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It would certainly have been desirable to have the references throughout the work verified, but I was withheld from making this addition to my labour, by their immense number, my other engagements, and the difficulty of getting access to the works referred to, many of which are not to be found in any of our public libraries. However, I have in numerous instances consulted the authorities quoted, when I wished to clear up any doubt or obscurity; and on such occasions I have very rarely discovered any inaccuracy in the citation. When I was aware of any foreign work having been translated into English I transferred the reference to the translation.

The present work will probably be followed by Müller and Oesterley's "Monuments of Ancient Art," when the original work, which is now in course of publication at Göttingen, will have been completed. It is intended as a companion to this Manual, and contains numerous plates illustrating the different periods of art, according to the system here pursued.

July, 1847.

The present edition of this work, besides containing all the additions in the last German edition, which were partly derived from the manuscripts of the lamented author, and in great part contributed by the Editor, Professor Welcker of Bonn, is enriched with a considerable number of additions which that eminent archæologist was so obliging as to transmit to me while the translation was passing through the press. It will be easy to distinguish his share in the work, as his contributions are all enclosed within brackets. The paragraph on Nineveh was written before the publication of Capt. Layard's work, and his discoveries, therefore, are not mentioned. I very recently requested from Mr. Welcker a supplementary notice of them, which I would have appended to the book, but he thinks it better to be silent until he can obtain a more connected and leisurely view of those important discoveries, and be thus enabled to treat the subject in a more complete and satisfactory manner.

The additions, which are with very few exceptions confined to the notes, amount altogether to several thousands, and this edition is nearly a fourth larger than the last.

J. L.

ROTHESAY, May 1850.


As the book which I now present for a second time to the public, has been found useful in its earlier form, I have allowed the latter to remain on the whole unaltered, and have even marked several new paragraphs (§. 75*. 157*. 241*. 324*. 345*. 345**.) so as that the previous arrangement might not be disturbed by them. I am indeed aware that much other information on inscriptions, coins, and the topographical references of monuments might be expected in a Manual of Archæology; but I have been forced by my plan to exclude everything whereby our knowledge of the formative art in antiquity was not immediately advanced, and have been obliged, therefore, for example, to treat coins merely as highly important remains of ancient art, but not as monuments of the political life and commerce of the ancients-the chief consideration, and which has been still too little brought into view, in this study. On the other hand, I am in like manner convinced, that far more can be done than this Manual attempts, in the exposition of the internal principles by which the artists were guided, consciously or unconsciously, in the development of their ideas. However, I have also, in this new edition, adhered to the opinion that its object should be nothing more than to collect the sum and substance of the previous treatment of the science, and, therefore, that it should only communicate the most certain and evident observations on these questions, which have not yet been sufficiently examined in their higher connexion. I have considered it my duty to practise a similar self-denial in regard to the mythology of art, on which my views still differ widely from those which are held, for the most part, by the present generation of archæological inquirers. If, as they assert, the sculptors of antiquity sought consciously and designedly to express in their works certain fundamental ideas of heathendom, which are therefore to be interpreted, so to speak, as hieroglyphics of a physical theology, we ought not, in my opinion, to expect from the artists of the best era of Greek art a greater knowledge of their hereditary faith than we should from any person among the people; but every thing else was, with the creative spirits among the artists, an activity as free and peculiar to them, dependent only on the requirements of their art, as the development of any mythus into a Sophoclean tragedy. In whatever way this question, which ought to receive in our time a thorough investigation, may be decided, the adherents of this doctrine cannot bring against the present Manual the reproach

that it gives little information regarding an ancient system of theology which can be discovered alone from works of art.

But I have so much the more endeavoured to complete, define more precisely, and arrange more accurately the facts which should find a place in my book. The great additions to our knowledge of ancient art during the last few years have not been patched on, in notices hastily raked together, but have, with continued attention, been interwoven with the whole. The numerous criticisms to which the work has been subjected on the part of various learned archæologists, have also been carefully turned to account. But, altogether, I may say that the labour attending this second edition has been scarcely less than that which was at first expended on the entire work.

I cannot flatter myself that I have always hit the proper medium between scantiness and superfluity of materials. Those who possess a knowledge of the subject will readily discover the principles which I laid down for myself as to the facts and monuments which the work should embrace; but in many cases, however, I might be guided merely by a subjective, sometimes by a momentary feeling. My task was rendered more difficult from the circumstance that I intended my book to form at the same time a basis for oral expositions and a Manual for the private student, as a separation of the two objects might not be advisable in the present state of our studies. Hence there is more matter given in this book than can be developed and exhausted in an academical course of a hundred lectures; and although, perhaps, it might be made the basis of archæological prelections of very different kinds, yet each lecturer might still employ a free and independent method of his own; indeed, the author himself has latterly found it the best plan to anticipate in the first or historical part what it is most important to know on the technics, forms and subjects of ancient art, without being the less convinced on that account that the systematic arrangement of the second part is of essential advantage to the study.

GOTTINGEN, January 1835.

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M. I.

G. M.

Galérie Mythologique (by Millin).

gens (in the so-called family coins).

Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica, see page 17.

Museum, Musée, Museo.

Mon. In.

Monumenti Inediti, Monumens inédits.

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In the titles of books B. denotes Berlin, F. Firenze, L. London, N. Napoli, P. Paris, R. Roma, V. Venezia.

In the Mythological Division the single initial letters constantly denote the deity named at the beginning and in the heading of the Section.

The figures accompanying the Letter L. denote the numbers of the antiquities in the Musée Royal in the Louvre according to the Description of 1830. (see p. 288.), those with the antiquities of Dresden, the numbers in the Catalogue of 1833 (see p. 292.), and those marking the antiquities of Munich are taken from the Description of the Glyptotheca by Klenze and Schorn. The antiquities in the British Museum are sometimes quoted by the numbers which they had in the year 1822.

R. with a number cites the remark on the paragraph; the number alone refers to the division of the §. itself. The Remarks always belong to that division of the §. which has the corresponding No. on the margin.

Bouill. The work of Bouillon the painter (see p. 17.) is, for the sake of brevity, always quoted so as that the numbers of the plates run on from the beginning to the end of each volume.

Micali's Engravings (see p. 160.) are always quoted in the new and enlarged form of the work, if the earlier edition is not expressly mentioned.

Mionnet's Empr. refers to the impressions of coins enumerated in the Catalogue d'une Collection d'Empreintes. Paris an. 8., and which are in the archæological collection of Göttingen, together with numerous additional impressions from the same hand. The latter are quoted by the numbers which they bear in Mionnet's Description de Médailles antiques Grecques et Romaines. Mionnet Pl. denotes the volume of engravings which accompanies the Description.

In the enumeration of monuments of one kind a semicolon between the references denotes the difference of the monument. For example two different statues are indicated by M. PCl. ii, 30.; M. Cap. iii, 32. one and the same by M. PCI. i, 12. Bouill. i, 15.

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