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HISTORY OF EUROPE

DURING

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.

“ BELLUM maxime omnium memorabile, quæ unquam gesta sint, me scripturum ; quod, Hannibale duce, Carthaginienses cum populo Romano gessere. Nam neque validiores opibus ullæ inter se civitates gentesque contulerunt arma, neque his ipsis tantum unquam virium aut roboris fuit : et haud ignotas belli artes inter se, sed expertas primo Punico conserebant bello ; odiis etiam prope majoribus certarunt, quam viribus; et adeo varia belli fortuna ancepsque Mars fuit, ut propius periculum fuerint, qui vicerunt."-Liv. lib. 21.

FROM THE

COMMENCEMENT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

IN M.DCC.LXXXIX.

TO THE RESTORATION OF THE BOURBONS

IN M.DCCC.XV.

BY ARCHIBALD ALISON, F.R.S.E.

ADVOCATE,

VOLUME THE TWELFTH.

SEVENTH EDITION.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS,

EDINBURGH AND LONDON.

M.DCCC.XLVII.

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CONTENTS OF VOL. XII.

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§ 1. Memorable events of which the Spanish peninsula has been the theatre,

2. Uniform and singular character of its guerilla warfare,

3. Physical conformation of the country which has led to these effects,

4. General character of the Peninsula,

5. Statistics of Spain,

6. Great mountain ranges of Spain and Portugal,

7. Mountain ridges in the south of Spain,

8. Extraordinary resolution with which in every age the Spaniards have de-

fended their cities,

9. Peculiarities in the civil history of the Peninsula which have rendered it a

divided community,

10. It has never been thoroughly amalgamated,

11. Effect of these circumstances in promoting the means of internal and sepa.

rate defence,

12. Corruption of the nobility, and extent to which entails were carried,

13. State of the peasantry,

14. Statistical details on that subject,

15. The church, its influence and character,

16. Its immense usefulness to the people,

17. Its great influence in the Spanish contest,

18. Spain was still unexhausted by revolutionary passions,

19. Composition and character of the French army at this period,

20. Their discipline, equipment, and efficiency,

21. Force and character of the British army,

22. Admirable spirit with which it was animated and regarded by the people,

23. Character and qualities of the British soldiers,

24. Parallel between the British and French troops,

25. Effect of their officers being exclusively taken from the higher ranks,

26. The English soldiers were contented with their lot,

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