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A. The covenant being made with Adam, not only for himself, but for his posterity, all mankind, descending from him by ordinary generation, sinned in him, and fell with him, in his first transgression.
Rom. v. 12 : “Wherefore as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin ; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned.”
Rom. v. 15: “For if by the offence of one many be dead."
Rom. v. 16 : “For the judgment was by one to condemnation.”
Rom. v. 17: “For if by one man's offence death reigned by one."
Rom. v. 18: “ Therefore as by the offence of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation."
Rom. v. 19: “For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners."
1 Cor. xv. 22: “For as in Adam all die.' All mankind, descending from him by ordinary generation.
[Christ is excepted, who was not by ordinary generation, and who (2 Cor. v. 21) knew no sin.]
Q. 17. Into what estate did the fall bring mankind ?
A. The fall brought mankind into an estate of sin and misery.
An estate [condition] of sin.
Rom. v. 19: “By one man's disobedience many were made sinners.'
Eccl. vii. 20: “For there is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good and sinneth not.”
An estate of misery.
not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them."
Ps. xc. 3, 7–10: 6 Thou turnest man to destruction; and sayest, Return, ye children of men. are consumed by thine anger, and by thy wrath are we troubled. · Thou hast set our iniquities before thee, our secret sins in the light of thy countenance. For all our days are passed away in thy wrath: we spend our years as a tale that is told. The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labour and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly
Job xiv. 1, 2: “ Man that is born of a woman is of few days, and full of trouble. He cometh forth like a flower, and is cut down : he fleeth also as a shadow, and continueth not."
Q. 18. Wherein consist the sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell?
A. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consists in the guilt of Adam's first sin, the want of original righteousness, and the corruption of his whole nature, which is commonly called original sin; together with all actual transgressions which proceed from it.
Guilt of Adam's first sin.
Rom. v. 18: “Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation."
The want of original righteousness.
Rom. v. 12: “Wherefore as by one man sin entered into the world."
Eccl. vii. 29: “God hath made man upright.”
The corruption of the whole nature, which is commonly called original sin.
Ps. li. 5: “Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me.
Rom. vii. 18, 23, 24: “For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good, I find not. But I see another law in my members warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. Oh wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death ?”
Eph. ii. 1: “You hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins.”
John iii. 3: “Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.”
Eph. ii. 3: “And were by nature the children of wrath, even as others."
Actual transgressions which proceed from it.
Rom. vii. 8: “But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence.
Matt. xv. 19: “For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies.”
James i. 14, 15: “But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. Then, when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin; and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death."
For the actual sins prevalent among the heathen, see Rom. i. 24–32.
For the actual sins prevalent among the people of Israel, see Rom. iii. 9-20.
Q. 19. What is the misery of that estate whereinto man fell?
A. All mankind by their fall lost commu
nion with God, are under his wrath and curse, and so made liable to all miseries in this life, to death itself, and to the pains of hell for
Lost communion with God.
Gen. iii. 24: “So he drove out the man: and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.”
Ps. v. 4, 5: "For thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness: neither shall evil dwell with thee. The foolish shall not stand in thy sight: thou hatest all workers of iniquity.”
Are under his wrath and curse.
Eph. ii. 3: “And were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.”
Gal. iii. 10: “Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law, to do them.”
Rom. i. 18: “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness, and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness.”
Rom. ii. 8, 9: “But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil; of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile."
Miseries in this life.
Gen. iii. 17: “And unto Adam he said, Cursed is the ground for thy sake: in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life.”
To death itself.
Rom. v. 12: “And so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned.''
And to the pains of hell forever.
Ps. ix. 17: “ The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God.”
Q. 20. Did God leave all mankind to perish in the estate of sin and misery?
A. God, having out of his mere good pleasure, from all eternity, elected some to everlasting life, did enter into a covenant of grace, to deliver them out of the estate of sin and misery, and to bring them into an estate of salvation by a Redeemer.
Elected some to everlasting life.
2 Thess. ii. 13: “But we are bound to give thanks always to God for you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation, through sanctification of the Spirit, and belief of the truth."
From all eternity.
Eph. i. 4: “ According as he hath chosen us in him, before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love."
Out of his mere good pleasure. Eph. i. 5:
• Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will."
Eph. i. 11 : “In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will."
2 Tim. i. 9: “Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began