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Pallavicini Giovan Battista, raised to
the dignity of cardinal by Leo X., ii.
93. Cristoforo, a noble Milanese,
put to death by Lautrec, ii. 463.
Pandolfini Nicolo, created a cardinal by
Leo X., ii. 91.

Paolo Fra, his animadversions on Leo
X., ii. 485.

Papal government, nature of, i. 3; its
advantages, i. 7; how exercised in
the middle ages, ii. 98.

Pardo Giovanni, a Neapolitan acade-
mician, i. 51.

Parmenio Lorenzo, Custode of the Vati-
can library, ii. 351.
Parmigiano, see Mazzuoli.

Passerini Silvio, nominated a cardinal
by Leo X., ii. 92.

Pazzi Cosmo de' archbishop of Florence,
conspires against the Medici, i. 340.
Pellegrino da Modena, paints in the
Vatican, ii. 428.

Penni Giov. Francesco, called "Il Fat-
tore," a pupil of Raffaello, ii. 428.
Petrarca, his reproaches of the Roman
court, ii. 99.

Petrucci Borghese, expelled from Siena

by Leo X., ii. 50.-Raffaello ob-
tains the chief authority in Siena, ii.
50; appointed a cardinal by Leo X.,
ii. 92. Alfonso, a cardinal, con-
spires to destroy Leo X. by poison,

ii. 80; is seized on by Leo X., ii. 82;
degraded from his rank, ii. 87; stran-
gled in prison, ii. 87.

Piccolomini Francesco, see Pius III.
Pico Giovanni, of Mirandola, his friend-
ship with Aldo Manuzio, i. 74.-
Galeotto assassinates his uncle Gio-
van- Francesco, ii. 315.-Giovan-
Francesco, count of Mirandola, am-
bassador of Julius II., i. 290; restored to
his dominions by Julius II., i. 293.-
Giovan-Francesco, account of his life
and writings, ii. 313; his unhappy
death, ii. 315.-Lodovico, count of
Mirandola, killed, i. 285.

Pio Alberto, lord of Carpi, i. 74.
Pippi Giulio, called "Giulio Romano," a
disciple of Raffaello, assists him in
painting the Vatican, ii. 427.

Pisa, asserts its liberties, i. 121; the inha-
bitants entreat the protection of Charles
VII., i.-159; prepare for their defence,
i. 175; exertions for that purpose, i.
197; repulse the Florentines, i. 209;
surrender to the Florentines, i. 286;
council of, i. 296; transfer their ses-
sion to Milan, i. 297.

Pisani Francesco, appointed a cardinal
by Leo X., ii. 93.

Pius III., Francesco Piccolomini, i. 28;
his election and short pontificate, i.


Platonic philosophy, its effects on the
established religion, ii. 104; its study
restrained by the church, ii. 105.
Pliny the elder, his works commented
on and published, ii. 326.
Poderico Francesco, a Neapolitan aca-
demician, i. 47.

Politiano Angelo, an early instructor of
Leo X., i. 17; his letter to Innocent
VIII., i. 17; original letter from him
to Lorenzo de' Medici, i. 18; his
Latin writings compared with those of
Pontano, i. 39; inventory of his li-
brary at his death, i. 121.
Pollajuolo Antonio, an early engraver on
copper, ii. 444.

Pomponazzo Pietro, called "Perotto," an
eminent professor of philosophy, i


Pontano Giovanni, called "Jovianus Pon-
tanus," i. 37; his various works, i. 38;
his Latin poetry compared with that
of Politiano, i. 39; appointed secre-
tary to Alfonso II., i. 105; his oration
before Charles VIII., i. 154; his trea-
tise, "De Principe," it. 328; his work,
"De Obedientia," and other moral
writings, ii. 329.


Pontremoli, massacre of the inhabitants
of, by Charles VIII., i. 161.
Ponzetto Ferdinando, created a cardinal
by Leo X., ii. 93.

Popes, origin of their temporal autho-
rity, i. 4; mode of electing, i. 349.
Portio Camillo, his oration in praise of
Emanuel, king of Portugal, i. 407.
Prato sacked by the Spaniards, i. 332.
Prie Aymar de, captures the territory of
Genoa, ii. 18.

Prierio Silvestro, master of the apostolic
palace, answers the propositions of
Luther, ii. 111.

Pucci Lorenzo, endeavours to assist the

cause of the Medici in Florence, i.
328; raised by Leo X. to the rank of
cardinal, i. 383.

Puntormo Giacomo da, employed as a
painter by Leo X., ii. 441.


Querno Camillo, called the "arch-poet,"
ii. 223.


Raffaello d'Urbino, see Sanzio.
Raimondi Marc-Antonio, an eminent
engraver on copper, ii. 445.
Rangone Ercole, raised to the rank of
cardinal by Leo X., ii. 92.
Rannusio Giovan-Battista, ii. 200.
Ravenna attacked by the French under
Gaston de Foix, i. 305; battle of, i.

Ravenna Marco da, an engraver, ii.

Reformation of the church, its origin, ii.
98; by what means promoted by Lu-
ther, ii. 123; its further progress, ii.
258; uncharitable spirit of its first pro-
moters, ii. 295; its effects on literary
studies, ii. 297; on the fine arts, ii.
299; on the political and moral state
of Europe, ii. 302.

Relics sent by the Turkish emperor to
the pope, i. 31.

Rhallus Manilius, appointed archbishop
of Malvasia by Leo X., i. 403.
Riario Raffaello, cardinal of S. Georgio,
i. 29; favours the election of Leo X.,
i. 351; conspires against Leo X., ii.
83; degraded from his rank, ii. §7;
pardoned and restored to favour, ii.
88; quits Rome to reside at Naples,
ii. 88.

Ricci Pietro, called "Petrus Crinitus," i.

69; laments the approaching calami-
ties of Naples, i. 140; his ode on the
prospect of expelling the French from
Naples, i. 152.

Ridolfi Nicolo, created cardinal by Leo
X., ii. 91.

Riva Andrea, the Venetian commissary,
hung with his son by Louis XII., i.

Robbia Luca della, an artist employed by
Leo X., ii. 439.

Rome, state of literature there in 1492,
i. 33; in 1513, i. 394; its population
in the time of Leo X., ii. 95.
Rosi Francesco de', presents to Leo X.
his translation of an Arabic MS., i.

Rosmini Cav., his excellent Life of Tri-
vulzio; attempts to defend him from
the charge of betraying Ferdinand of
Naples, i. 142; account of the battle
of Marignano, by some denominated
Melegnano, or S. Donato; letter of
Francis I. to his mother Louisa on
that event, ii. 28; extract from Mo-
rone's defence, on being accused of
treachery to the duke his master, Maxi-
milian Sforza, ii. 30; error pointed
out by him; some inadvertencies in
his valuable work detected, ii. 34;
ruins of a chapel erected by Louis XII.
to S. Maria della Vittoria, as a mark
of gratitude and piety for his victory,
i. 280; anecdote of Francesca, widow
of Lodovico Pico, and daughter of
Gian Jacopo Trivulzio, i. 293; inade-
quate authority for attributing a vic-
tory to Trivulzio at Bologna, i. 294.
Rossi Luigi, nominated a cardinal by
Leo X., ii. 91.

Rovere Francesco Maria della, afterwards
duke of Urbino, i. 60; attacks the
Venetians, i. 277; assassinates the
cardinel of Pavia, i. 294; absolved
from his homicide by the pope, i. 295;
excommunicated and expelled from
his dominions by Leo X., ii. 61; pub-
lishes a letter arraigning the conduct
of Leo X., ii. 71; recovers his domi-
nions, ii. 71; challenges Lorenzo de'
Medici to single combat, ii. 74; has
recourse to a stratagem, ii. 76; with-
draws his army, ii. 78; resigns his
dominions, ii. 78.-Galeotto della,
a cardinal, his accomplished character
and untimely death, i. 255.——Gio-
vanni della, lord of Sinigaglia, i. 60.

-Giuliano della, see Julius II.
Rucellai Bernardo, refuses the office of
envoy from Florence to congratulate

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Sadoleti Jacopo, afterwards cardinal, a
Neapolitan academician, i. 51; ap-
pointed pontifical secretary to Leo X.,
i. 361; account of his life and writings,
ii. 179; his verses on the Laocoon
and Curtius, ii. 231; his oration
against the Turks, ii. 237; his library
lost, ii. 364.

Salernitano Masuccio, his "Cento No-
velle," ii. 338.

Salviati Giovanni, raised to the rank of
cardinal by Leo X., ii. 91.
Sanazzaro Giacopo, called "Actius Synce-
rus," i. 40; his " Arcadia," i. 42; his
other writings, i. 43; his dissensions
with Politiano, i. 44; his sonnet on the
abdication of Alfonso II. of Naples,
i. 138; accompanies Federigo II. of
Naples into France, i. 219; his Ita-
lian writings compared with those of
Bembo, ii. 130; his Latin writings, ii.
184; his poem "De partu Virginis,"

ii. 186.

Sangro Giovanni di, a Neapolitan aca-
demician, i. 47.

Sanseverino Cardinal, commands in the
battle of Ravenna, i. 307; restored to
his rank by Leo X., i. 390.
Sansovino, see Contucci.
Sanzio Raffaello, d'Urbino, his early

studies, ii. 406; improves himself from
the cartoons of Lionardo da Vinci and
Michel-Agnolo at Florence, ii. 406;
commences his paintings in the Vati-
can, ii. 410; his representation of
-Theology, ii. 410, Philosophy, ii.
412, Poetry, ii. 412, Jurisprudence,
ii. 412; whether he improved his
style from the works of Michel-Ag-
nolo, at Rome, ii. 414; circumstances
decisive of the question, ii. 415; his
picture of Heliodorus, and other works,
ii. 416; employed by Leo X. to pro-
ceed in painting the frescoes of the
Vatican, ii. 419; his picture of Attila,
ii. 419; its allegorical purpose ex-

plained, ii. 420; his picture of the
liberation of St. Peter, ii. 421; works
executed by him for Agostino Chisi,
ii. 422; his Galatea, ii. 422; his
history of Cupid and Psyche, ii.
423; his statue of Jonah, ii. 424; his
portrait of Leo X., ii. 424; his coro-
nation of Charlemagne, and other
works, ii. 426; his Loggie, ii. 427;
his Cartoons, ii. 429; his picture of
the Transfiguration, ii. 430; his de-
signs for the paintings in the hall of
Constantine, ii. 432; employed by
Leo X. to delineate the remains of
ancient Rome, ii. 433; appointed by
Leo X. prefect of the building of St.
Peter's, ii. 434; his report to Leo X.
on the state of the ancient buildings in
Rome, ii. 435; the original drawings
of architectural remains in Rome by
his own hand, made at the desire of
Leo X., now in the library of T. W.
Coke, Esq., at Holkham, ii. 437; his
death, ii. 438; further account of his
works, and of his scholars, by Count
Bossi, ii. 438; his liberal disposition,
ii. 439.

Saraceno Giovan-Antonio, envoy from
Siena, to congratulate Leo X. on his
elevation, i. 359.

Sarto Andrea del, employed in painting

for Leo X. the palace of Poggio-Ca-
jano, ii. 441.

Sauli Bandinello de', cardinal, arrested
as one of the conspirators against Leo
X, ii. 82; his motives and conduct,
ii. 87; degraded from his rank, ii. 87;
pardoned and restored by Leo X., ii.

Savonarola Girolamo, his violent ha-
rangues at Florence, i. 32; his inter-
view with Charles VIII. at Pisa, i.158;
his death and character, i. 193.
Scala Bartolommeo, of Florence, i. 51.
Selim usurps the Ottoman throne, ii.
233; defeats the Sophi of Persia, ii.
234; conquers Egypt, ii. 234; occa-
sions great alarm in Italy, ii. 235.
Sforza Ascanio, a cardinal, i. 29.-
Francesco, alliance between Leo X.
and Charles V. for restoring him to
Milan, ii. 454; obtains the government
on the expulsion of the French, ii. 465.

-Gian-Galeazzo, duke of Milan,
oppressed by his uncle Lodovico, i. 84;
his interview with Charles VIII. at
Pavia, i. 113; his death, i. 113.-
Lodovico, encourages men of talents,
i. 65; his ambitious views, i. 84; jea-
lous of the alliance between Piero de'

Medici and the king of Naples, i. 87;
resolves to invite Charles VIII. into
Italy, i. 87; forms a league with the
pope and Venetians, i. 88; usurps the
government of Milan, i. 113; forms a
new alliance with Charles VIII., i. 171;
his extravagant grief on the death of
his wife Beatrice of Este, i. 179; forms
an alliance with the Florentines, i.
190; betrayed by the Swiss, i. 208;
his imprisonment and death, i. 208.
--Maximilian, restored to the go.
vernment of Milan, i. 337; prepares
to defend his dominions against Louis
XII., i. 368; his apprehensions of
treachery, i. 370; relinquishes to
Francis I. the duchy of Milan, ii. 29.
Silvestri Guido Postumo, account of his
life, ii. 216; his Latin writings, ii.

Sion, cardinal of, stimulates the Swiss
to oppose the French, ii. 22.
Sixtus IV., his death, i. 11.

Society, errors incident to an early state
of, ii. 306.

Soderini Francesco, cardinal, favoured

by Leo X., i. 361; conspires against
the pope, ii. 85.-Pietro, preserves
Florence from the attacks of Cæsar
Borgia, i. 122; is appointed Gonfaloniere
for life, i. 223; his indecision, i. 331;
is deposed from his office, i. 333; es-
capes into Turkey, i. 334; is recalled
and favoured by Leo X., i. 361. uctions
Sozzini Bartolommeo, gives instr

to Leo X., i. 21.

Stampa Gaspara, an Italian poetess, ii.

Staupitz John, general of the Augustines,
applied to by Leo X. to pacify Luther,
ii. 113; prevails upon Luther to ad-
dress to the cardinal of Gaeta a con-
ciliatory letter, ii. 120.

Strozzi Ercole, a Latin poet, i. 53.-
Filippo, marries Clarice, daughter of
Piero de' Medici, i. 253.- -Tito Ves-
pasiano, a Latin pɔet, i. 53.
Suffolk, duke of, marries Mary, sister of
Henry VIII. and widow of Louis XII.,
i. 462.

Summonte Pietro, a Neapolitan acade-
mician, i. 49.

Surrey, earl of, defeats James Iv. of
Scotland at the battle of Flodden, i.

Swiss, betray Lodovico Sforza, i. 208;
arrive in Italy in the service of Leo X.,
i. 368; defeat the French at the battle
of Novara, i. 570; compel the duke de
la Tremouille to enter into the treaty

of Dijon, i. 379; undertake the defence
of Milan, ii. 21; defeated at Marignano
by Francis I., ii. 27; join the pope and
emperor Francis I., ii. 462.

Symmachus Pope, erected the palace of
the Vatican, ii. 393.


Taro, battle of the, i. 165.
Tebaldeo Antonio, i. 49; his opinion on
the abdication of Alfonso II. of Naples,
i. 139; his sonnet on the conquest of
Naples by Charles VIII. i. 145; ac-
count of his life and writings, ii.

Tebalducci Anton-Giacomino, defends
Leghorn against the emperor elect,
Maximilian, i. 177.

Terouenne razed by the emperor elect,
Maximilian, i. 375.

Terracina Laura, an Italian poetess, ii.

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Vaga Perino del, assists Raffaello in
painting the Vatican, ii. 428.
Valeriano Giovan- Pietro, of Belluno,

called "Pierius Valerianus," i. 51; at
tends the court of Leo X., ii. 382; his
treatise, "De Literatorum Infelici-
tate," and other writings, ii. 383.
Valle Andrea della. raised to the rank of
cardinal by Leo X., ii. 91.

Valori Nicolo, the biographer of Lorenzo
the Magnificent, conspires against the
Medici, 340; condemned to per-
petual imprisonment, i. 360; par-
doned by Leo X., i. 361.
Vatican Palace, its erection and pro-
gressive improvements, ii 393; library,
increased by Leo X., ii 350; Custodi,
or keepers of, ii. 351; its state under
Clement VII., ii. 353; learned libra-
rians of, ii. 353.

Venetians, causes of the jealousy of the
Europeans against them, i. 267; repel
the attack of the emperor elect, Maxi-
milian, i 271; prepare for their de-
fence against the league of Cambray,
i. 276; their territories dismembered,
i. 280; exertions of the senate, i. 282;
recover the city of Padua, i. 283; de-
feated on the Po by the duke of Fer-
rara, i. 285; pacify and form an al-
liance with Julius II, i! 287; form
with Louis XII. the treaty of Blois,
i. 364; submit their differences with
the emperor elect, Maximilian, to
Leo X., i. 382; renew the treaty of
Blois with Francis I., ii. 4; assist him
in recovering the Milanese, i. 27;
despatch an embassy to Francis 1. at
Man, ii. 33; recover the city of
Brescia, ii. 65.

Veneziano Agostino, an eminent engraver
on copper, ii. 446.

Verazzani Giovanni, an eminent naviga-
tor, ii. 321.

Vercelli Battista da, employed by the
cardinal Petrucci to poison Leo X., ii.
81; executed, ii. 87.

Vespucci Amerigo, ii. 321.
Vicenza, battle of, i. 380.

Vick Gulielmo Raimondo, appointed a
cardinal by Leo X., ii. 92.

Vida Girolamo, account of his life, ii.
189; his " Christiad," ii. 191; his
"Poetics," ii. 192; his Ode to Leo X.,
exhorting him to attack the Turks, ii.

Vincenzo da S. Gemignano, paints in
the Vatican, ii. 428.
Vinci Lionardo da, i. 63; his picture of
the Last Supper, i. 64; emulation
between him and Michel-Agnolo, ii.
398; his Cartoons of the Wars of
Pisa, ii. 399; doubts respecting his
visit to Rome in the pontificate of
Leo X., ii. 422.

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Vio Tomaso di, nominated a cardinal by
Leo X., and called cardinal of Gaeta,
or Cajetanus," ii. 90; authorized by
Leo X. to call Luther before him at
Augsburg, ii. 114; interview between
him and Luther, ii. 117; writes to the
elector of Saxony against Luther, ii.

Virunio Pontico, i. 67.
Visconti Gasparo, i. 66.
Vitelli Paolo, attempts to storm the city
of Pisa, i. 176; appointed general of
the Florentine army by the rules of
astrology, i. 189; captures the fortress
of Vico-Pisano, i. 193; effects a breach
in the walls of Pisa, i. 198; brought
to Florence and decapitated, i. 199.
Vitelozzo, put to death by Cesar
Borgia, at Sinigaglia, i. 227.
Volta Achille della, wounds Aretino with
a dagger, ii. 344.

Urbino, seized on by Leo X., ii. 64;

Lorenzo de' Medici created duke of,
ii. 64; recovered by the exiled duke,
ii. 71; wars respecting it, ii. 75; ceded
to Leo X., ii. 78; united to the do-
minions of the church, ii. 256.
Urceus Codrus, i. 68.


Wittemberg, the university of, intercedes
with Leo X. on behalf of Luther, ii.

Wolsey Thomas, appointed bishop of
Tournay, i. 375; succeeds Christopher
Bambridge as archbishop of York, i.
441; raised to the rank of a cardinal,
ii. 35.

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