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Page vindicandum (esse), that punishment should be inflicted immediately. 88 Manu here seems=brevi manu=immediately. M. translates it “with arms." Apud illum in illo

in his case.

36. Quanto tanto - the - the. 39. Nudum — caecum=the unprotected and blind part of: the back.

1–35. Faceret. The subjunct. refers the thought to Sulla. A. & S. 89 2 266, 3; H. 520, II.; B. 1255; A. 66, I. 5. Videlicet, no doubt. 8. Suo, i. e. Volux's. Credere, sc. se. 19. Orator, as his ambassudor = legatus. 23. Multa bona, the many good qualities. 25. Ante, previous, with the force of an adj. 28. Consulta - habere=that he had kept unbroken (in violate) all the matters deliberated upon with him. 30. Quo - gereretur, i. e. the presence of the ambassador would enable them more successfully to deceive Jugurtha; for Bocchus and Sulla could make their own secret arrangements notwithstanding. To have dismissed Jugurtha’s representative would have been to arouse Jugurtha's suspicions. Hence nam -. nequivisse, it had been impossible otherwise, etc. Many editors however regard the passage as corrupt. 32. Magis — fide, with more than Punic (i. e. bad) faith. “A proverbial expression applied to the Moors and Numidians as well as to the actual Carthaginians.” M. 34. Attinuisse, had detained - had amused. 35. (Utrum) Jugurtham, etc.

1–39. Congressi (sunt), i. e. Sulla and Bocchus. 3. (Utrum) 90 pacem, etc. Agitaturus foret (=agitaturus esset), he meant (intended) to pursue. 4. Decumum=decimum. 10. Sanctus upright. Ex sententia, lit. to the mind=acceptable. 14. Gratiam deberem, I should owe a favor=I should be under obligation. Mehercule. See note on line 31, p. 73. 16. Id imminutum (esse). 17. Fuerit mihi, let it have been mine, grant that it has been mine: subjunct. of concession. A. & S. & 260, II., Rem. 3; H. 516, II., and 1; B. 1282; A. 60, 4. 19. Licet, sc. tibi,

you may. 22. Gra. tiam, that the favor. Putaveris, think, noli putare: subjunct. of request, entreaty. 30. Voltis the later vultis. 36. Multis, 8c. verbis, =at large. 39. Non-habituros (esse), would not regard (18 a favor.

1-38. Illorum sua, them -- himself. A. & S. & 219 and Rem. 1 91 and 2; H. 406, III. and 408, 1, 2); B. 809; A. 50, IV. 4. Retulisse, to have concerned. 9. Quis =quibus. 17. Condicionibus poni, (to be) closed on conditions (and not on unconditional surrender). 20. Cuncta, accus., as the object of a verb of teaching. 24. Frustra, because not ratified by the senate. 25. Ambobus consultum (esse). = that the interests of both should be consulted.

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Page 91 30. Neque et non, and that not. 35. Saepe ipsao=often even.

33. Habere, he treated them. 92 4-25. Voltu=vultu. 5. Scilicet, of course, one may be sure."

Tacente ipso has the force of a conditional clause," although he himself was silent.” 6. Patefecisse depends on dicitur. 10. Quaestore, i.e. Sulla. 11. Insidiantibus, dat. limiting facillumum, but may be rendered by those lying in wait. 16. Traditur, in B. C. 106, the year in which both Cicero and Pompey were born. 17. Per, during. 19. Quo metu = through fear of which. Illimque, and from that time: the happy conjecture of Dietsch. The MSS. and editors generally read illique. 20. Habuero=have held, been convinced. 22. Certari =that a contest was carried on: impersonally. 23. Jugurtham. “It is said that when he was led before the car of the conqueror, he lost his senses. After the triumph, he was thrown into prison, where, while they were in haste to strip him, some tore his robe off his back, and others, catching eagerly at his pendants, pulled off the tips of his ears along with them. When he was thrust down naked into the dungeon, all confused, he said with a frantic smile, ‘Heavens! how cold is this bath of yours.' There, having struggled for six days with extreme hunger, and to the last hour laboring for the preseravtion of life, he came to such an end as his crimes deserved." Plutarch, quoted by An. 25. Kalendis. B. C. 104.

NOTES

TO THE

CONSPIRACY OF CATILINE.

INTRODUCTION.

The subject of the Catilina or Bellum Catilinarium is the conspiracy of Lucius Sergius Catilina against the city and government of Rome, B. C. 63. The conspiracy embraced the murder of many distinguished Roman citizens, the burning of Rome, the proscription of persons and the confiscation of property, and, generally, the entire subversion of the existing order of things, with Catiline and his adherents at the head of affairs.

The life of the great conspirator was stained with the darkest crimes. In addition to other murders, he killed, with his own hand, his brother-in-law, and, according to some authorities, his brother also; while a well-grounded suspicion pointed to him as the murderer of his wife and son. His vicious nature seemed to find a congenial sphere in deeds of violence, and in urging on others, particularly the young, to crime.

Catiline, though a monster of wickedness, possessed great natural abilities, and filled several important offices : he had been qua in the army of Sulla; he was praetor in Rome in B. C. 68; propraetor of Africa in the following year; and even while engaged in maturing his conspiracy, was twice a candidate for the consulship. His great hope had been, as the first magistrate of the commonwealth, to use the arm of the government itself to execute his nefarious designs, and as both his applications for the consulship terminated unsuccessfully, he now resolved to throw off restraint and proceed to open violence. The conspiracy was matured toward the close of B. C. 63, and was an extensive one, embracing no less than eleven senators, four members of the equestrian order, besides many men of rank and influence in the provinces. Magazines of arms were secretly formed, and troops were levied in various parts of Italy, especially in the neighborhood of Faesulae,

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under the direction of Caius Manlius, one of the veteran centurions of Sulla ; while agents were despatched to different parts of Italy to organize a general revolt of the slave population.

Fortunately for Rome, Cicero was one of the consuls for the year, and through Fulvia, mistress of Curius, one of the conspirators, was promptly informed of all their proceedings. The senate declared Catiline and Manlius public enemies; directed the consuls to hold a levy with all speed; decreed that Antonius, Cicero's colleague in the consulship, should go forth to the war, and that Cicero should remain to guard the city.

Perceiving that his designs were now well known and that the consular army was moving upon him, Catiline led his forces, amounting to two legions, into the neighborhood of Pistoria, with the intention of crossing the Apennines and escaping into Gaul. But the disposition of the consular forces made escape impossible, and he therefore determined to trust to the hazard of an engagement. “The rebels fought with the fury of despair, and long kept at bay the veterans by whom they were assailed. Catiline, in this his last field, pobly discharged the duties of a skilful general and a gallant soldier; his eye and his hand were everywhere; he brought up columns to support those who were most hotly pressed; withdrew the wounded and weary, and supplied their plaoe with the sound and fresh; flew from rank to rank encouraging the combatants, and strove by ropeated feats of daring valor to turn the fortune of the day. But at length, perceiving that all was lost, he charged headlong where the foes were thickest, and fell sword in hand, fighting with resolute courage, worthy of a better cause and a better

His body was found, after the struggle was over, far in advance of his own ranks, in the midst of a heap of his enemies; he was yet breathing, and his features in the agonies of death still wore their habitual expression of reckless daring. His adherents, to the number of three thousand, imitated the example of their leader. Eaoh perished at his post, and not one free-born citizen was taken alive, either in the fight or in the pursuit. But the fortune of Rome prevailed, the gambler was ruined, and the state saved.” - Smith's Dict, of Greek and Roman Biography and Myth

ology. Page 93 1-14. Homines, subject acous. of niti, following the impersonal

verb decet. A. & S. & 239 and 2 272; H. 375 (or 545) and 551, I.; B. 1135 and 1136; A. 52, VI. In translating, the subject accus. is generally preceded by the conjunction that; sometimes, as here, it

man.

Page is best to omit it. Translate, all men to strive (endeavor). In 93 like manner sese is subject accus. of praestare, but it is best to omit it in translating. 2. Animalibus, dat. limiting the compound prae-stare, the prep. prae retaining its force in the compound (lit. to stand before). A. & S. 224, and Note 1; H. 386; B. 826 and 827; A. 51, V. Summa ope, with all their power. Ne transeant, that they should not pass through in English idiom, not to pass through. Transeant, subjunct. of (negative) purpose after ne= that not. A. & S. & 262, and Rem. 5; H. 489 and 491; B. 1205–07; A. 64, I. Vitam is governed by trans in composition. 3. Silentio, i.e. doing nothing that merits the commendation of our fellowmen: ablat. of manner. 4. Ventri =to the animal appetites. Obedientia, an adj. 5. Imperio, the empire, the directing power. A. & S. 245, I.; H. 419, I.; B. 880; A.54, III. 6. Alterum, alterum, the one -- the other. 7. Quo, on which account, wherefore : ablat. of cause. 8. Ingeni=ingenii. Sallust always employs this contracted form of the genitive in -ii. Virium, of the bodily powers. 11. Formae, of beauty. 12. Habetur, is possessed = ir a possession. The meaning "is esteemedseems quite admissible. 13. Mortales = homines. Vine, i. e. vi, and ne interrogative. Virtute, energy, vigor. 14. Procederet, succeeded : subjunct. of indirect question. A. & S. $ 265 ; H. 525; B. 1182 ; A. 67, I. 1. In translating the subjunctive mood, use those auxiliary verbs (when such are needed) which best convey the real meaning. Very frequently the subjunctive requires to be rendered by the indicative. A. & S. & 260, I.; H. 486, III. 2; A. 24, I.

15–26. Incipias, you begin : subjunct. of time and purpose. A. & S. & 263, 3; H. 521, II.; B. 1241; A. 62, II. Consulto (lit. of its being deliberated), of deliberation : a perf. part. used as a noun in the ablat. limiting opus. A. & S. & 243, and Rem. 1 (a); H. 419, V. 3, 1); B. 923, 926; A. 54, VII. Mature facto (of its being done quickly), of early action. 'T were well it were done quickly.” 16. Utrumque, 8c. est. 17. Auxilio. A. & S. & 250, 2, (2); H. 419, III.; B. 907; A. 54, VI. 18. Igitur, then ; with a resumptive rather than an illative force. Initio, ablat. of time when. 19. Divorsi, not “ different” but (lit. “turned in different directions ") pursuing different courses. Pars — alii, some

others : in partitive apposition with reges. 21. Sua, his own affairs, what each one had. Cuique =him. 22. Cyrus, the elder. 24. Lubidinem=the later form libidinem. Habere, to regard, consider. 25. Maxumam=the later form maximam. 26. Periculo, by proof, experiment. Compertum est=the discovery was made :

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