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unless they inclined, Tacit. Annal. ii. 34., and by none other but Vesta, Senec. ibid. They might make their testament, although under age; for they were not subject to the power of a parent or guardian, as other women, Gell. ibid. They could free a criminal from punishment, if they met him accidentally, Plutarch. in Numa; and their interposition was always greatly respected, Cic. Font. 17. Agr. ii. 36. Taçit. Annal. xi. 32. Suet. Jul. 1. Tib. 2. Vit. 16. Tacit. Hist. iii. 81. They had a salary from the public, Liv. i. 20. Suet. Aug. 31. They were held in such veneration, that testaments and the most importants deeds were committed to their care, Suet. Jul. 83. Aug. 102. Tacit. Annal. i. 8. Dio. xlviii. 12. 37.46. Tacit. Annal. iv. 16., and they enjoyed all the privileges of matrons, who had three children, Dio. Ivi. 10.

When the Vestal Virgins were forced through indisposition to leave the ATRIUM VESTE, probably a house adjoining to the temple, and to the palace of Numa, REGIA parva NUME; if not a part of it, Ovid. Trist. iii. 1. 30. Fast. vi. 263., where the virgins lived, they were entrusted to the care of some venerable matron, Plin. Ep. vii. 19.

If any Vestal violated her vow of chastity, after being tried and sentenced by the Pontifices, she was buried alive with funeral solemnities in a place called the CAMPUS SCELERATUS, near the Porta Collina, and her paramour scourged to death in the Forum; which method of punishment is said to have been first contrived by Tarquinius Priscus, Dionys. iii. 67. The commission of this crime was thought to forbode some dreadful calamity to the state, and therefore was always expiated with extraordinary sacrifices, Liv. viii. 15. xiv. xxii. 57. lxiii. Dionys. i. 78. ii. 67. viii. 89. ix. 40. Dio. fragm. 91, 92. Plutarch. q. Rom. 83. Ascon. in Mil. 12. Suet. Dom. 8. Plin. Ep. iv. 11. Juvenal. iv. 10. The suspected virtue of some virgins is said to have been miraculously cleared, Valer. Max. viii. 1. 5. Liv. xxix. 14. Plin. vii. 35.

These were the principal divisions of the Roman priests. Concerning their emoluments the classics leave us very much in the dark; as they also do with respect to those of the magistrates. When Romulus first divided the Roman territory, he set apart what was sufficient for the performance of sacred rites, and for the support of temples. Dionys. ii. 7. So Livy informs us, that Numa, who instituted the greatest number of priests and sacrifices, provided a fund for defraying these expences (unde in eos sumptus pecunia erogaretur), i. 20., but appointed a public stipend (stipendium de publico statuit), to none but the Vestal Virgins, ibid. Dionysius, speaking of

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Romulus,

Romulus, says, that while other nations were negligent about the choice of their priests, some exposing that office to sale, and others determining it by lot; Romulus made a law that two men, above fifty, of distinguished rank and virtue, without bodily defect, and possessed of a competent fortune, should be chosen from each curia, to officiate as priests in that curia or parish for life; being exempted by age from military service, and by law from the troublesome business of the city, ii. 21. There is no mention of any annual salary. In after ages the priests claimed an immunity from taxes, which the Pontifices and augurs for several years did not pay. At last, however, the quæstors wanting money for public exigencies, forced them, after appealing in vain to the tribunes, to pay up their arrears, (annorum, per quos non dederant, stipendium exactum est,) Liv. xxxiii. 42. s. 44. Augustus encreased both the dignity and emoluments (COMMODA) of the priests, particularly of the Vestal Virgins, Suet. Aug. 31.; as he likewise first fixed the salaries of the provincial magistrates, Dio. lii. 23. 25. liii. 15., whence we read of a sum of money (SALARIUM) being given to those who were disappointed of a province, Id. 78. 22. xliii. 4. lxxviii. 22. Tacit. Agric. 42. But we read of no fixed salary for the priests; as for the teachers of the liberal arts, Suet. Vest. 18. Digest., and for others, Suet. Tib. 46. Ner. 10. When Theodosius the Great abolished the heathen worship at Rome, Zosimus mentions only his refusing to grant the public money for sacrifices, and expelling the priests of both sexes from the temples, v. 38. It is certain, however, that sufficient provision was made, in whatever manner, for the maintenance of those who devoted themselves wholly to sacred functions. Honour, perhaps, was the chief reward of the dignified priests, who attended only occasionally, and whose rank and fortune raised them above desiring any pecuniary gratification. There is a passage in the life of Aurelian by Vopiscus, c. 15., which some apply to this subject; although it seems to be restricted to the priests of a particular temple, Pontifices roboravit, sc. Aurelianus, i. e. he endowed the chief priests with salaries, decrevit etiam emolumenta ministris, and granted certain emoluments to their servants, the inferior priests who took care of the temples. The priests are by later writers sometimes divided into three classes the antistites or chief priests, the sacerdotes or ordinary priests, and the ministri or meanest priests, whom Manilius calls auctoratos in tertia jura ministros, v. 350., but for the most part only into two classes, the Pontifices or Sacerdotes, and the ministri; as in Vopiscus; so in Legg. 14. Cod. Theodos. de Pagan. Sacrif. et Templis.

SERVANTS

SERVANTS OF THE PRIESTS.

THE priests who had children employed them to assist in performing sacred rites: but those who had no children procured free-born boys and girls to serve them, the boys to the age of puberty, and the girls till they were married. These were called Camilli and Camilla, Dionys. ii. 24.

Those who took care of the temples were called ÆDITUI or Editumni, Gell. xii. 6., those who brought the victims to the altar and slew them, POP, Victimarii and Cultarii; to whom in particular the name of MINISTRI was properly applied, Ovid. Fast. i. 319. iv. 637. Met. ii. 717. Virg. G. iii. 488. Juvenal. xii. 14. The boys who assisted the Flamines in sacred rites were called FLAMINII; and the girls, FLAMINIÆ,. Festus. There were various kinds of musicians, Tibicines, Tubicines, Fidicines, &c. Liv. ix, 30..

III. THE PLACES AND RITES OF SACRED
THINGS.

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THE places dedicated to the worship of the gods were called temples, TEMPLA, (fana, delubra, sacraria, ades sacræ,) and consecrated by the augurs; hence called Augusta. temple built by Agrippa in the time of Augustus, and dedicated to all the gods, was called Pantheon, Dio. liii. 27.

A small temple or chapel was called Sacellum or Edicula. A wood or thicket of trees consecrated to religious worship was called Lucus, a grove, Plin. xii. 6. Plaut. Amph. v. 1. 42. The gods were supposed to frequent woods and fountains; hence, Esse locis superos testatur silva per omnem sola virens Libyen, Lucan. ix. 522.

The worship of the gods consisted chiefly in prayers, vows,

and sacrifices.

No act of religious worship was performed without prayer. The words used were thought of the greatest importance, and varied according to the nature of the sacrifice, Valer. Max. i. 1. Hence the supposed force of charms and incantations, (verba et incantamenta carminum), Plin. xxviii. 2. Horat. Ep. i. 1. 34. When in doubt about the name of any god, lest they should mistake, they used to say, QUISQUIS ES, Plaut. Rud. i. 4. 37. Virg. Æn. iv. 577. Whatever occurred to a person in doubt what to say, was supposed to be suggested by some divinity, Plaut. Most. iii. 1. 137. Apulei. de Deo Socratis. In the daytime the gods were thought to remain for the most part in heaven, but to go up and down the earth during the night to

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observe the actions of men, Plaut. Rud. Prol. 8. The stars were supposed to do the contrary, ibid.

Those who prayed, stood usually with their heads covered (capite velato vel operto) looking towards the east ; a priest pronounced the words before them (verba præibat); they frequently touched the altars or the knees of the images of the gods; turning themselves round in a circle (in gyrum se convertebant), Liv. v. 21., towards the right, Plaut. Curc. i. 1. 70., sometimes they put their right hand to their mouth (dextram ori admovebant; whence adoratio), and also prostrated themselves on the ground (procumbebant aris advoluti).

The ancient Romans used with the same solemnity to offer up vows, (VOVERE, vota facere, suscipere, concipere, nuncu pare, &c.) They vowed temples, games, thence called Ludi votivi, sacrifices, gifts, a certain part of the plunder of a city, &c. Also what was called VER SACRUM, that is, all the cattle which were produced from the first of March to the end of April, Liv. xxii. 9, 10. xxxiv. 44. In this vow among the Samnites, men were included, Festus in MAMERTINI.

Sometimes they used to write their vows on paper or waxen tablets, to seal them up (obsignare), and fasten them with wax to the knees of the images of the gods; that being supposed to to be the seat of mercy: Hence Genua incerare deorum, Juvenal. x. 55.

When the things for which they offered up vows were granted, the vows were said valere, esse rata, &c., but if not, cadere, esse irrita, &c.

The person who made vows was said, esse voti reus; and when he obtained his wish (voti compos), voti damnatus, bound to make good his vow, till he performed it, Macrob. Sat. iii. 2., vel voto, Virg. Ecl. v. 80. Hence damnabis tu quoque votis, i. e. obligabis ad vota solvenda,' shalt bind men to perform their vows by granting what they prayed for, Virg. ibid., reddere vel solvere vota, to perform. Pars prædæ debita, Liv. debiti vel meriti honores, merita dona, &c. A vowed feast (epulum votivum) was called POLLUCTUM, Plaut. Rud. v. 3. 63., from pollucere to consecrate, Id. Stich. i. 3. 80., hence pollucibiliter cænare, to feast sumptuously, Id. Most. i. 1. 23. Those who implored the aid of the gods, used to lie (incubare) in their temples, as if to receive from them responses in their sleep, Serv. in Virg. vii. 88. Cic. Divin. i. 43. The sick in particular did so in the temple of Esculapius, Plaut. Curc. i. 1. 61. `ii. 2. 10, &c.

Those saved from shipwreck used to hang up their clothes in the temple of Neptune, with a picture (tabula votiva) representing the circumstances of their danger and escape, Virg. xii. 768. Horat. Od. i. 5. Cic. Nat. D. iii. 37. So soldiers, when discharged, used to suspend their arms to Mars,

gladiators

gladiators their swords to Hercules, Horat. Ep. i. I. 4., and poets, when they finished a work, the fillets of their hair to Apollo, Stat. Silv. iv. 4. 92. A person who had suffered shipwreck, used sometimes to support himself by begging, and for the sake of moving compassion, to shew a picture of his misfortunes, Juvenal. xiv. 301. Phædr. iv. 21. 24.

Augustus, having lost a number of his ships in a storm, expressed his resentment against Neptune, by ordering that his image should not be carried in procession with those of the other gods at the next solemnity of the Circensian games, Suet. Aug. 16.

Thanksgivings (gratiarum actiones) used always to be made to the gods for benefits received, and upon all fortunate events. It was, however, believed that the gods, after remarkable success, used to send on men, by the agency of NEMESIS, (ULTRIX facinorum impiorum, bonorumque PREMIATRIX, Marcellin. xiv. 11.) a reverse of fortune, Liv. xlv. 41. To avoid which, as it is thought, Augustus, in consequence of a dream, every year, on a certain day, begged an alms from the people, holding out his hand to such as offered him (cavam manum asses porrigentibus præbens), Suet. Aug. 91. Dio. liv. 35.

When a general had obtained a signal victory, a thanksgiving (SUPPLICATIO vel supplicium) was decreed by the senate to be made in all the temples, Liv. iii. 63.; and what was called a LECTISTERNIUM, when couches were spreat! (lecti vel pulvinaria sternebantur), for the gods, as if about to feast, and their images taken down from their pedestals, and placed upon these couches round the altars, which were loaded with the richest dishes. Hence, Ad omnia pulvinaria sacrificatum, Liv. xxii. 1., supplicatio decreta est, Cic. Cat. iii. 10. This honour was decreed to Cicero for having suppressed the conspiracy of Catiline, which he often boasts had never been conferred on any other person without laying aside his robe of peace (togatus), Dio. 37.36. Cic. Pis. 3. Cat. iii. 6. 10. The author of the decree was L. Cotta, Cic. Phil. ii. 6. xiv. 8. A supplication was also decreed in times of danger or public distress; when the women prostrating themselves on the ground sometimes swept the temples with their hair, Liv. iii. 7. The Lectisternium was first introduced in the time of a pestilence, A. U. 356. Liv. v. 13.

In sacrifices it was requisite that those who offered them should come chaste and pure; that they should bathe themselves; be dressed in white robes, and crowned with the leaves of that tree, which was thought most acceptable to the god. whom they worshipped. Sometimes also in the garb of suppliants, with dishevelled hair, loose robes, and barefooted.. Vows and prayers were always made before the sacrifice.

It was necessary that the animals to be sacrificed (hostiæ vel

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victime,

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