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for any number of troops following one standard, Tacit. Hist. i. 31. 70. Suet. Galb. 18. Stat. Theb. xii. 782.

To loose the standards was always esteemed disgraceful (Magnum perdere crimen erat, Ovid. Fast. iii. 114.), particularly to the standard-bearer, Caes. B. G. iv. 23. v. 29. B. C. i. 54., sometimes a capital crime, Liv. ii. 59. Hence, to animate the soldiers, the standards were sometimes thrown among the enemy, Liv. iii. 70. vi. 8. xxv. 14. xxvi. 5.

A silver eagle, with expanded wings, on the top of a spear, sometimes holding a thunderbolt in its claws, with the figure of a small chapel above it, Dio. xl. 18., was the common standard of the legion, at least after the time of Marius, for before that the figures of other animals were used, Plin. x. 4. s. 5. Hence AQUILA is put for a legion, Cæs. Hisp. 30. and aquila signaque for all the standards of a legion, Tacit. passim. It was anciently carried before the first maniple of the. Triarii; but after the time of Marius, in the first line, and near it was the ordinary place of the general, Sallust. Cat. 59., almost in the centre of the army; thus MEDIO DUX AGMINE Turnus vertitur arma tenens, Virg. Æn. ix. 28., usually on horseback, Liv. vi. 7. Sall. Cat. 59. Caes. Gall. i. 25. So likewise the Legati and Tribunes, Ibid. & Cæs. vii. 65.

The soldiers who fought before the standards, or in the first line, were called ANTESIGNANI, Liv. ii. 20. iv. 37. vii. 16. 33. ix. 32. 39. xxii. 5. xxx. 33. Cæs. B. C. i. 41. 52. Those behind the standards (post signa), POSTSIGNANI, Liv. viii. 11. Frontin. Strateg. i. 3. 17., vel SUBSIGNANI, Tacit. Hist. i. 70.; but the Subsignani seem to have been the same with the Vexillarii, or privileged veterans, Id. iv. 33. Ann. i. 36.

The general was usually attended by a select band, called COHORS PRÆTORIA, Cic. Cat. ii. 11. Fam. x. 30. Sallust. Cat. 60. Jug. 98., first instituted by Scipio Africanus, Festus; but something similar was used long before that time, Liv. ii. 20., not mentioned in Cæsar, unless by the by, B. G. i. 40.

When a general, after having consulted the auspices, had determined to lead forth his troops against the enemy, a red flag was displayed (vexillum vel signum pugnæ proponebatur), on a spear from the top of the Prætorium, Cæs. de Bell. G. ii. 20. Liv. xxii. 45., which was the signal to prepare for battle. Then having called an assembly by the sound of a trumpet (classico, i. e. tubâ concione advocata, Liv. iii. 62. vii. 36. viii. 7. 32.) he harangued (alloquebatur) the soldiers, who usually signified their approbation by shouts, by raising their right hands, ib. & Lucan. i. 386., or by beating on their shields with their spears. Silence was a mark of timidity, Lucan. ii. 596.

This address was sometimes made in the open field from a tribunal raised of turf (e tribunali cespititio aut viridi cespite exstructo), Tacit. Ann. i. 18. Plin. Paneg. 56. Stat. Silv. v. 2. 144. A general always addressed his troops by the title of milites: Hence Cæsar greatly mortified the soldiers of the tenth legion, when they demanded their discharge, by calling them QUIRITES instead of MILITES, Dio. xlii. 53. Suet. Cæs. 70.

After the harangue all the trumpets sounded (signa canebant), which was the signal for marching, Lucan. ii. 597.

At the same time the soldiers called out To arīns (AD abMa conclamatum est). The standards which stood fixed in the ground were pulled up (convellebantur), Liv. iii. 50. 54. vi. 28. Virg. Æn. xi. 19. If this was done easily, it was reckoned a good omen; if not, the contrary, Liv. xxii. 3. Cic. Div. i. 35. Val. Max. i. 2. 11. Lucan. vii. 162. Hence, Aquila prodire nolentes, the eagles unwilling to move, Flor. ii. 6. Dio. xl. 18. The watch-word was given (signum datum est), either vivá voce, or by means of a tessera, Cæs. de B. G. ii. 20. de B. Afric. 83., as other orders were communicated, Liv. v. 36. xxi. 14. In the meantime many of the soldiers made their testaments (in procinctu, see p. 53.) Gell. xv. 27.

When the army was advanced near the enemy (intra teli conjectum, unde a ferentariis prælium committi posset), the general riding round the ranks again exhorted them to courage, and then gave the signal to engage. Upon which all the trumpets sounded, and the soldiers rushed forward to the charge with a great shout (maximo clamore procurrebant cum signis vel pilis infestis, i. e. in hostem versis vel directis), Sallust. Cat. 60. Cæs. B. Civ. iii. 92. Liv. vi. 8, &c. Dio. xxxvi. 32. which they did to animate one another and intimidate the enemy, Cæs. ibid. Hence primus clamor atque impetus rem decrevit, when the enemy were easily conquered, Liv. xxv. 4.

The Velites first began the battle; and when repulsed retreated either through the intervals between the files (per intervalla ordinum), or by the flanks of the army, and rallied in the rear. Then the Hastati advanced; and if they were defeated, they retired slowly (presso pede) into the intervals of the ranks of the Principes, or if greatly fatigued, behind them. Then the Principes engaged; and if they too were defeated, the Triarii rose up (consurgebant): for hitherto they continued in a stooping posture (subsidebant, hinc dicti SUBSIDIA, Festus), leaning on their right knee, with their left leg stretched out, and protected with their shields: hence, AD TRIARIOS VENTUM EST, it is come to the last push, Liv. viii. 8.

The Triarii receiving the Hastati and Principes into the void spaces between their manipuli, and closing their ranks


(compressis ordinibus), without leaving any space between them, in one compact body (uno continente agmine) renewed thecombat. Thus the enemy had several fresh attacks to sustain before they gained the victory. If the Triarii were defeated, the day was lost, and a retreat was sounded (receptui cecinerunt), Liv. viii. 8, 9.

This was the usual manner of attack before the time of Marius. After that several alterations took place, which, however, are not exactly ascertained.

The legions sometimes drew lots about the order of their march, and the place they were to occupy in the field, Tacit. Hist. ii. 41.

The Romans varied the line of battle by advancing or withdrawing particular parts. They usually engaged with a straight front (recta fronte, Festus; vel æquatis frontibus, Tibull. iv. 1. 103. ACIES DIRECTA). Sometimes the wings were advanced before the centre (ACIES SINUATA), Senec. de Beat. Vit. 4. Liv. xxviii. 14., which was the usual method, Plutarch. in Mario; or the contrary (ACIES GIBBERA, vel flexa), which Hannibal used in the battle of Cannæ, Liv. xxii. 47. Sometimes they formed themselves into the figure of a wedge (CUNEUS vel trigônum, a triangle), called by the soldiers CAPUT PORCINUM, like the Greek letter Delta, A, Liv. viii. 10. Quinctil. ii. 13. Virg. xii. 269. 457. Cæs. vi. 39. So the Germans, Tacit. de Mor. G. 6., and Spaniards, Liv. xxxix. 31. But cuneus is also put for any close body, as the Macedonian phalanx, Liv. xxxii. 17. Sometimes they formed themselves to receive the cuneus, in the form of a FORCEPS or scissars: thus, V, Gell. x. 9. Veget. ii. 19.

When surrounded by the enemy, they often formed themselves into a round body (ORBIS vel GLOBUS, hence orbes facere vel volvere; in orbem se tutari vel conglobare), Sallust. Jug. 97. Liv. ii. 50. iv. 28. 39. xxiii. 27. Cæs. B. G. iv. 37. Tacit. Ann. ii. 11.

When they advanced or retreated in separate parties, without remaining in any fixed position, it was called SERRA,


When the Romans gained a victory, the soldiers with shouts of joy saluted their general by the title of IMPERATOR. (See p. 151.) His lictors wreathed their fasces with laurel, Plutarch. in Lucull., as did also the soldiers their spears and javelins, Stat. Sylv. v. i. 92. Martial. vii. 5, 6. Plin. xv. 30. He immediately sent letters wrapped round with laurel (literæ laureate) to the senate, to inform them of his success, to which Ovid alludes, Amor. i. 11. 25., and if the victory was considerable, to demand a triumph, Liv. xlv. 1. Cic. Pis. 17. Att. v. 20. Fam. ii. 10. Appian. b. Mithrid. p. 223., to



which Persius alludes, vi. 43. These kind of letters were seldom sent under the emperors, Dio. liv. 11. Tacit. Agric. 18. If the senate approved, they decreed a thanksgiving (supplicatio, vel supplicium, vel gratulatio, Cic. Marcell. 4. Fam. ii. 18.) to the gods, and confirmed to the general the title of IMPERATOR, which he retained till his triumph or return to the city, Cic. Phil. xiv. 3, 4, 5. In the mean time his lictors having the fasces wreathed with laurel attended him, Ib.



FTER a victory the general assembled his troops, and, in presence of the whole army, bestowed rewards on those who deserved them. These were of various kinds.

The highest reward was the civic crown (CORONA CIVICA), given to him who had saved the life of a citizen, Gell. v. 6. Liv. vi. 20. x. 46., with this inscription, OB CIVEM SERVATUM, vel - es, - tos, Senec. Clem. i. 26., made of oakleaves (e fronde querná, hence called Quercus civilis, Virg. En. vi. 772.), and by the appointment of the general presented by the person who had been saved to his preserver, whom he ever after respected as a parent, Cic. Planc. 30. Under the emperors it was always bestowed by the prince (imperatoriá manu), Tacit. Ann. iii. 21. xv. 12. It was attended with particular honours. The person who received it wore it at the spectacles, and sat next the senate. When he entered, the audience rose up, as a mark of respect (ineunti etiam ab senatu assurgebatur), Plin. xxi. 4. Among the honours decreed to Augustus by the senate was this, that a civic crown should be suspended from the top of his house, between two laurel branches, which were set up in the vestibule before the gate, as if he were the perpetual preserver of his citizens, and the conqueror of his enemies, Dio. liii. 16. Val. Max. ii. 8. fin. Ovid. Fast. 1. 614. iv. 953. Trist. iii. 1. 35–48. So Claudius, Suet. 17., hence, in some of the coins of Augustus, there is a civic crown, with these words inscribed, OB CIVES


To the person who first mounted the rampart, or entered the camp of the enemy, was given by the general a golden crown, called CORONA VALLARIS vel CASTRENSIS, Val. Max. i. 8. To him who first scaled the walls of a city in an assault, CORONA MURALIS, Liv. xxvi. 48.; who first boarded the ship of an enemy, CORONA NAVALIS, Festus; Gell. v. 6.

Augustus gave to Agrippa, after defeating Sextus Pompeius in a sea-fight near Sicily, a golden crown, adorned with


figures of the beaks of ships, hence called RoSTRATA, Virg. viii. 684., said to have been never given to any other person, Liv. Epit. 129. Paterc. ii. 81. Dio. xlix. 14.; but according to Festus in voc. NAVALI, and Pliny, vii. 30. xvi. 4., it was also given to M. Varro in the war against the pirates by Pompey; but they seem to confound the corona rostrata and navalis, which others make different. So also Suet. Claud. 17.

When an army was freed from a blockade, the soldiers gave to their deliverer (ei duci, qui liberavit, Gell. v. 6.) a crown made of the grass which grew in the place where they had been blocked up; hence called graminea corona OBSIDIONALIS, Liv. vii. 37. Plin. xxii. 4, 5. This of all military honours was esteemed the greatest. A few, who had the singular good fortune to obtain it, are recounted, Ib. 5, 6.

Golden crowns were also given to officers and soldiers who had displayed singular bravery; as to T. Manlius Torquatus, and M. Valerius Corvus, who each of them slew a Gaul in single combat, Liv. vii. 10. 26.; to P. Decius, who preserved the Roman army from being surrounded by the Samnites, Id. 37., and to others, x. 44. xxvi. 21. xxx. 15.

There were smaller rewards (præmia minora) of various kinds; as, a spear without any iron on it (HASTA RURA), Virg. Æn. vi. 760. Suet. Claud. 28.a flag or banner, i. e. a streamer on the end of a lance or spear (VEXILLUM, quasi parvum velum, Serv. in Virg. Æn. viii. 1.) of different colours, with or without embroidery (auratum vel purum), Sall. Jug. 85. Suet. Aug. 25.- Trappings (PHALERÆ), ornaments for horses, Virg. Æn. v. 310. Liv. xxii. 52., and for men, Liv. ix. 46. Cic. Att. xvi. 17. Verr. iii. 80. iv. 12. Golden chains (Aurea TORQUES), Tacit. Annal. ii. 9. iii. 21. Juvenal. xvi. 60., which went round the neck, whereas the Phalera hung down on the breast, Sil. Ital. xv. 52.Bracelets (ARMILLE), ornaments for the arms, Liv. x. 44. CORNICULA, ornaments for the helmet in the form of horns, Ibid.-CATELLE vel Catenula, chains composed of rings; whereas the Torques were twisted (torta) like a rope, Liv. xxxix. 31.- FIBULÆ, clasps, or buckles for fastening a belt or garment, Ibid.

These presents were conferred by the general in presence of the army; and such as received them, after being publicly praised, were placed next him, Sal. Jug. 54. Liv. xxiv. 16. Cic. Phil. v. 13. 17. They ever after kept them with great care, and wore them at the spectacles and on all public occasions, Liv. x. 47. They first wore them at the games, A. U. 459. Ib.

The spoils (SPOLIA, vel Exuvia) taken from the enemy

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