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Catiline's mouth perhaps.-The earliest Sergius that we hear of was decemvir in 305 (449) Liv. 3. 35.11. A L. Sergius Fidenas was consul for the third time in 316, and consular tribune in 321. A C. Sergius was thrice consular tribune between 367 and 374. The most distinguished however was a M. Sergius Silus who is highly eulogized by Pliny H. N. 7. 29 M. Sergio ut quidem arbitror nemo quenquam hominem iure praetulerit, licet pronepos Catilina gratiam nomini deroget. He lost his right hand in the Second Punic War, but went on fighting with an iron substitute.

inquilinus civis] inq. is used here only as an adj. Cp. J. 12. 5 mulieris ancillae, The construction does not occur in Caesar, and is rare in Cicero, S. may have borrowed it from Cato, who has ventus auster, lapides silices etc. As to the justice of the taunt, Arpinum received civitas in 451 (303), and ius suffragii in 566 (188). In this chapter S. misplaces one utterance of Catiline's (see next note), and perhaps he is wrong about this too. Asconius says (p. 84) Huic orationi (in tog. cand.) Ciceronis et Catilina et Antonius contumeliose responderunt, quod solum poterant, invecti in novitatem eius, and, though Cat. may have repeated himself, Cic. declares (Or. 37. 129) that Cat. was silent and did not attempt to answer this speech-the first of the invectives, nor does Cic. in the second speech make any allusion to any such taunt.

9. quoniam quidem, e. q. s.] The remark however was made a few days before the Comitia, and to Cato. Cic. p. Mur. 25. 51 praesertim cum idem ille in eodem ordine paucis diebus ante Catoni... iudicium minitanti ac denuncianti respondisset, si quod esset in suas fortunas incendium excitatum, id se non aqua sed ruina restíncturum. (Florus 4. 1. 7 follows S., and Val. Max. 9. 11. 3 gives it thus L. vero Catilina in senatu, M. Cicerone incendium ab ipso excitatum dicente; Sentio, inquit, et quidem illud si aqua non potuero, ruina exstinguam.)

Ch. 32, 1. ex curia] not necessarily the Curia Hostilia, but any place in which the senate might meet. The senate met on this occasion in the temple of Juppiter Stator. Cic. in Cat. 1. 13. 33, and ad init. hic munitissimus habendi senatus locus.

neque insidiae consuli procedebant] a curious construction! The following passages are quoted as parallel: (a) below, § 2 insidias consuli maturent, (b) J. 35. 4 insidiatores Massivae paret, (c) C. 40. 2 requirere coepit, quem exitum tantis malis sperarent, (d) C. 40. 3 miseriis suis remedium mortem expectare, In all five passages Gründel takes the datives (?) to be

dependent on the noun. Jacobs-Wirz understands the tantis malis in (c) to be abl. abs., and in the other passages takes the dat. to be dependent on the phrase insidiae procedebant (etc.), though in the present instance the consuli goes more closely with insidiae than with procedebant. Dietsch thinks this passage stands quite alone, and must be emended, for insidiae is not a verbal noun as traditio responsio obtemperatio with which a dative is found constructed in Cic., and the dative with procedere is never a dat. incommodi. He supposes therefore, following Gerlach, that intentae has fallen out after consuli (or else would strike out consuli). Is not however the explanation of Jacobs, Kritz and others the right one? For this dative cp. Caes. B. G. 5.20 imperat frumentum exercitui. Cic. traditio alteri: obtemperatio scriptis legibus: intercessorem dictaturae: sibi ipsi responsio. Liv. exprobatio cuiquam: remedium timori: Vulcano votum, etc. (Kühnast, p. 130). Tac. suffugium hiemi: subsidium rei familiari: paci firmator, etc. (Dräger, p. 25).

multa antecapere] Wirz takes multa to be a gloss to explain intempesta below. Kritz, who also strikes it out, asks why not all?'; but it must mean 'many things besides what he had already'.

cum paucis] only a few'. Cic. in Cat. 1. 9. 24 quamquam quid ego te invitem, a quo iam sciam esse praemissos, qui tibi ad Forum Aurelium praestolarentur armati? id. 2. 2. 4 moleste fero quod ex urbe parum comitatus exierit.

2. mandat quibus rebus possent opes factionis confirment] For the mixture of tense after an historical present cp. Cic. Verr. 2. 23. 55 rogant eum, ut sibi id, quod ab ipsis abisset pecuniae, curet. Caes. B. G. 1. 8 castella communit, quo facilius si se invito transire conarentur, prohibere possit. The clause which is logically nearer to the principal, in such a case, is the one to be put into the present. Sallust however writes J. 46. 4 persuadet ut Iugurtham maxime vivom, sin id parum procedat, necatum sibi traderent (where Cicero would have put procederet-tradant. Dräger, H. S. 1. 236).— Hoffmann agrees with Dietsch that possint should be read here.

ex suo numero]= |=ex numero suorum. Cp. J. 35. 6 igitur unus ex eo numero, qui...parati erant.

Ch. 33, 1. quo] without a comparative is common in S. cp. 11. 5, 14. 2, 38. 3, etc.: and for the variation quo...uti cp. 34. 2 non quo...sed uti, 58. 3.

corpora nostra...qui] J. 85. 28 vostra consilia accusantur, qui mihi summum honorem et maxumum negotium inpo


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feneratorum] The XII Tables fixed the highest rate of interest at 10 per cent. per annum. Afterwards it was reduced by half: cp. Tac, A. 6. 16. For the provinces there seems to have been not even a legal limit.

plerique patriae sed omnes fama atque fortunis expertes sumus] The old-fashioned construction of expers with the ablative, which Plautus uses, is employed to give variety: cp. J, 74. 3 Romani signorum et armorum aliquanto numero, hostium paucorum potiti. J. 84. 2 plerosque militiae paucos fama cognitos. Or. Lep. 17 praedam venum aut dono datam. The use of sed is questionable, in C. 61. 3 (pauci...paulo divorsius sed omnes tamen advorsis volneribus conciderant), the tamen makes all the difference. Weinhold's patria sede, or better Eussner's independent patriae sedis would mend the passage: cp. Or. Lep. 12 plebis innoxiae patrias sedes occupavere pauci satellites mercedem scelerum.

liberum corpus] The severity of the XII Tables, which (if Gellius 20. 1. 18 rightly understands the words) allowed the creditor even more than the exact 'pound of flesh', was mitigated by the lex Poetelia et Papiria 428 (326). Liv. 8, 28. 8 ne quis... in compedibus...teneretur; pecuniae creditae bona debitoris, non corpus obnoxium esset.

praetoris] a praetor was murdered by usurers 665 (89) because he ventured secundum debitores ius dicere,

2. vostrum] Gellius 20. 6. 14 'inportunissime' inquit (Apollinaris Sulpicius) 'fecerunt qui in plerisque Sallusti exemplaribus scripturam istam sincerissimam corruperunt. Nam cum ita in Catilina scriptum esset: saepe maiores uestrum miseriti plebis Romanae, uestrum obleuerunt et uestri superscripserunt. Ex quo in plures libros mendae istius indoles manauit,—an unpleasant intimation of early corruption in the MSS of Sallust.

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opitulati] a conversational word, frequently used in Cicero's letters, but not by Caesar, Livy, or Tacitus.

argentum aere solutum est] The Lex Valeria 668 (86). Velleius 2. 23 Valerius Flaccus turpissimae legis auctor qua creditoribus quadrantem solvi iusserat. A creditor had to be satisfied with the copper as for the silver sestertius—with 5s. in the pound.

3. plebes...a patribus secessit] (1) 260 (494) Liv. 2. 32. (2) 305 (449) Liv. 3. 50. J. 31. 17 maiores vostri parandi iuris et maiestatis constituendae gratia bis per secessionem armati Aventinum occupavere. (3) 467 (287) to the Janiculum-owing to the burden of debt. Liv. Ep. 11. (4) C. Gracchus occupied the Aventine.

5. te atque senatum obtestamur, consulatis miseris civibus-neve nobis-inponatis] see note on 51. 7.

maxume ulti] ulti is logically the principal verb, 'how in the battle for life or death we may sell our blood as dear as possible'.

Ch. 34, 1. respondit-vellent-discedant] The other instances in S. of the present subj. in oratio obliqua dependent on a past tense are 41. 5 legatis praecepit ut studium coniurationis simulent, e. q. s. (Dietsch however reads respondet and praecipit) and 52. 14. Cicero appears to have never put the present in this case, but there are numerous instances in Caesar and Livy (Kühnast, p. 225). For the mixture of tense here cp. 32. 2. Hoffmann says that the present (discedant and proficiscantur) is here used that there may be no mistake about their having the force of imperatives; if the impf. had been used it would have been possible to take them hypothetically.

2. optumo cuique] i.e. nobilissumo cuique ex optimatibus. Massiliam in exilium proficisci] Cic. in Cat. 2. §§ 14, 16. Milo after Clodius' murder went to Marseilles.

oreretur] The same form is found J. 72. 1, but oriretur in J. 6. 3. "The poets of the Augustan age use neither oriretur nor oreretur. In the MSS of the prose writers, and especially in the more accurate, oreretur and orerentur are so common, that they cannot be regarded, one and all, as mistakes of the writers of the manuscripts." Neue, Formenlehre 2. 418.

3. earum exemplum] The words imply that we have here an exact copy of the original letter: and the style makes that exceedingly probable. The letter contains many words and phrases that do not occur elsewhere in Sallust: satisfactio, conscientia de culpa, medius fidius, statum dignitatis obtinere, aes alienum meis nominibus, honore honestatos.

Ch. 35, 1. re cognita] cognita is nom. Catulus had befriended Catiline it is said and got him acquitted when he was charged with incest with a vestal virgin, Fabia, sister of Cicero's wife Terentia. The trial took place in 681 (73).

fiduciam-tribuit] for the more usual fidem facit.

2. in novo consilio] the sudden resolution of going to Manlius.

3. non quin] P V etc. have non quin aes alienum meis nominibus ex possessionibus solvere non possem, et alienis nominibus liberalitas Orestillae suis filiaeque copiis persolveret, sed quod, e. q. s. If non quin is to be kept the non (possem) must go. I have ventured to restore et for at, which Jordan

has ex conj., as he states in his preface to the second edition p. xi, 'haec verba neque Nipperdei patrocinio neque coniectura mea ab omni dubitatione vindicata esse sero intellexi'. The at does not mend matters much; for other conjectures see critical notes to text. If we expunge the non and take the et-persolveret as parenthetical with Nipperdey, the passage will do well enough in a letter written in such hurry. Not but what I could have paid out of my own property my own personal debts-and the liberality of Orestilla would have wiped off out of her own and her daughter's fortune those for which others had given security on my behalf-it is not that, but because...' aes alienum alienis nominibus is explained by some editors to mean debts arising from loans raised by friends of Catiline on his security, but see 24. 2.

non dignos homines] Cicero, and perhaps Murena,—the first consul in his family.

honore honestatos] Plaut. Capt. 355 Di tibi omnes omnia optata offerant, quom me tanto honore honestas-an archaic, perhaps popular, phrase.

4. hoc nomine] common in the epistolary style for causa. Cic. ad Att. 6. 2. 3 is multis nominibus... Graecos in eo reprehendit quod mare tantum secuti sunt.

6. Orestillam commendo tuaeque fidei trado] J. 63. 3 sed is natus et omnem pueritiam Arpini altus. V corrects to 0. tibi commendo.

Ch. 36, 1. C. Flaminium] The Flammam of one MS is probably from a gloss-a C. Flaminius Flamma is mentioned in Cic. ad Att. 14. 16. 4.

in agro Arretino] Arezzo not far from Florence: the 'via Cassia' was the shortest route, but Catiline went by the 'via Aurelia'. Some of his followers awaited him at Forum Aurelii.

2. praeter-condemnatis] not as Priscian says for condemnatos, for praeter is adv., cp. Gellius 1. 23. 13 uti posthac pueri cum patribus in curiam ne introeant, praeter ille unus Papirius.

4. multo maxume] It was the rule with Cicero to put multo with comparatives, longe with superlatives. Sallust, on the contrary, puts longe with the superlative only once, J. 9. 2 longe maxuma, and writes Or. Macr. 9 longe saevior. Cicero, it is said, has multo with a superlative only once de imp. Pomp. 18. 54 magna ac multo maxuma.

otium atque divitiae, quae prima mortales putant] Fabri, on the strength of J. 41. 1 abundantia earum rerum quae prima

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