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Francis I. assumes the title of duke of Milan-Forms an alliance with the archduke Charles - With Henry VIII.-And with the Venetian state-Leo X. wishes to remain neuter-Marriage of Giuliano de' Medici with Filiberta of Savoy-Confidential letter to him from the cardinal da Bibbiena-Leo X. compelled to take a decisive part-Accedes to the league against France-Revolt of Fregoso at Genoa-He attempts to justify his conduct to the pope-Preparations of Francis I. for attacking the Milanese-Forces of the allies-The league proclaimed-Genoa surrenders to the French fleet-Prospero Colonna surprised and made prisoner-The pope relaxes in his opposition to Francis I-The Swiss resolve to oppose the French-Francis I. summons the city of Milan to surrender-Endeavours without effect to form an alliance with the Swiss-Rapid march of D'Alviano-Inactivity of the Spanish and papal troops-Battle of Marignano-Francis I. knighted by the chevalier Bayard-Surrender of the Milanese-Leo X. forms an alliance with Francis 1.-Embassy from the Venetians to the French king-Death of D'Alviano-Wolsey raised to the rank of cardinal-Leo X. visits Florence-Rejoicings and exhibitions on that occasionProcession of the pope-He visits the tomb of his father-Arrives at BolognaHis interview with Francis I.- Particular occurrences on that occasionAbolition of the Pragmatic Sanction and establishment of the Concordat-Leo X. returns to Florence-Raffaello Petrucci obtains the chief authority in SienaDeath of Giuliano de' Medici-Escape of the pope from barbarian corsairs at Civita Lavinia.
ALTHOUGH the death of Louis XII. had for the present
but had acquired an ascendency over him which might have been converted to very important purposes: and if he could not induce the king to relinquish his designs upon Milan, yet he had made such arrangements as to be prepared for whatever might be the event of that expedition. By the death of this monarch he therefore lost 'in a great degree the result of his labours; and this he had the more reason to regret, as the duke of Angoulême, who succeeded to the crown at the age of twenty-two years, by the name of Francis I., was of a vigorous constitution, an active disposition, and courageous even to a romantic extreme. On assuming the title of king of France, he forgot not to add that of duke of Milan; but although the salique law had preferred him to the two daughters of Louis XII. as the successor of that monarch, the sovereignty of Milan was considered, under the imperial investiture, as the absolute inheritance of the late king, and liable to.be disposed of at his own pleasure. Preparatory to the negotiation which had taken place for the marriage of Renée, youngest daughter of Louis XII., with the archduke Charles, her father had made a grant to her of the duchy of Milan, and the county of Pavia, with a limitation, in case of her dying without offspring, to his eldest daughter Claudia, the queen of Francis I. Soon after the accession of Francis, the queen, therefore, by a solemn diploma, transferred to the king her rights to the duchy of Milan and its dependent states; in consideration, as it appears, of a grant previously made to her of the duchies of Aragon and Angoulême, and the stipulation on the part of Francis of providing a suitable match for the princess Renée."
Forms an alli
The character of Francis I. was a sufficient pledge that the title which he had thus assumed would not ance with the long be suffered to remain merely nominal. From his infancy he had been accustomed to hear of the achievements of his countrymen in Italy. The glory of Gaston de Foix seemed to obscure his own
1 There was also a further limitation to Francis, in case the two princesses died without children. The grant is preserved in Du Mont, Corps Diplomatique, tom. iv. par. i. p. 177.
This act is given by Lünig, Codex Italia Diplomaticus, i. 522. Also by Du Mont, Corps Diplomat. tom. iv. par. i. p. 211.
reputation, and at the recital of the battles of Brescia and of Ravenna, he is said to have expressed all those emotions of impaticnt regret which Cæsar felt on contemplating the statue of Alexander. He was, however, sufficiently aware, that before he engaged in an enterprise of such importance as the conquest of Milan, it would be necessary not only to confirm his alliances with those powers who were in amity with France, but also to obviate, as far as possible, the opposition of such as might be hostile to his views. His first overtures were therefore directed to the young archduke Charles, who, although then only fifteen years of age, had assumed the government of the Netherlands, which he inherited in right of his grandmother Mary, daughter of Charles, last duke of Burgundy. The situation of the archduke rendered such an alliance highly expedient to him; and the conditions were speedily concluded on. By this treaty the contracting parties promised to aid each other in the defence of the dominions which they then respectively held, or which they might thereafter possess; and that if either of them should undertake any just conquest, the other should, upon a proper representation, afford his assistance, in such a manner as might be agreed upon. Many regulations were also introduced respecting the territories held by the archduke as fiefs from the crown of France, and the contract for the marriage of the archduke with the princess Renée was again revived under certain stipulations, which it would be superfluous to enumerate, as the marriage never took place.3
The friendship of Henry VIII. was not less an object of importance to the French monarch than that of the archduke, and he therefore sent instructions And with to the president of Rouen, his ambassador in
3 The author of the "Ligue de Cambray" informs us, that by this treaty the French monarch undertook to assist the archduke in recovering the dominions of his maternal ancestors on the death of his grandfather, the king of Aragon; in return for which the archduke agreed not to oppose the king in his attempt on Milan. Ligue de Camb. vol. ii. p. 397. It would have been very indecorous, and indeed very impolitic, in Charles, to have introduced a clause of this nature, which would have had a direct tendency to throw doubts upon his title to his hereditary dominions in Spain; nor are any such specific stipulations contained in the treaty, which is couched only in general terms. Vide Dumont, Corps Diplomat. tom. iv. par. i. p. 199.