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Page 93 impersonally, i. e. without an expressed subject, the subject and

verb being apparently contained together in a single form. In such cases it is often best to form a subject out of the substantive iden

(discovery, disclosure, etc.) implied in the verb. 94 1-17. Plurumum posse =was the most powerful. Quod si = but if. 2. Virtus, energy. Ita ut

3. Valeret – haberent, subjunct. of condition (in protăsis and apodosis). A. & S. 261, 1; H. 502–4; B. 1267; A. 59, IV. 2. 4. Aliud — ferri = one thing carried in one direction, another in another ; a thought whose explanation is found in the following clause. 6. Artibus, means, practices, qualities. 7. Pro, in place of. 8. Invasere, have made inroads. 10. Optumum quemque = the best, the most deserving. A. & S. & 207, Rem. 35 (6); H. 458, 1; B. 1052; A. 17, V. 4. 11. Quae arant. An odd expression ; meaning the ploughing that men do. What Sallust here gains in conciseness he loses in clearness. Virtuti, energy. 13. Sicuti peregrinantes, i. e. merely as spectators, without taking part in the real duties of Jife, or promoting the welfare of their fellow-men, 14. Quibus – voluptati. A. & S. 2 227; H. 390; B. 848 ; A. 51, VII. 16. Jux. ta, equally, i. e. I make no account of either. 17. Siletur=silence is maintained. See note on compertum est, line 26, p. 93.

17–39. Verum enimvero =yes truly, in truth. 18. Negotio, ablat. of cause. 19. Artis, profession, talent. 20. Aliud alii iter, one road to one, another to another. 23. Bene dicere, to speak well, to be gifted as an orator : absolutely. Pace, ablat. of time when. 24. Clarum agrees with the implied subject (se, one) of fieri. 25. Mihi limits videtur. 27. In primis (=imprimis), especially. 28. Res gestas =history, historical events. Dictis, by the words, manner of expression, style: ablative. The facts must be fairly and fully represented. 29. Quae delicta ea delicta quae. 30. Reprehenderis, perf. subjunct. (of possibility). Dicta (esse). 31. Virtute – gloria, the merit and the renown. Memores, you make mention. Subjunct. of condition, ubi being here nearly the same as si. “A clause introduced by a relative conjunction (when, since, and the like), may be considered as equivalent to a conditional clause.” A. & S. & 261; Rem. 2; H. 513; A. 59, II. ' 32. Factu, to do. The supine in u may be used either actively or passively. Aequo animo = with composure, i. e. he does not question them. 33. Supra ea = beyond that, e. what he can do himself. Veluti ficta, like things (really or professedly) fictitious. 35. Ibique, i.e. in my political career. Page 37. Quae = these things. A. & S. & 206, (17); H. 453; B. 701; A. 94 21, II. 39. Artium, practices, limits insolens. A. & $. § 213 ; H. 399; B. 765; A. 50, III. 3.

1-20. Corrupta agrees with aetas. Cum, although ; hence 95 followed by concessive subjunct. dissentirem. A. & S. & 263, 5; H. 518, I.; B. 1282; A. 61, 2. 2. Nihilo minus = nevertheless, nihilo being ablat. of specification. 3. Quae ceteros, &c. vexabat. Fama - invidia, on account of the abuse and envy (to which it gave rise) : ablat. of cause. The reading of the MSS. is various. 6. Requievit, found rest, and had leisure for reflection. Mihi, dat. of the agent after habendam (esse). A re publica,

from public affairs, public life. 8. Bonum otium, my fair leisure. 9. Colendo, a gerund in the dat. governed by intentum (which agrees with me understood). Servilibus officiis. The sentiment here expressed shows the degeneracy and luxury to which the Romans were tending. The earlier Romans delighted to remember that Cincinnatus, when invested with the dictatorship, was guiding the plough. 10. Studio, pursuit. 12. Carptim, in detached portions. “From this passage of Sallust, it appears that the history of Catiline's conspiracy was his first literary production." An. Ut quaeque, as they severally, according as each. 13. Eo, on this account, for this reason : ablat. of cause. 14. Partibus, the political parties ; or, the party spirit. 17. In primis (=imprimis), particularly, especially. 18. Novitate, on account of the strangene88, unusual nature . ablat. of cause. Cujus=this, of this. 19. Moribus, character. Prius and quam, though often written priusquam, are really separate words (prius 800ner, quam = than). 20. Faciam, I make : subjunct. A. & S. § 263, 3; H. 521, II.; B. 1241; A. 62, II.

21-39. Genere = family. A. & S. & 246; H. 425; B. 918; A. 54, VIII.

Vi, ablat. of quality. A. & S. & 211; Rem. 6; H. 428; B. 888; A.54, II. 24. Grata. In what gender and number ? A. & S. 8 205; Rem. 2, (2); H. 439, 2, 3); B. 654; A. 47, II. (2). Ibique =et in eis, and in these. 26. Supra

27. Cujus lubet (libet) =cujuslibet, from quilibet. 28. Alieni, of (for) what belonged to others. Sui, of what was his own. From suus. 29. Satis. sc. ei erat he had. 30. Vastus, his insatiable, prodigious. 31. Luci Lucii. 32. Rei - capiundae, of seizing the govern

33. Adsequeretur, indirect question. Dum, provided ; hence pararet, subjunct. of condition. A. & S. 263, 2 ; H. 503, I.; B. 1259, in fin.; A. 61, 3. 34. Quioquam -- habebat, did he

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Page 95 at all regard, lit. did he have anything of concern. 35. In dies,

from day to day. 36. Rei familiaris = of property. Quae utraque, both of which. 37. Artibus, means. 39. Divorsa inter

se, inconsistent with one another, contrary the one to the other. 96 1-16. Res, the subject. 2. Tempus, the occasion. Supra repe

tere, to review, to take a review, to trace from a higher source.” .

M. 3. Paucis, sc. verbis, in a few words = briefly. 4. Habuerint, they managed, conducted. Indirect question. 5. Ut, how, hence followed by facta sit (became), subjunct. of indirect question. Order : et ut paulatim immutata facta sit pessuma ac flagitiosissuma ex (=from being) pulcherrumaX 9. Sedibus, abodes, homes. 11. Solutum, unrestrained. 12. Dispari genere, of dissimilar origin. 13. Alius – viventes, living, one in one way, another in another: living in different ways. 14. Quam, how. 15. Res eorum, their state. 16. Sicuti — habentur =

=a: is the case generally with human affairs, lit. as most of human affairs are possessed (i. e. subject to the envy of those less prosperous).

18–39. Temptare =temptabat (=tentabat); esse=erant: the historical infinitive. A. & S. $ 209; Rem. 5, and Note; H. 6 545, 1; B. 1137 ; A. 49, III. 19. Auxilio, a help, dat. of the end

or purpose, the dat. of the person illis, being understood. A. & 8. § 227 and Rem. 2; H. 390, and 2 ; B. 848 and 853 ; A. 51, VII. 20. Aberant, kept aloof. 21. Alius alium =one another. Hostibus, dat. limiting obviam. A. & S. 228, 1; H. 392, II.; B. 870; A. 51, I. 22. Parentes may mean either parents or subjects (from pareo). The former sense seems better adapted to the context, as referring to the earlier days of the republic. 24. Portabant. Notice the force of the tense — the imperfect of completed actions repeatedly performed. 26. Legitumum, regulated (restricted) by law, not absolute. 29. Curae similitudine, by reason of the similarity of their care, i. e. to that of a father for his family. 31. Conservandae libertatis = instrumental in preserving liberty. Grammarians explain this construction differently. Some supply causa or negotium. “ The gerund and gerundive after the verb sum are sometimes found in the genitive denoting a tendency or purpose, with no noun or adjective on which they can depend." A. & S. & 275, III.(5); H. 563, 5; B. 1330; A. 73, II. 33. Binos, two, in twos, two consuls for each year. Notice the force of the distributive. 34. Posse. Its subject is animum. X36. Se extollere, to (endeavor to) raise himself to distinction. 37. In promptu 7 habere, to display publicly, openly. 38. Regibus, dat. 39. Ali. ena virtus, merit in others.

Page 1-39. Memoratu, to relate. Adepta, here passively. 2. Brevi, 97 8c. tempore. 3. Patiens, capable of enduring. 6. Habebant. Notice the change in the number of the verb. Such freedom, / though sanctioned by the usage of good Latin authors, is not allowable in English. 10. So is subject accus. of ferire, etc., to give prominence to the subject, “ that he before others might strike down.” Its use after properare is upusual. 12. Eas, eam, here agree with the predicate instead of the antecedent. 17. Parva manu, with a small force. 18. Ni, if -- not. X 21. Ea, she, i. e. fortuna. Ex, according to. 23. Satis, quite. 24. Aliquanto, though usually considered an adverb in this and similar places, is properly ablat. of degree of difference (measure of excess). A. & S. & 256, Rem. 16, and (2); H. 418; B. 929–30; A. 54, V. 24. Feruntur, they are reported. 29. Populo, etc. Translate, the Roman people never had, etc. 30. Copia, opportunity, advantage; = excellent writers. Prudentissumus quisque=all the prudent, thoughtful, wise. A. & S. 207, Rem. 35, (b); H. 458, 1; B. 1052; A. 17, V.4. So optumus quisque (=all the best men), line 32.736. Jus bonumque, justice and probity, right and good. 39. De virtute. Observe how the preposition gives definiteness and prominence to the idea (which might have been expressed, though more faintly, by the ablat, alone).

q 1-38. Su; pliciis, the worship. The word literally means a kneel- 98 ing down, either (1) in supplication, or (2) to receive punishment. 5. Vindicatum est=punishment was inflicted. 8. Loco, ablat. of separation depending on cedere. A preposition (de, ex) is often expressed. 10. Accepta injuria has the force of a condition (if an injury were received).X12. Crevit, in English idiom, has the force of the pluperf. (after ubi). A. & S. $ 259, Rem. 1, (d); B. 1094; A. 57, III. 15. Ab stirpe = utterly (lit. from the root). 16. Saevire, to grow cruel. 18. Optandae agrees with divitiae, the nearest

19. Aliis, dat. of the agent. 20. Ea, these, the two things 10 just mentioned. 22. Artes, qualities. 25. Falsos, deceitful, insin

Aliud - aliud, one thing - another thing. 27. Ex re, in accordance with the actual facts (i. e. of their real value or the contrary). 28. Voltum - bonum, a good face than an honest heart. Voltum ==the later vultum. Bonum belongs equally to voltum and ingenium (=what is inborn, from in + genitum). 29. Vindi. cari = they were punished. 30. Quasi, like. Invasit, came on, rushed in. 31. Ex=from being:X34. Propius virtutem, nearer to virtue. Propius and proxime, from prope, are also used as prepositions with the accusative.” Mg. 8 172, Obs. 4; A. & S. & 238,

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Page 98 1; H. 437, 1; B. 867; A. 56, II. 1. 36. Vera via, by the true path,

=bonis artibus, and hence ablat. of means. 37. Huic. What is the rule for the use of ille and hic in contrasts ? A. & S. & 207, Rem. 23, (a); H. 450, 1 and 2; B. 1029; A. 20, II. 38. Studium

habet = implies the desire. 99 1-38. Malis, mischievous. 2. Copia, ablat. Recepta = having

wrested, from the party of Marius. 4. Initiis, ablat. absolute. 5. Rapero, trahere, began to rob, to plunder. 8. Huc accedebat, to this there was added. 9. Fidum, sc. eum=exercitum. 13. Amare, to be licentiou8. 15. Delubra, the temples, shrines. In what respects delubrum differed from templum is now not known. Profana, profane, in the sense in which “profane history” differs from “sacred history.” 17. Nihil — fecere =left nothing remaining to the conquered, lit. made nothing of remainder, reliqui being a par

18. Fatigant, shake, undermine. Ne, much less, nedum. A. & S. & 262, Rem. 8, Note 5. 19. Corruptis moribus, with their corrupt habits : ablat. of quality. Victoriae, dat. limit. ing temperarent, would make a moderate use of. A. & S. $ 262, Note 5; H. 493, 4. 21. Hebescere, to lose its lustre. 22. Innocentia, disinterestedness, i. e. “they gave him who led a virtuous life no credit for sincerity, but supposed him to be actuated by a spirit of malevolence and opposition.” An. 25. Consumere, they wasted. Sua - pendere : what they had they reckoned of little account. Parvi, gen. of degree of value. A. & S. § 214; H. 402, III. 1; B.799 ; A. 54, IX. Aliena=what belonged to others. 27. Nihil — habere, they treated without concern or restraint (in the violation of them). Pensi and moderati are participles used as nouns in the partitive gen. Operao — est=- it is worth while. 32. Gloria, with their renown. Victis, dat. rendered from. So sociis, line 34: 36. Proinde quasi, as if indeed. 38. Memorem, should I relate : subjunct. in a question of appeal. A. & S. & 260, Rem. 5; H. 486,

II.; B. 1180; A. 60, 3. 100 1–38. Subvorsos (= subversos) montes, etc., referring particu

larly to Lucullus,“ into whose fish-ponds at Bauli sea-water was admitted by a dyke cut through a hill.” M. 2. Quas, i. e. eas divitias quas., 5. Cultus, luxury, refinement in sensual arts. The **** indicate the omission of eight words, whose suppression the purer propriety of our age demands. 6. Terra marique. Prep. in omitted. A. & S. & 254, Rem. 2, (6); H. 422, 1, 1); B. 937, 1; A. 55, III. 5. 8. Luxu, by luxurious indulgence. 11. Haud facile carebat, did not easily forego. 12. Eo, therefore, on that account: ablat. of cause. 15. Id quod=which, and refers to the following clause.

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