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Some gentes seem to have had no sirname; as, the Marian: Thus, C. Marius, Q. Sertorius, L. Mummius, Plutarch. in Mario. Gens and familia seem sometimes to be put the one for the other: Thus Fabia gens, v. familia, Liv. ii. 49.

Sometimes there was also a fourth name, called the AGNOMEN or Cognomen, added from some illustrious action or remarkable event. Thus Scipio was named Africanus, from the conquest of Carthage and Africa. On a similar account, his brother Lucius Cornelius Scipio was named Asiaticus. So Quintus Fabius Maximus was called Cunctator, from his checking the impetuosity of Hannibal by declining battle. We find likewise a second Agnomen or Cognomen added; thus, the latter Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus is called Emilianus, because he was the son of L. Æmilius Paulus, and adopted by the son of the great Scipio, who had no male children of his own. But he is commonly called by authors Africanus Minor, to distinguish him from the former Scipio Africanus.

The Romans at first seem to have had but one name; as Romulus, Remus, &c. or two; as Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Martius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Sextus Tarquinius. But when they were divided into tribes or clans and families (in gentes et familias), they began commonly to have three; as L. Junius Brutus, M. Valerius Poplicola, &c.

The three names, however, were not always used; commonly two, and sometimes only one, namely, the sirname, Sall. Cat. 17. Cic. Epist. passim. But-in speaking to any one, the prænomen was generally used, as being peculiar to citizens; for slaves had no prænomen. Hence, Gaudent prænomine molles auricula, Hor. Sat. ii. 5. 32.

The sirnames were derived from various circumstances, either from some quality of the mind; as Cato from wisdom, i. e. Catus, wise, Cic. de Sen. 2. &c. or from the habit of the body, as Calvus, Crassus, Macer, &c. or from cultivating particular fruits, as, Lentulus, Piso, Cicero, &c. Certain sirnames sometimes gave occasion to jests and witty allusions; thus, Asina, Hor. Ep. i. 13. 9. So Serranus Calatinus, Cic. pro Sext. 33. Hence also in a different sense Virgil says, Vel te sulco, Serrane, serentem, Æn. vi. 844. for Q. Cincinnatus was called SERRANUS, because the ambassadors from the senate found him sowing, when they brought him notice that he was made dictator, Plin. xviii. 3.

The Pranomen used to be given to boys, on the 9th day, which was called dies lustricus or the day of purification, when certain religious ceremonies were performed, Macrob. Sat. i. 16. Suet. Ner, 6. The eldest son of the family


usually got the Prænomen of his father; the rest were named from their uncles or other relations.

When there was only one daughter in a family, she used to be called from the name of the gens; thus Tullia, the daughter of Cicero; Julia, the daughter of Cæsar; Octavia, the sister of Augustus, &c.; and they retained the same name after they were married: When there were two daughters, they one was called Major and the other Minor; thus, Cornelia Major, Cornelia Minor. If there were more than two, they were distinguished by their number; thus, Prima, Secunda, Tertia, Quarta, Quinta, &c. Varro, de Lat. Ling. viii. 38. Suet. Jul. 50. Or more softly, Tertulla, Quartilla, Quintilla, &c. Cic. Att. xiv. 20. Women seem anciently to have also had prænomens, which were marked with inverted letters; thus, for Caia, 7 for Lucia, &c.

During the flourishing state of the republic, the names of the gentes, and sirnames of the familiæ always remained fixed. and certain. They were common to all the children of a family, and descended to their posterity. But after the subversion of liberty they were changed and confounded.

Those were called LIBERI, free, who had the power of doing what they pleased. Those who were born of parents who had been always free, were called INGENUI. Slaves made free were called LIBERTI and LIBERTINI. They were called Liberti in relation to their masters, and Libertini in relation to free-born citizens; thus, Libertus meus, libertus Cæsaris, and not libertinus; but libertinus homo, i. e. non ingenuus. Servus, cùm manu mittitur, fit libertinus (non libertus), Quinctil. 8. 3. 27.

Some think that Libertini were the sons of the Liberti, from Suetonius, Claud. 24., who says that they were thus called anciently so Isidor. ix. 4.; but this distinction never occurs in the classics. On the contrary, we find both words applied to the same person in writers who flourished in different ages. Plaut. Mil. Glor. iv. 1. 15. 16. Cic. in Verr. i. 47. Those whom Cicero, de Orat. i. 9. calls Libertini, Livy makes qui servitutem servissent, xlv. 15. Hence Seneca often contrasts Servi et Liberi, Ingenui et Libertini, de Vit. Beat. 24. Ep. 31. &c.



EN became slaves among the Romans, by being taken in war, by sale, by way of punishment, or by being born in a state of servitude, (Servi aut nascebantur aut fiebant.) 1. Those enemies who voluntarily laid down their arms


and surrendered themselves, retained the rights of freedom, and were called DEDITITII, Liv. vii. 31. Cæs. i. 27. But those taken in the field, or in the storming of cities, were sold by auction (sub corona, as it was termed, Liv. v. 22, &c. because they wore a crown when sold; or sub hasta, because a spear was set up where the crier or auctioneer stood.) They were called SERVI (quod essent bello servati), Isidor. ix. 4. or MANCIPIA (quasi_manu capti), Varr. L. L. v. 8.

2. There was a continual market for slaves at Rome. Those who dealt in that trade (MANGONES vel VENALITII, Cic. Orat. 70. qui venales habebant, Plaut. Trin. ii. 2. 51.) brought them thither from various countries. The seller was bound to promise for the soundness of his slaves, and not to conceal their faults, Horat. Sat. ii. 3. 285. Hence they were commonly exposed to sale (producebantur) naked; and they carried a scroll (titulus vel inscriptio) hanging at their necks, on which their good and bad qualities were specified, Gell. iv. 2. If the seller gave a false account, he was bound to make up the loss, Cic. Off. iii. 16. 17., or in some cases to take back the slave, Ibid. 23. Those whom the seller would not warrant (præstare) were sold with a kind of cap on their head, (pileati, Gell. vii. 4.)

Those brought from beyond seas had their feet whitened with chalk, (cretatis v. gypsatis pedibus, Plin. Nat. Hist. xxxv. 17. 18. s. 58. Tibull. ii. 3. 64.) and their ears bored (auribus perforatis), Juvenal. i. 104. Sometimes slaves were sold on that condition, that if they did not please, they should be returned (redhiberentur) within a limited time, Cic. Off. iii. 24. Plaut. Most. iii. 2. 113. Festus. Foreign slaves, when first brought to the city, were called VENALES, or SERvi novicii, Cic. pro Quinct. 6. Plin. Ep. i. 21. Quinctilian. i. 12. 2. viii. 2. 8. Slaves who had served long, and hence were become artful, veteratores, Terent. Heaut. v. 1. 16.

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It was not lawful for free-born citizens among the Romans, as among other nations, to sell themselves for slaves. Much less was it allowed any other person to sell free men. But as this gave occasion to certain frauds, it was ordained by a decree of the senate, that those who allowed themselves to be sold for the sake of sharing the price, should remain in slavery. Fathers might, indeed, sell their children for slaves, but these did not on that account entirely lose the rights of citizens. For when freed from their slavery, they were held as Ingenui, not Libertini. The same was the case with insolvent debtors, who were given up as slaves to their creditors, (in servitutem creditoribus addicti,) Quinctilian. vi. 3. 26. v.

10. 60.

3, Criminals were often reduced to slavery, by way of punishment.

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nishment. Thus those who had neglected to get themselves enrolled in the Censor's books, or refused to enlist, (qui censum aut militiam subterfugerant,) had their goods confiscated, and after being scourged, were sold beyond the Tiber, Cic. pro Cacina, 24. Those condemned to the mines, or to fight with wild beasts, or to any extreme punishment, were first deprived of liberty, and by a fiction of law, termed slaves of punishment, (servi pænæ fingebantur.)

4. The children of any female slave became the slaves of her master. There was no regular marriage among slaves, but their connection was called CONTUBERNIUM, and themselves, Contubernales. Those slaves who were born in the house of their masters, were called VERNÆ, or Vernaculi;' hence lingua vernacular, v. -aris, one's mother tongue. These slaves were more petulant than others, because they were commonly more indulged, Horat. Sat. ii. 6. 66.

The whole company of slaves in one house, was called FAMILIA, Nep. Att. 13. Cic. Paradox. v. 2. (Familia constat ex servis pluribus, Cic. Cæcin. 19. Quindecim liberi homines, popu bus est; totidem servi, familia; totidem vincti, ergastulum, Apulei. Apol.) and the slaves, Familiares, Cic. pro Cæl. 23. Plaut. Amphit. Prol. 127. Hence familia philosophorum, sects, Cic. fin. iv. 18. Divin. ii. 1. Att. ii. 16. Sententia, quæ familiam ducit, HONESTUM QUOD SIT, ID ESSE SOLUM BONUM, the chief maxim of the Stoics, Id. fin. ii. 16. Lucius familiam ducit, is the chief of the sect, Id. Phil. v. 11. Accedit etiam, quod familiam ducit, &c. is the chief ground of praise, Fam. vii. 5.

The proprietor of slaves was called DOMINUS, Terent. Eun. iii. 2. 23. whence this word was put for a tyrant, Liv. ii. 60. On this account Augustus refused the name, Suet. Aug. 53. So Tiberius, Id. 27. Tacit. Annal. ii. 27.

Slaves not only did all domestic services, but were likewise employed in various trades and manufactures. Such as had a genius for it, were sometimes instructed in literature and the liberal arts, (artibus ingenuis, liberalibus v. honestis, Cic.) Horat. Ep. ii. 2. 7. Some of these were sold at a great price, Plin. vii. 39. s. 40. Senec. Ep. 27. Suet. Jul. 47. Cic. Rosc. Com. 10. Hence arose a principal part of the immense wealth of Crassus, Plutarch. in vita ejus.

Slaves employed to accompany boys to and from school, were called PEDAGOGI; and the part of the house where those young slaves staid who were instructed in literature, (literæ serviles, Senec. Ep. 88.) was called PEDAGOGIUM, Plin. Ep. vii. 27.

Slaves were promoted according to their behaviour; as from being a drudge or mean slave in town (Mediastinus), to be an overseer in the country (Villicus), Horat. Ep. i. 14.


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The country farms of the wealthy Romans in later times were cultivated chiefly by slaves, Plin. xviii. 3. But there were also free men who wrought for hire, as among us (MERCENARII), Cic. Off. i. 13. pro Cæcin. 59.

Among the Romans, masters had an absolute power over their slaves. They might scourge or put them to death at pleasure, Juvenal. Sat. vi. 219. This right was exercised with so great cruelty, especially in the corrupt ages of the republic, that laws were made at different times to restrain it. The lash was the common punishment; but for certain crimes they used to be branded in the forehead, and sometimes were forced to carry a piece of wood round their necks wherever they went, which was called FURCA; and whoever had been subjected to this punishment was ever afterwards called FURCIFER. A slave that had been often beaten, was called MASTIGIA, Ter. Adelph. v. 2. 6. or VERBERO, Id. Phorm. iv. 4. 3. A slave who had been branded was called STIGMATIAS, v. -icus, i. e. notis compunctus, Cic. Off. ii. 7. Inscriptus, Mart. viii. 75. 9. Literatus, Plaut. Cas. ii. 6. 49. (i. e. literis inscriptus: as, urna literata, Plaut. Rud. ii. 5. 21. ensiculus literatus, &c. Id. iv. 4. 112.) Slaves also by way of punishment were often shut up in a work-house, or bridewell (in ergastulo, v. PISTRINO), where they were obliged to turn a mill for grinding corn, Plaut. et Ter. passim, et Senec. de Benef. iv. 37.

Persons employed to apprehend and bring back (retrahere, Ter. Heaut. iv. 2. 65.) slaves who fled from their masters (FUGITIVI, Cic. Fam. v. 9.) were called FUGITIVARII, Flor. iii. 19.

When slaves were beaten, they used to be suspended with a weight tied to their feet, that they might not move them, Plaut. Asin. ii. 2. 34. &c. Aul. iv. 4. 16. Ter. Phorm. i. 4. 43. To deter slaves from offending, a thong (habena) or a lash made of leather was commonly hung on the stair-case, (in scalis), Horat. Ep. ii. 2. 15.; but this was chiefly applied to younger slaves, Scholiast. ibid. Impuberes habená vel ferulá plectebantur, Ulpian. D. i. 33. de SC. Silan. Some here join in scalis with latuit, as Cic. in Mil. 15. Phil. ii. 9.

Slaves when punished capitally were commonly crucified, Juvenal. vi. 219. Cic. in Ver. v. 3. 64., &c. but this punishment was prohibited under Constantine.

If a master of a family was slain at his own house, and the murderer not discovered, all his domestic slaves were liable to be put to death. Hence we find no less than 400 in one family punished on this account, Tacit. Ann. xiv. 43.

Slaves were not esteemed as persons, but as things, and might be transferred from one owner to another, like any other effects.

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