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Page Tho old form of the superlative of adverbs and adjectives, 14 in ume and umus, was passing into disuse in the time of Sallust, who, however, always uses it. A similar remark applies to the form cupiunda (for cupienda), as shown in gerunds, gerundives, and fut. pass. participles of many verbs of the third and fourth conjugations. 14. Tempestate, time. A. & S. 2 253; H. 426; B. 949; A. 55, I. 15. Quibus is fuit=who have had it (i. e. civic honor). But the reading of the MSS. varies much. 16. Eo, on that account : abl. of cause. 17. Parentes, lit. those who obey subjects ; from pareo, not the noun parens.

18–38. Possis, corrigas, subjunct. of possibility (independently of quamquam). A. & S. & 260, II. (and Rem. 4); H. 485; B. 1177; A. 60, 1. 21. Neque quaerere, and not to gain. 22. Extremae — est is extreme folly: dementiae being a predicate genitive after est. A. & S. & 211, Rem. 8, (3); H. 401; B. 780; A. 50, I. 1. Quem=one, any one. 23. Potentiae, to the power ; dat. limiting gratificari to surrender, to sacrifice. Observe that suam belongs equally to decus and libertatem, though it agrees only with the latter. 26. In primis (=imprimis), lit. among the first things = in particular, particularly. Ma usui = of great advantage: dat. of the end. A. & S. $ 227, and Rem. 2; H. 390, II. 2; B. 848 and 853; A. 51, VII. Memoria — gestarum, lit. the narration of things transacted the narration of events. 27. Virtute, the excellence. 28. Praetereundum. The expression written in full is, praetereundum esse mihi=I ought to pass over it. Per insolentiam, from vanity: to be connected with extollere. 29. Studium meum, my own profession. 30. Fore, sc. eos, that there will be those : eos, subject accus. of fore; depending on credo. A. & S. % 272; H. 551, I.; B. 1135; A. 52, VI. 31. Re publica, public affairs; or, the affairs of the commonwealth. 32. Labori. A. & S. § 224; H. 386; B. 826; A. 51, V. Imponant, will apply: suhjunct. of result. A. & S. 264, 6; II. 501, I.; B. 1227; A. 65, IV. 2. Certe commonly means, at least ; certo, certainly. Quibus, sc. ii imponent, those to whom, etc. 33. Salutare plebem. The candidate saluted and took by the hand (prensavit) the citizens whose votes he solicited. M. Conviviis, ablat. of means. When Crassus sued for the consulship, he feasted the whole Roman people at ten thousand tables. 34. Gratiam, popularity, favor with the people. Qui si, if these. The relative is often best rendered as a demonstrative. A. & S. 206, (17); H. 453; B. 701; A. 48, IV. Reputaverint, will consider : fut. perf. indic. 35. Quibus, from qui, because it is used adjectively with temporibus. Adeptus

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Page 14 sim, subjunct. of indirect question. A. & S. & 265; H. 525; B. 1182;

A. 67, I. 36. Quales viri. Sallust here probably alludes to Cato, who about this time was an unsuccessful candidate for the praetorship. 37. Quae genera, etc. The allusion is to the foreigners, soldiers, and unworthy characters thrust into the senate by Antony. 38. Existumabunt. The old form, for existimabunt. Merito, on good grounds, though usually called an adverb, is properly an ablat.

of cause from meritum. 15 1--13. Rei. Dative of advantage, limiting the expression com

mõdum venturum (advantage will accrue). 2. Venturum, sc. esse, which is very often omitted (especially in Sallust) in the fut. inf. act., and in the perf. inf. pass. Q. Maximum, Quintus Fabius Maximus, surnamed Cunctator, the opponent of Hannibal in the second Punic War. 3. P. Scipionem, the elder Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, who defeated Hannibal in the battle of Zama. 4. Solitos, sc. esse. Imagines. These images were figures with painted masks of wax, made to resemble the persons whom they represented. They were kept in the Atrium of the house, accompanied with tituli or names of distinction which the deceased had acquired. The masks were worn in funeral processions. Dict. Antiqq. Only the nobiles (i. e. those whose ancestors had filled a curule office, or who had themselves filled such an office) enjoyed the right of having such images (Jus imaginum). 5. Intnerentur, subjunct. in oratio obliqua (and probably would be subjunct. in oratio recta, after cum in narration ; but the former principle takes precedence). A. & S. 2 266, 2; H. 530, I., and 531; B. 1295, (2), and 1296, A, E; A. 67, I. 2, and II. Sibi, though properly a dative of advantage, is best rendered their. 6. Scilicet is contracted from scire licet (it is permitted to know) = one may


suppose ; and this resolved force accounts for the infin. with subject accus. (ceram illam, etc.) which follows. 8. Egregiis viris. See note on line 5 above, in fin. 9. Neque sedari, and is not diminished. 10. Adaequaverit, has equalled : subjunct. of time and purpose. A. & S.

263, 3; H. 521, II. ; B. 1241; A. 62, II. 11. Omnium, partitive gen. Eis moribus, amid these morals, i. e. the corrupt morals of the day; ablat. absolute. (Moribus may, however, be regarded as ablat. of quality.) Quin (i. e. qui + non)=qui non, who (does)

Divitiis, ablat. of specification (denoting in what respect). A. & S. 2 250, 1; H. 429; B. 889; A. 54, I. 13. Contendat. A. & S. & 262, Rem. 10 ; H. 498 and 2; B. 1230; A. 65, II.

13-38. Homines novi, new men. A plebeian who first attained a curule othce was the founder of his family's Nobilitas. Such a



Page person could have no imagines of his ancestors; and he could have 15 none of his own, for such imagines of a man were not made till after he was dead. He was called by the Romans “novus homo." The term novus homo was never applied to a patrician. Dict. Antiqq. 14. Virtutem, their virtuous energy, manly energy. Nobilitatem antevenire, to outstrip the nobility. The descendants of plebeians who had filled curule magistracies formed a class called Nobiles, or men “known,” who were so called by way of distinction from "

Ignobiles,” or people who were not known. The external distinction of the Nobiles was the Jus Imaginum (Right of Images). Dict. Antiqq. See also note on Homines novi, above, and note on line 4, above. 15. Latrocinia, fraud, villany. 16. Imperia et honores, military commands and civic honors; military and civil offices. Proinde quasi, just as if. 18. Hujusce modi (= hujuscemodi), of this kind; gen. of description (quality). Sint, were (because were expresses a supposition in present time); subjunct. of condition with the conclusion omitted. A. & S. 263, 2; H. 506; B. 1277; A. 61, 1. 19. Perinde – ut, just us, exactly

Sustinent, hold, fill. We should expect the subjunctive here, as eorum (= talium) refers to a class, and not to certain individuals. But Sallust frequently uses the subjunctive where other good writers of his time would have used the indicative. 20. Virtus, the merit. Altius, too deeply into this subject = too far. 21. Me morum piget. A. & S. & 229, Rem. 6; H. 410, III.; B. 805; A.50, IV. 3. Me piget= I am pained, vexed. 24. Primum, in the first place. 25. Victoria, abl. of description or quality. 26. Primum, for the first time. . 26. Superbiae - est = opposition was made to the arrogance of the nobility. A literal and verbal rendering of this and similar passages would be devoid of elegance, and would besides be questionable English. With intransitive impersonal verbs in the passive voice, like itum est, either (a) a personal subject should be supplied, or (b) such an impersonal subject should be used as the sentiment suggests. Thus, obviam itum est, a going to meet took place = opposition was made. Superbiae, dat. limiting obviam. A. & S. & 228, 1; H. 392 ; B. 870; A. 51, I. 28. Eo vecordiae, to that degree of mad folly. See references to note on line 19, p. 13. Studiis civilibus, to the party spirit of the citizens : dative. 29. Bellum, etc., (only) war, etc. Faceret, put: the subjunctive of result is generally translated like the indicative. 30. Expediam. Some MSS. read expedio. 31. Pauca — repetam, I will review a few things (mentioned) above = I will briefly review. Cognoscendum, understanding (them). 32. In aperto = clear; as


Page 15 in an open, clear field, where there are no obstacles. 33. Bello,

quo, ablat. of time when. 34. Post may be rendered during. 35. Maxume. See note on line 13, p. 14. 36. Cui fuit= who had: cui being dat. of the possessor. 37. Africano. What threefold construction is admissible here? A. & S. $ 204, Rem. 8 (a);

H. 387, 1 and 2; B. 632; A. 51, VI. 38. Rei militaris, of war. 16

1-17. Magnum atque late valuit = was powerful and extensive. The use of the predicate adj. and adverb together, though not common, is sanctioned by good authority (Virgil and Cicero). 2. Manu, lit. with his hand = by force, by hard fighting. 3. Regi, i. e. Masinissa. Dono, dat. of the end or purpose.

4. Order: sed finis ejus imperi vitaeque fuit idem; i. e. his sway over his augmented dominions ended only with his life, and the kingdom of Micipsa probably did not include the grants made by the Romans. 10. Pri. vatum, as a private person, without a share in the kingdom. Cultu, training. 11. Habuit, he kept. 12. Qui, he: the relative at the beginning of a sentence is generally best rendered as a personal pronoun. A. & S. $ 206, (17); H. 453; B. 701; A. 48, IV. Ubi primum, as soon as. Viribus, abl. of specification denoting in what respect. 13. Facie. A. & S. 2 211, Rem. 6; H. 428; B. 888; A. 54, I. Multo, by far: adverbial ablat. Maxume with validus forms a superlative. A. & S. & 127, 1; H. 170; B. 227; A. 17, I. 14. Luxu, old form of the dat. 15. Equitare, jaculari, he rode on horseback, he threw the javelin : these are historical infinitives = equitabat, jaculabat, and express repeated actions. A. & S. 2 209 and Note 7; H. 545, 1; B. 1137; A. 49, III. 16. Cum, although, introducing a concession; hence followed by anteiret, excelled, subjunct. of concession. A. & S. & 263, 5, and Rem. 1 (a); H. 515, I.; B. 1282; A. 61, 2. Gloria, in renown; ablat. 17. Ad hoc, besides this, in addition to this. Pleraque tempora agere, he spent most of his time.

19-38. In primis here is among the first. 20. Quibus rebus, on account of these things ; rebus being ablat. of cause after laetus. 21. Existumans for existimans; an instance of Sallust's fondness for the older forms of the language. Regno, gloriae. A. & S. & 227; H. 390, I.; B. 848; A.51, VII. 23. Exacta — liberis, his own age being well advanced, and his children small (=young): ablat. absolute. 24. Crescere, in the sense of to become great, popular. Negotio, fact, circumstance. 25. Multa volvebat = he pondered much; cum, in.

In animo would imply a fixed intention. M. 26. Avida imperi, eager for power. A. & S. & 213; H. 399; B. 765; A. 50, III. 2. Praeceps, hurrying on. 27. Explendam, gratifying. What

Page is the principle governing the construction of the gerundive? 16 A. & S. $ 275, II., and Rem. 2; H. 562; B. 1322; A. 25. Opportunitas, the favorableness. 29. Transvorsos (= transversos), astray. Studia accensa, the kindled ardor. 30. In, for. Ex quibus (i. e. studiis, in consequence of which. 31. Interfecisset, he should kill; subjunctive by the principle of oratio obliqua : Micipsa thought, si interfecero. For the tense, see A. & S. 266, 2, Rem. 4; H. 533, 4. Ne qua= nequa, lest any. 33. Circumventus, beset, embarrassed. 35. Popularibus, to his countrymen. Manu promptus, prompt with the hand (as a symbol of energy, but used here with special reference to valor in battle). 38. Bello Numantino. Numantia was taken and destroyed by Scipio the younger after a siege of fifteen months. Cum, when.

1-19. Saevitia, by the fiercene88 = by the fierce valor. 2. Eum 17 occasurum (esse), that he would fall in battle. Numidis. A. & S. 2 224; H. 386; B. 826; A. 51, V. 5. Acri ingenio, (of) acute mind. 6. Romanis, dat. limiting imperator erat = imperabat. 8. Obviam eundo =by going to encounter. Periculis, dat. limiting obviam. A. & S. & 228, 1; H. 392, I.; B. 870; A. 51, I. 9. Brevi, 8c. tempore, in a short time. 10. Nostris, 8c. militibus; dat. limiting carus. Numantinis, dat. of the object (or person); terrori, dat. of the end, after esset. A. & S. & 227; H. 390, I.; B. 848; A. 51, VII. 11. Esset, he was (not, might be); subjunct. of result after ut. A. & S. & 262; H. 489; B. 1218; A. 65, I. Sane, indeed. In primis (among the first things) = particularly. 12. Proelio, ablat. of specification. A. & S. $ 250, 1; H. 429; B. 889; A. 54, I. 13. Quorum alter, one of which. A. & S. & 212; H. 396, III.; B. 771; A. 50, II. 14. Adferre, to generate. Plerumque, for the most part, generally. 15. Asperas, difficult. 16. Agere, performed (did), bistorical infinitive, = ngebat. So also habere (he regarded him), and amplecti (he honored, loved). In dies (= indies), from day to day. 17. Quippe — erat, because neither any plan nor any undertaking of his was unsuccessful. Observe (1) that cujus must be rendered as a personal pronoun, (2) that ullum belongs both to consilium and inceptum, and (3) that this being a relative clause expressing a reason (strengthened also by quippe), the verb erat would, in the best Latin prose, be esset, subjunct. of reason. A. & S. & 264, 8, (1) and (2); H. 519, and 3, 1); B. 1251 and 1253; A. 63, II. 18. Huc accedebat, to this there was added. Munifi. centia, generosity. 19. Ingeni, of intellect. Quibus rebus = by means of which.

22–39. Novi atque nobiles, self-made and ennobled men, comes,

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