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But this was far from being the case in the provinces where publicans were held in detestation, Ascon. in Cic. Verr. ii. 3. especially their servants and assistants.

A great degree of splendor was added to the Equestrian order by a procession (TRANSVECTIONE), which they made through the city every year on the 15th day of July, (Idibus Quinctilibus, Liv. ix. 46.) from the temple of Honour, or of Mars, without the city, to the Capitol, riding on horseback, with wreaths of olive on their heads, drest in their Toga palmate, or trabeæ, of a scarlet colour, and bearing in their hands the military ornaments which they had received from their general, as a reward for their valour, Dionys. vi. 13. Plin. xv. 4s. 5. At this time it was not allowable to cite them before a court of justice; such at least was the case under Augustus, Suet. Aug. 38.

Every fifth year, when this procession was made, the Equites rode up to the Censor seated in his curule chair, before the Capitol, and dismounting led along (TRADUCEBANT) their horses in their hands before him, Cic. Cluent. 48. Quinctil. 5. 11. 13. and in this manner they were reviewed (RECOGNOSCEBANTUR).

If any Eques was corrupt in his morals, or had diminished his fortune, or even had not taken proper care of his horse, Gell. iv. 20. the Censor ordered him to sell his horse, Liv. xxix. 37. and thus he was reckoned to be removed from the Equestrian order; hence ADIMERE EQUUM, to degrade an Eques: But those whom the Censor approved, were ordered to lead along (traducere) their horses, Ovid. Trist. ii. 89.

At this time also the Censor read over a list of the Equites, and such as were less culpable (qui minore culpá tenerentur) were degraded (ORDINE EQUESTRI MOTI SUNT), only by passing over their names in the recital, Suet. Cal. 16. We find it mentioned as a reward, that a person should not be obliged to serve in the army, nor to maintain a public horse, (ne invitus militaret, neve Censor ei equum publicum assignaret ;) but this exemption could be granted only by the people, Liv. xxxix. 19.

The Eques whose name was first marked in the Censor's books, was called EQUESTRIS ORDINIS PRINCEPS, Plin. Ep. i. 14. or PRINCEPS JUVENTUTIS; not that in reality the Equites were all young men, for many grew old in that order, as Mæcenas and Atticus; and we find the two Censors, Livius and Nero, were Equites, Liv. xxix. 37. but because they had been generally so at their first institution; and among the Romans men were called Juvenes till near fifty. Hence we find Julius Cæsar called Adolescentulus, when he stood candidate for being high-priest, although he


was then thirty-six years old, Sall. Cat. 49. And Cicero calls himself Adolescens when he was Consul, Phil. ii. 5. Under 'the Emperors, the heirs of the empire were called Principes Juventutis, Suet. Calig. 15. vel juvenum, Ovid. Pont. ii. 5. 41. We find this name also applied to the whole Equestrian order, Liv. xlii. 61.


ALL the other Roman citizens, besides the Patricians and Equites, were called PLEBS or POPULUS. Populus sometimes comprehends the whole nation; as CLEMENTIA ROMANI POPULI: or all the people except the senate; as SENATUS POPULUSQUE ROMANUS. In which last sense plebs is also often used; as when we say, that the Consuls were created from the plebeians, that is, from those who were not Patricians. But plebs is usually put for the lowest common people; hence, ad populum plebemque referre, Cic. Fam. viii. 8. So Gell. x. 10. Thus Horace; Plebs eris, i. e. unus e plebe, & plebeian, not an Eques, Ep. i. 1. 59. who also uses plebs for the whole people, Od. iii. 14. 1.

The common people who lived in the country, and cultivated the ground, were called PLEBS RUSTICA, Liv. Xxxv. 1. Anciently the senators also did the same, Cic. de Sen. 16. but not so in after-times, Liv. iii. 26. The common people who lived in the city, merchants, mechanics, &c. Cic. Off. i. 42. were called PLEBS URBANA, Sall. Cat. 37. Both are joined, lb. Jug. 73.

The PLEBS RUSTICA was the most respectable. (Optima et modestissima, Cic. Rull. ii. 31. laudatissima, Plin. 18. 3.) The PLEBS URBANA was composed of the poorer citizens, many of whom followed no trade, but were supported by the public and private largesses. (Eos publicum malum alebat ; Sallust. Cat. 37.) In the latter ages of the republic an immense quantity of corn was annually distributed among them at the public expence, five bushels monthly to each man, Sallust. Fragm. edit. Cortii, p. 974. Their principal business was to attend on the tribunes and popular magistrates in their assemblies; hence they were called TURBA FORENSIS, Liv. ix. 46. and from their venality and corruption, OPERE CONDUCTE vel mercenarii, in allusion to mercenary workmen, Cic. Sext. 17. 27. Q. fratr. ii. 1. Att. i. 13. OPERE CONDUCTORUM, Sext. 50. MULTITUDO CONDUCTA, Phil. i. 9. CONCIONES CONDUCTE, Sext. 49. 53. CONCIONALIS HIRUDO ærarii, misera ac jejuna PLEBECULA, Att. i. 16. FAX ET SORDES URBIS, 16. 13. URBANA et perdita PLEBS, Id. vii. 3.


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Cicero often opposes the populace (populus, plebs, multitudo, tenuiores, &c.) to the principal nobility, (principes delecti, Optimates et Optimatium principes, honesti, boni, locupletes, &c.) Cic. Sext. 48. 68, &c.

There were leading men among the populace (duces multitudinum), kept in pay by the seditious magistrates, who used for hire to stimulate them to the most daring outrages, Sallust. Cat. 50. Cic. Sext. 37. 46. The turbulence of the common people of Rome, the natural effect of idleness and unbounded licentiousness, is justly reckoned among the chief causes of the ruin of the republic. Trade and manufactures being considered as servile employments, Sallust. Cat. 4. Dionys. ix. 25. they had no encouragement to industry; and the numerous spectacles which were exhibited, particularly the shews of gladiators, served to increase their natural ferocity. Hence they were always ready to join in any conspiracy against the state, Sallust. Cat. 37.



THAT the patricians and plebeians might be connected together by the strictest bonds, Romulus ordained that every plebeian should chuse from the patricians any one he pleased, as his PATRON or protector, whose CLIENT he was called (quod eum colebat). It was the part of the Patron to advise and to defend his client, to assist him with his interest and substance, in short to do every thing for him that a parent uses to do for his children. The Client was obliged to pay all kind of respect to his patron, and to serve him with his life and fortune in any extremity, Dionys. ii. 10.

It was unlawful for Patrons and Glients to accuse or bear witness against each other; and whoever was found to have acted otherwise, might be slain by any one with impunity, as a victim devoted to Pluto and the infernal gods. Hence both Patrons and Clients vied with one another in fidelity and observance, and for more than 600 years we find no dissensions between them, lbid. Virgil joins to the crime of beating one's parent that of defrauding a client, Æn. vi. 605. It was esteemed highly honourable for a patrician to have numerous clients, both hereditary, and acquired by his own merit, Horat. Ep. ii. 1. 103. Juvenal. x. 44.

In after-times, even cities and whole nations were under the protection of illustrious Roman families; As the Sicilians under


under the patronage of the Marcelli, Cic. in Cæcil. 4. Verr. iii. 18. Cyprus and Cappadocia under that of Cato, Cic. Fam. xv. 4. the Allobroges under the patronage of the Fabii, Sallust. Cat. 41. the Bononienses, of the Antonii, Suet. Aug. 17. Lacedæmon, of the Claudii, Id. Tib. 6. Thus the people of Puteoli chose Cassius and the Bruti for their patrons, Cic. Phil. ii. 41. Capua chose Cicero, Cic. Pis. 11. Fam. xvi. 11. &c. This however seems to have taken place also at an early period, Liv. ix. 20. &c.

Those whose ancestors or themselves had borne any Curule magistracy, that is, had been Consul, Prætor, Censor, or Curule Edile, were called NOBILES, and had the right of making images of themselves (JUS IMAGINUM), which were kept with great care by their posterity, and carried before them at funerals, Plin. xxxv. 2.

These images were nothing else but the busts or the effigies of persons down to the shoulders, made of wax and painted; which they used to place in the courts of their houses (atria), inclosed in wooden cases, and seem not to have brought them out except on solemn occasions, Polyb. vi. 51. There were titles or inscriptions written below them, pointing out the honours they had enjoyed, and the exploits they had performed. (Juvenal. Sat. viii. 69. Plin. xxxv. 2.) Hence imagines is often put for nobilitas, Sallust. Jug. 85. Liv. iii. 58. and cera for imagines, Ovid. Amor. i. 8. 65. Anciently this right of images was peculiar to the patricians; but afterwards the plebeians also acquired it, when admitted to curule offices.

Those who were the first of their family that had raised themselves to any curule office, were called Homines NOVI, new men or upstarts. Hence Cicero calls himself Homo per se cognitus, in Cat. i. 11.

Those who had no images of their own or of their ancestors, were called IGNOBILES.

Those who favoured the interests of the senate, were called OPTIMATES, Liv. ii. 39. and sometimes Proceres or Principes: Those who studied to gain the favour of the multitude, were called POPULARES, of whatever order they were, Cic. pro Sext. 45. This was a division of factions, and not of rank or dignity, Dionys. ix. 1. The contests betwixt these two parties excited the greatest commotions in the state, which finally terminated in the extinction of liberty.



THE Romans were divided into various clans (GENTES), and each gens into several families (in FAMILIAS v. Stirpes). Thus in the Gens Cornelia, were the families of the Scipiones, Lentuli, Cethegi, Dolabellæ, Cinnæ, Syllæ, &c. Those of the same gens were called GENTILES, and those of the same family, AGNATI, Cic. Top. c. 6. Festus in Voce GENTILES. But relations by the father's side were also called Agnati, to distinguish them from Cognati, relations only by the mother's side. An Agnatus might also be called Cognatus, but not the contrary. Thus patruus, the father's brother, was both an agnatus and cognatus: but avunculus, the mother's brother, was only a cognatus, Digest.

Anciently Patricians only were said to have a gens, Liv. x. 8. Hence some patricians were said to be majorum gentium, and others minorum gentium, Cic. Fam. ix. 21. But when the plebeians obtained the right of intermarriage with the patricians, and access to the honours of the state, they likewise received the rights of gentes, (jura gentium, vel gentilia ;) which rights were then said to be confounded by these innovations, Liv. iv. 1, &c. Hence, however, some gentes were patrician, and others plebeian; and sometimes in the same gens there were some families of patrician rank, and others of plebeian, Suet. Tib. 1. Hence also sine gente, for libertinus et non generosus, ignobly born, Horat. Sat. ii. 5. 15.

To mark the different gentes and familiæ, and to distinguish the individuals of the same family, the Romans, at least the more noble of them, had commonly three names, the Pranomen, Nomen, and Cognomen, Juvenal. v. 126. Quinctil. 8. 3. 27.


The PRÆNOMEN was put first, and marked the individual. It was commonly written with one letter; as A. for Aulus C. Caius; D. Decimus; K. Kæso; L. Lucius; M. Marcus; M'. Manius; N. Numerius; P. Publius; Q. Quintus; T. Titus; Sometimes with two letters, as, Ap. Appius; Cn. Cneius ;' Sp. Spurius; Ti. Tiberius; and sometimes with three, as, Mam. Mamercus; Ser. Servius; Sex. Sextus.

The NOMEN was put after the Prænomen, and marked the gens, and commonly ended in ius; as, Cornelius, Fabius, Tullius, Julius, Octavius, &c.

The COGNOMEN was put last, and marked the familia ; as, Cicero, Caesar, &c.

Thus in Publius Cornelius Scipio, Publius is the Prænomen; Cornelius, the Nomen; and Scipio, the Cognomen.



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