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9 Nov. Cic. delivers the Second Invective before the people.

Some days afterwards news arrives
that C. has joined Manlius; when
the Senate declares them both ene-
mies of the State. Antonius is to
lead an army against them.
The Allobroges' deputation leave Rome
at night, and are arrested.
Meeting of the Senate in the temple of
Concordia. The conspirators are
arrested. Afterwards the Third In-
vective is delivered before the peo-

4 Dec. Rumour of intended rescue of the

2-3 Dec.

3 Dec.


5 Dec. Meeting of Senate in the temple of Concordia. The Fourth Invective. Lentulus, etc., executed.

Battle of Pistoria.



be surely a precise periphrasis for a. d. vIII. id. Nov.'-6 Nov. -the day after the nones. The speech then will have been delivered 8 Nov. The date also of the passing of the 'Sctum. ultimum' will be 21 Oct., for Asconius (in Pis. p. 5), remarking on the expression vigesimum diem (in Cat. 1. 2. 4), says that this is round numbers for 18th, and his method in computation is not to count in the terminus a quo. It can hardly be doubted that the attempt to murder Cicero was made not many hours after the meeting at Laeca, and not postponed as Mommsen supposes. Why then did Cicero not call the Senate together on the 7th? Perhaps because he wished to leave the rumours of the murderous morning call, the nocturnum praesidium Palatii, and the urbis vigiliae to work awhile on the mind of the too-often incredulous Senate, and on the mind of the people. (In the Second Invective, 3. 6 superioris noctis means apparently only the former of the two nights, which after the speech in the Senate was familiar to every

body under that designation, and hesterno die in 6. 12 must be taken, not with interfectus sum but with detuli only).

AUTHORITIES. -The only contemporary authorities are Cicero and Sallust. The other, and secondary, accounts seem to come from one or other of these sources. Many writers have supposed that Plutarch and Dio copied from Livy; in that case Livy must have borrowed from Cicero. It is more probable that their authority was Cicero's Tepì ùrarelas, which both mention: there, no doubt, they would find the incidents of Crassus bringing the consul letters on 20 Oct. and the 'shining cuirass,' which both record, etc. The accounts of Appian and Florus, on the other hand, come in the main from Sallust, without doubt. It does not appear, however, that any of these authorities relied entirely on one source. Plutarch, for instance, mentions the incident of the equites threatening Caesar as he left the Senate on 5 Dec., and how Curio and Cicero protected him, and adds, ToÛTO μèv ovv OŮK οἶδα ὅπως ὁ Κικέρων, εἴπερ ἦν ἀληθές, ἐν τῷ περὶ τῆς ὑπατείας OVK yрayev (Caes. 8), that he did not take it from Sall. C. 49. 2 is clear, indeed there is no reason to suppose that he consulted Sallust at all. Suetonius, Jul. 9, has some interesting particulars about the first conspiracy, for which he mentions his (four) authorities.

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1-4 Preface.

5 The character of Catiline.

6-13 Digression on past Roman history, to show how such a character was possible. The decline set in after the fall of Carthage. Security bred avarice and ambition.

14-16 Catiline's followers: how they are trained to be as criminal as their leader.

17 Catiline summons his followers of all classes to an opening meeting.

18, 19 A previous conspiracy, in which Piso plays a leading part.

20 Catiline's speech to the conspirators.

21 He tells them what is to be gained by the movement.

22 They take an oath of fidelity.

23 Their designs are betrayed by Fulvia to Cicero,


who becomes consul. Preparations are begun for risings in Italy. Some women of bad character join the conspiracy:

25 among them a remarkable woman-Sempronia. Her character.

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26 Catiline stands for the consulship in 63 B.C.

other schemes of his are frustrated by Cicero.
determines on immediate war.

27 Manlius and others are despatched to different part. Italy. Catiline tries to arouse his followers to great activity at the Laeca-meeting.

28 Attempted murder of Cicero. Manlius raises recruits in Etruria.

29 The Senate pass the Sctum. ultimum, and


despatch commanders to Etruria and other parts. Alarm in Rome. Cicero delivers his First Invective.


32 Catiline leaves Rome to join Manlius.

33-36 Catiline and Manlius try to deceive people as to their plans by letters. But the Senate, hearing the truth, declare the two public enemies.


37-39 Owing to the miserable condition of society, the effect of party strife, all the common people sympathize with the conspirators.

40 Lentulus tries to win over the ambassadors of the Allobroges to the conspiracy,

who however decide to give information to the government.

42 Premature outbreak of the conspirators in some parts of Italy.

43 Plans of incendiarism and massacre formed by the conspirators in Rome.

44, 45 The ambassadors arrested as they leave Rome.

46, 47 The Allobroges and Volturcius reveal the plot to the Senate.

48 Altered feelings of the people. L. Tarquinius inculpates Crassus.

49 Attempt to get Caesar also accused of complicity.

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the arrested conspirators frustrated. decide on their fate.

t death.

n. (His proposal carried.)

uch men as these two speakers Rome owes its greatness. Their characters contrasted.

The principal conspirators in Rome are executed.

56 Catiline's military arrangements.

57 He attempts to escape, but is hemmed in between Metellus Celer and Antonius.

58 He addresses his soldiers.

59 Disposition of the forces of the two armies.

60 The Battle.

Defeat and death of Catiline.

61 It was a bloody victory.

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