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can be little doubt that if that warlike genius had succeeded to the full extent of his projects, some of the most ancient empires in this quarter of the world had, ere this time, ceased to exist as independent nations. If, then, it be true that the same principles of policy which ruined ancient States are still inherent to European councils, it would be too much to say that even the most Christianized countries may not yet have to pass through the fire of many revolutions which it is impossible to foresee; notwithstanding which, when we regard the more liberal and enlightened views which are gradually developed by the different cabinets of European and American governments, it does not seem probable that any such annihilating consequences are to be apprehended from modern revolutions, as those which occurred in times when every State was jealous of the prosperity of its neighbour, and was ready to avail itself of every opportunity to aggrandise itself at the expense of others. Yet whatever may be the policy of statesmen and the voice of popular clamour, still it is not the wisdom of the former, nor the knowledge of the latter, which can prevent the disasters of olden times from recurring the counsellors of Persia, Greece and Rome, were in their day as wise, and the people as patriotic as, perhaps, those of our own age. The only thing that essentially distinguishes modern from ancient communities, and opens to the former happier prospects, is the wide-spread, albeit latent. influence of Christianity.

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s, there does not appear to be any reason why might not, indeed, anticipate a continual series the same melancholy revolutions which have ertaken all those nations which pursued the urse of their own ambitious and indiscreet policy, d were either ignorant or negligent of the divine 11.

It is the opinion of some enlightened minds that e time will come when not only all nations, but individuals shall have so imbibed the spirit of hristian fellowship, that the need of political gornments shall be superseded-when all shall so ve the mutual good of each other at heart, that ere shall no longer be enemies to resist, nor ofnces to punish-in the day when, "nation shall ot lift up sword against nation, neither shall they arn war any more.'

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The time of peace and virtue has always been egarded as that of prosperity and happinesshen men "shall beat their swords into ploughmares, and their spears into pruning hooks." It is he golden age in which, as Virgil says, in complient to Pollio,

Ille Deûm vitam accipiet, Divisque videbit
Permixtos Heroas, et ipse videbitur illis ;
Pacatumque reget patriis virtutibus Orbem.

In that time, proceeds the bard, the earth shall pontaneously produce the corn and the vine, the domestic animals shall multiply, poisonous reptiles hall become extinct, and Saturn shall return

again to reign-then, as he more exquisitely breathes,

Incipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem.

The poet's ideas may indeed have been borrowed from the Sibylline books, and these may have been modified traditions derived from the Jews; yet from whatever source they came, they still reecho the sentiments of those who use them and the age that receives them current. Peaceful times not only allow the fruits of the vine and olive to flourish and ripen, but also the schemes and affairs of society to mature; so that however romantic the Saturnian times and golden age of classic authors may appear to those whose eyes are only used to the desolate spectacle of battle fields, the cheerless sight of starving paupers, and the barren prospect of barbarous countries; yet in reality they depict in a somewhat exaggerated style, what may be reasonably looked for in the natural consequences of a virtuous and pacific age. It is then that people in the quietude of their homes look to the real interests of domestic happiness-it is then that the culture of the heart is attended to, as well as that of the garden and field-it is then that commerce exerts its influence in bringing remote nations into friendly contact, mutually to relieve the wants and administer to the comforts of each other. Most of the ancient nations sought riches by war and rapine; but it is the object of commerce to gain the same ends by

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dealing; and thus, by avoiding provocation, aping retaliation. In the absence of virtue, the alth of Persia and Rome promoted luxury and eneracy, instead of merely adding, as they urally should do, to the comforts and elegancies civilized society. In fine, the want or the -version of Christian principles of conduct, may, the whole, be regarded as the chief cause of all miseries which both empires and individuals dergo. What did commerce do for the Tyrians t nourish pride and feed ambition and every man depravity, and fatten them like a goodly ey for avaricious enemies? What did it do for oy, but lead her subjects into scrapes at foreign urts? What has it done for Britons? It has de them a "wonderful nation"-" a beautiful ople!"—to use the expressions of an African ince. Thus the same pursuits, although in each stance tending to promote wealth, finally approxate to a fatal or happy crisis, according to the oral principles upon which they are conducted, d by which the application of their produce is rected; they tend to aggrandizement, spoliation, centiousness, idleness, degeneracy, and ruin; or, nduce to wealth, refinement, benevolence, instry, and independence. As society at present ists, we perceive that whilst one class of indiduals thrives, another starves-that the fluctuaons of trade frequently occasion this disparity; ad that the vices and imprudencies of individuals gravate it indefinitely-and that the interference



of the legislature for the purpose of aggrandising either the nation itself, or a mere party, tends to render that an object of ambition, which in its nature is, and should be, only the business of life.

We individually hold the balance in our own hands; and it rests with each, whether good or evil shall preponderate in the conduct of his life -and it remains with each, whether the influence which he possesses shall be exerted for the moral advancement of others, and to communicate a Christian bias to the minds of rising generations.

Where there is a predisposition to vice, as there is in all human beings, the balance will naturally preponderate against virtue. The Indians of America, and the barbarians of other countries, have by contact with our irregularities imbibed drunkenness and vice, instead of having amid better communications selected soberness and virtue; and thus do the youth of our land more greedily contract the vices than the virtues of society, unless by an early initiation, their minds be prepossessed by the spirit and doctrines of Christianity.

The object of social communities is the convenience and happiness of its members. It is not aggrandisement, nor wealth, nor extent of territories. Empires may, and most likely will be curtailed-wealth may, and probably will become more equally diffused-the majesty of princes may do homage to the majesty of the people. The empires of former ages, their glory, and the very deities in which they trusted, have passed away as

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