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conjecture in 114. 2, is archaic for illinc. Loci often in the literal sense for the more classical loca. Ludificare 36. 2, 50. 4. The word is common in Plautus as an active verb, and afterwards, especially in this form, fell out of literary use. Cicero in his first speech p. Quint. § 54 writes si latitare ac diutius ludificare videatur, obviously for the sake of concinnity. It appears to occur only once again in Cicero and then p. Rosc. A. § 55 as a deponent. Malum =poena, 100. 5 Marius...pudore magis quam malo exercitum coercebat: cp. the well-known verse, Dabunt malum Metelli Naevio poetae. Plautus has verum tu malum magnum habebis, si hic suum officium facit. The phrase malum habebis occurs often, e.g. in Seneca. Modo in the phrase inpensius modo 47. 3, 75. 1, and in the Hist. avidior modo properandi facinus 'only more eager.' Nullo dative, 97. 3 rati noctem... et victis sibi munimento fore et, si vicissent, nullo impedimento-it may however be the ablative. Nave, 77. 3, an old form of naviter, used also by Plautus. Nequitur, 31. 8 quidquid sine sanguine civium ulcisci nequitur iure factum sit (speech of Memmius). Passives of queo and nequeo (cp. too potestur) occur in Pacuvius, Plautus, Cato, Terence, Lucretius. Observe too in the quotation ulcisci as a passive, as in Ennius and Liv. 5. 49. 3 omnia quae defendi repetique et ulcisci fas sit. Nisi has the sense of an adversative particle in 24. 5, 67. 3, 100. 5. Ocissume 25. 5, also in Terence. Partiverant (= partiti erant) in 43. 1. (So Sisenna used adsentio = adsentior). Pergere governs a case in 79. 5 iter pergere. Prosapia 85. 10 (Marius' speech) hominem veteris prosapiae. Cato has the

same phrase. Cicero, Timaeus 11 et eorum, ut utamur veteri verbo, prosapiam. Quintil. 1. 6. 40 censures its In later literature the word is not infrequent, but always with vetus. Verbum 11. 7='a remark,' as in Plautus and Terence.


Besides these words one or two constructions may be mentioned. The indicative in an indirect question 85. 3 neque me fallit, quantum...negoti sustineothat is the reading of P. though Jordan reads sustineam, but perhaps the sustineo is not objectionable in Marius' mouth.-In the accusative with the infinitive, the future infinitive is indeclinable, esse being omitted. 100. 4 non tam diffidentia futurum quae imperavissent. Gellius 1. 7 quotes from Cato illi polliciti sese facturum omnia (see Kühner, Lat. Gram. 2. 39). The gerund has a passive sense, perhaps, in 62. 8 cum ipse ad imperandum Tisidium vocaretur, the meaning being 'to receive orders.' Cic. Ep. 9. 25. 2 nunc ades ad imperandum vel ad parendum potius, sic enim antiqui loquebantur.-Scilicet with acc. and inf., 102. 9, 113. 3 are rather doubtful, but Or. Phil. 5 At scilicet eos...gratiam ab eo peperisse (Kühner 2. 515). The following phrases among others are regarded by Schmalz as colloquial: falsum me habuit 10. 1 (Micipsa loq.) = me fefellit: nihil ad vos 24. 6 (Adherbal's letter): ludibrio habitus 34. 2: pugnam facit 56. 4, a periphrasis for pugnare: caveret petere 64. 2: quod contra est 85. 22 (Marius' speech): haud secus difficilem 92. 4, a conversational litotes: sic habere 114. 2 Romani sic habuere ('held this view'). Cato has Maiores nostri sic habuere, and the phrase is common in Cicero's letters.

To these may be added a few from the Histories. Auxisse, Or. Phil. 6 intransitive. Gellius quotes Cato, eo res eorum auxit. Forus = forum (illum forum), and vadus vadum (facilem vadum). Obsequela-per obsequelam orationis. Caesar B. G. 7. 29. 4 uses obsequentia instead. Other colloquial words of this termination are custodela, cautela, fugela, suadela, turbela. Percupidus, also in Cicero's letters. Potior with accusative (cuncta potiundi), so vescor (insolita vescentibus). Privus without, privos militiae-the word. occurs besides only in Apuleius in this sense, p. verae rationis. Quaeso: Classical prose uses only the forms 'quaeso', 'quaesumus', and these parenthetically. Sallust, however, besides the passages quoted in the note, p. 142, has in the fragments-Curionem quaesit ut concederet, and Ep. Mith. 1 quod quaesitur, satisne pium sit. The word, however, is rather solemn and formal than archaic or colloquial, according to Jordan. Senectus, an adjective, senecto corpore and senecta iam aetate, as in Plautus and Lucretius. Soluerat = solitus erat. Vis vires acc.-so Lucretius.




The ancients were much impressed with Sallust's BREVITY. Scaliger on the other hand professed himself unable to understand what was meant by it,unless it were that Sallust proceeded in his narrative by a series of jumpy, jerky sentences, instead of by an

5 Favorinus (in Gell. 3. 1) calls him subtilissimum brevitatis artificem. Quintilian speaks of immortalem illam Sallustii velocitatem. Seneca, the elder, thinks he surpassed Thucydides himself in brevity. Seneca, the younger, says Sallustio vigente amputatae sententiae et verba ante exspectatum cadentia et obscura brevitas fuere pro cultu.

even and periodic style; but the distance to be traversed, he continues, is not thereby reduced, nor the speed increased. And certainly an author who begins the history of this short-lived conspiracy with a comparison of the bodily and spiritual powers of man, and who is continually on the look-out for the chance of a digression, takes an unnecessarily long start, and is in no great hurry. But it is of course just to this abrupt unperiodic style of writing that Sallust owes his reputation for brevity. Rugged and disjointed Sallust sometimes is, but his abruptness is seldom careless or accidental, and is more often than not highly effective. Every page would supply an example; but such a pair of sentences as the following may have been in Quintilian's mind when he spoke of Sallust's immortalis velocitas. Jugurtha sends some soldiers to murder Hiempsal-qui postquam in aedis inrupere, divorsi regem quaerere, dormientes alios alios occursantis interficere, scrutari loca abdita, clausa effringere, strepitu et tumultu omnia miscere, cum interim Hiempsal reperitur occultans se tugurio mulieris ancillae, quo initio pavidus et ignarus loci perfugerat. Numidae caput eius, uti iussi erant, ad Iugurtham referunt (J. 12. 5)—' perfugerat, a pause, and then the bloody corpse of the Greek stage'. The other sentence is:-tum spectaculum horribile in campis patentibus: sequi fugere occidi capi, equi atque viri adflicti, ac multi volneribus acceptis neque fugere posse neque quietem pati, niti modo ac statim concidere...(J. 101. 11). The description is imitated in all probability from Thucydides, and indeed the influence of Thucy

6 That the sentence is borrowed from Thuc. 7. 75. 3 is ren

dides is very noticeable in Sallust's writings, alike in matter and in form, His countrymen ventured to pronounce Sallust equal if not superior to his Greek model, both as a writer and as an historian. To such a position Sallust has no claim, but to have been in his turn a model for Tacitus is no slight merit7.

Under this head I give a few examples of ELLIPSE, In the omission of the parts of sum, Sallust is bolder than any writer except Tacitus. Est, sunt, erat, erant are often omitted, whether used as copula or absolutely, both in dependent and principal sentences, especially in descriptions of places, battles, and characters. There are instances also of omission of sum, sumus, sit, fuerit, esset, fore. Esse is always omitted after putare, pati, videre and often after reri. When esse

dered probable by the close resemblance of J. 60. 1-4 with Thục. 7. 71, 2–4,


7 Tacitus' familiarity with Sallust's writings is shown by his imitation of several phrases (Dräger, S. u. S. des Tacitus, p. 125). He calls Sallust 'the most brilliant of Roman historians.' may add here a word as to Livy's opinion of him, as it has to do with imitation, Seneca Contr. 9. 1. 14 says, 'Titus autem Livius tam iniquus Sallustio fuit,' that he criticized his phrase 'res secundae mire sunt vitiis optentui (Or. Lep. 24) as an imitation, and a bad imitation, of Thucydides' (though by the way it is not Thucydides, but an inexact quotation from Demosthenes) δειναὶ γὰρ αἱ εὐπραξίαι συγκρύψαι καὶ συσκιάσαι τὰ èкάσтшν ȧμаρтýμaтa. Seneca puts Livy's low opinion of Sallust down to jealousy. If he could show, says Seneca, that Thucydides was superior to Sallust, Livy thought that it would be an easy thing to establish his own superiority to Thucydides. If it be true, however, that Livy was not among Sallust's admirers, the difference of temperament of the two writers would sufficiently explain the fact,

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