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him in the preparation of this volume, and in particular to Professor Johnson of the New York University, for the generous interest manifested in his labors, and for the use of a valuable work which was essential to the prosecution of his undertaking.

With these remarks, the present volume is submitted to the public, with the hope that it will be of some service in promoting the study of Livy, and of the noble language in which he wrote.

BROWN UNIVERSITY, August, 1847

In the notes which have reference to the passage of Hannibal, I have followed the route as originally made out by General Melville, the correctness of which cannot be doubted. Gen. Melville's account of the march of Hannibal may be found in M. de Luc's Histoire du Passage des Alpes par Hannibal, Genève et Paris, 1818; and in Wickham and Cramer's Dissertation on the Passage of Hannibal over the Alps; London, 1828. The Map, which accompanies this edition of Livy, is copied, with some corrections, from that prefixed to the latter of the above-mentioned works.

It may be well to give here a brief statement of Hannibal's route. After crossing the Pyrenees, he went to Nimes. From Nimes ne marched to the Rhone, which he crossed at Roquemaure, and then went up the river to Vienne. From thence, he marched across the flat country of Dauphiné, and rejoined the Rhone at St. Genis d'Aouste. He then crossed the Mont du Chat to Chambery, joined the Isere at Montmeillan, ascended it as far as Scez, crossed the Little St. Bernard, and descended upon Aosta and Ivrea by the river Doria Baltea. After halting a short time at Ivrea, he marched upon Turin, which he took, and then prepared himself for operations against the Romans.

The following is a summary of the distances, (after the passage of the Pyrenees,) as given by Polybius, in B. 3, ch. 39 :

From Emporium to the passage of the

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I add here Dr. Arnold's view of Hannibal's route :

"On the whole, it appears to me most probable, that the pass by which Hannibal entered Italy, was that which was known to the Romans by the name of the Graian Alps, and to us as the Little St. Bernard. Nor was this so circuitous a line as we may at first imagine. For Hannibal's object was not simply to get into Italy, but to arrive in the country of those Cisalpine Gauls with whom he had been corresponding. Now these were the Boii and Insubrians; and as the Insubrians, who were the more. westerly of the two, lived between the Addi and the Ticinus, the pass of the Little St. Bernard led more directly into the country of his allies, than the shorter passage into Italy by the Cottian Alps, or Mont Genevre."Hist. 2, Note L.

The same view is taken by Dr. Schmitz, in his History of Rome, p 199

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