from pareo), subjects.

39. Illam, i. e. fortunam. 86 6-38. Pro, “in excuse for.” 8. Expulerit (subjunct. in oratio

obliqua), he had expelled, might, with equal propriety, have been
expulisset. Expulerit conforms to the form of facit (a present),
expulisset would conform to its meaning (as an historical present).
13. Copia, the opportunity, of sending ambassadors. 30. Sine
decore, i. e. “ without the ensigns of their office as ambassadors.”
32. Pro praetore = 18 commander, "as acting commander-in-chief."
In the earliest times, the title of the chief magistrates was not
consules, but praetores; characterizing them as the commanders
of the armies of the republic, or as the officers who stand at the
head of the state. Dict. Antiqq. See also note on line 3, P.
34. Avaritiae Romanorum, of the Romans for avarice. Both gen-
itives limit famam. 36. Largitio, i. e. with a view to bringing
over to one's wishes the parties receiving the largess. 37. Nisi -
volens (unless equally desiring it), i.e. who did not equally desire
to be so, from a kindly and generous spirit. 38. In=in the light

of, as the result of. 87 3–34. Benevolentiae, (proof) of his good will: poss. pred. gen.

So R. J.; M. makes it dative, implying object or intention, and translates, “either advantageous to the Romans, or likely to conciliate their favor.” 7. Quo intenderat (=to which he had applied himself) is to be explained by an ellipsis of animum, to which he had directed his mind. 15. Scilicet, of course, to be sure. 16. In advorsa=the opposite. 20. Cum — tum maxume=both and especially. 23. Deprecati sunt, " they urged in excuse= deprecandi causa dixere. 26. Delicti gratiam, pardon for his fault. 30. Consuleretur=measures might be taken: impersonally, and subjunct. of result, following cujus ut ejus. 32. Iere=ivere:

iverunt. 34. Neque - atque, and no le88 with these than. 88 1-39. Vero, than the truth, than they really were. 2. Intendere

=they stood on the alert. M. takes it in the sense
their weapons,” which, however, is implied in arma - temptare.
3. Timor, 8c. erat eis; with the latter word victoribus agrees.
8. Praesidio, dat. of the end or purpose. 11. Incerto, with an
uneasy, perplexed. 15. Totiens=toties. 18. Quam – parceret,
than (he would) be sparing of them, betrayed (as he regarded them)
by a shameful flight to a life uncertain and perhaps destined after a
short time to perish by disense, 27. Antę in advance of. 30. Manu

“ to prepare

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