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The principal design of prefixing these introductory exercises to the Grammar is to relieve the student from the irksome and

unprofitable task of committing to memory what he does not understand ; to impress the inflections of the parts of speech and the rules of syntax clearly and forcibly on his memory, by exhibiting them in condensed views; and, by furnishing easy exercises adapted to those inflections and rules in detail, to facilitate the labour of translating and parsing.

The following plan of instruction is in conformity with this design.

Commence at page 10th, and read over the declensions of substantives and adjectives, explaining to the pupil the distinctive marks of the different declensions, and the manner in which an adjective agrees with a substantive. Then practise him a short time in translating and parsing a few of the examples under “ Exercises" on page 10th, declining the adjective and substantive, first separately, and then conjointly. This will prepare him to understand, and consequently to commit to memory with facility and pleasure, the general rules relating to the declensions of substantives and adjectives, as contained in the grammar, commencing at page 69.

Ву proceeding in this manner, illustrating each part of speech, and practising the student in parsing it, before he is called upon to commit to memory its Etymology and Syntax, his progress through the grammar will be rendered both pleasing and profitable. His task will be much lighter, and the impression on his memory more permanent, than if he had proceeded in the inverted order, committing what he could not understand, and deferring the exercise of parsing till he had gone through the grammar.

O song,

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sermones.

RULE.

FIRST DECLENSION
1.

Mūsă, a song, feminine-gender.
The adjective agrees
Singular.

Plural. with its substantive, in Nominative, Musă, a song, Nominative, Músæ.

songs, Mūsæ, of a song, Genitive, Mūsārům,

of songs, number, case, and gen- Genitive,

Dative, Músæ, to,or for a song, Dative, Mūsis, to, or for songs, der. Accusative, Mūsăm, a song,

Accusative, Musās,

songs, EXERCISES. Vocative, Músă,

Vocative, Músæ,

O songs, Bona Musa. Bonus pu- Ablative, Músâ; with,&c. a song; Ablative, Músis; with, &c. songs. er. Bonum donum. Unus

SECOND DECLENSION.
liber. Felix dominus. Le-
Půěr, a boy, masc.

Liběr, a book, masc.
nis sermo.
Lenior puer.
Singular.
Plural.

Singular. Plural. Tenerum caput. Pulch

N. Půěr,
N. Puěrí,

N. Liběr, N. Libri
er currus.
Pulchra res.
G. Puěri, G. Puěrorům,

G. Libri, G. Librorům,
Pulchrum cornu. Felix
D. Puěró, D. Puěris,

D. Libro, D. Libris, facies. Felix iter. Tene- A. Puěrům, A. Puěros, A. Librům, A. Libros,

V. Puěr,
V. Puěri,

V. Liběr, V. Libri, rum cornu. Tenera res.

A. Puěro; A. Puěris. A. Libro; A. Libris.
Bonus sermo.
Bona res.
Dómìnús, a master, masc.

Donům, a gift, neut.
Bonum sedile. Lenis do-
N. Dóminús, N. Dómini,

N, Dònăm,

N. Dönă, minus. Lene iter. Pul.

G. Domini,
G. Dominorum, G. Doni,

G. Dönorům, cher liber. Pulchra facies.

D. Domino, D. Dominis, D. Dono, D. Donis,

A. Dominos, A. Donům,
Pulchrum caput. Lenior A. Dominům,

A. Dönă,
V. Domini,

V. Dónům,

V. Donă, dominus. Lenior res. Le- V. Dómině, A. Domino ; A. Dominis. A. Dono;

A. Dónis. nius iter. Unus puer.

Una rupes. Unum donum. Duo

THIRD DECLENSION. libri. Duæ Musæ. Duo Sěrmo, a speech, masc.

Căpăt, the head, neut. cornua. Tres libri. Tres N. Sermo, N. Sěrmõnēs,

N. Căpăt, N. Căpită, Tria capita. G. Sermonis, G. Sermónům, G. Capitis, G. Capřtům, Tres rupes. Unus lapis. D. Sermoni, D. Sermónībūs, D. Capiti, D. Capitībės,

A. Sermõněm, A. Sermonės, A. Capět, Tres lapides. Duo currus.

A. Capită, V. Sermo, V. Sermõnēs, V. Capŭt, V. Capită, Duæ facies. Duo sedilia.

A. Sermoně; A. Sermonibús. A. Capitě ; A. Capitībūs. Altus currus. Durus laRūpēs, a rock, fem.

Sědile, a seat, neut. pis. Durior rupes. Altior

N. Rūpēs,
N. Rūpēs,

N. Sědilě,

N. Sědiliă, currus. Altius cornu. Du

G. Rupis,
G. Rupiùm,

G. Sedilis, G. Sediliům,
D. Rupibús,

D. Sedili, rius caput. Felicior puer. D. Rupi,

D. Sedilibús, A. Rupes,

A. Sedilě, A. Sediljă,
Felicius iter. Pulchrior la. A. Rupěm,

V. Rupēs,
V. Rupēs,

V. Sedilě,

V. Sediliă. pis. Pulchrius caput. TeA. Rupě; A. Rupibus.

A. Sedili; A. Sedilibús. perior Musa. Tenerius Lăpis, a stone, masc.

Itěr, a journey, neut, cornu. Facilior res. Fa.

N. Lăpis,
N. Lăpidēs,

N. Itěr,

N. Itỉněră, cilius iter. Melior pu- G. Lapidis, G. Lapidům, G. Itỉněrys, G. Itiněrům, er. Melius donum. Pejor D. Lapidi, D. Lapidibús, D. Itìněri, D. Itiněrībūs,

A. Lapidēs,

A. Itěr,

A. Itiněră, dominus. Pejus donum. A. Lapiděm,

V. Lapidēs,

V. Itěr,

V. Itinéră, Major liber. Majus sedile. V. Lapis,

A. Lapidě; A. Lapidibús. A. Itiněrě; A. Itinerībús. Minor rupes. Minus cornu. Altissima rupes. Du

FOURTH DECLENSION. rissimus lapis. Felicissi. Cúrrús; a chariot, masc.

Cornū, a horn, neut. mus puer. Optimus domi- N. Cúrrůs, N. Currůs, N. Cornū,

N. Cornŭă, nus. Optima Musa. Opti- G. Currûs, G. Currůům, G. Cornu, G. Cornŭùm,

D. Currúi, mum donum. Parvus puer.

D. Currībūs, D. Cornu, D. Cornībūs, A. Currům, A. Currús, A. Cornu,

A. Cornŭă, Malus liber. Magnus cur

V. Curròs, V. Currūs, V. Cornu, V. Cornŭă, rus. Magna rupes. Mag. A. Currü; A. Currìbūs. A. Cornu; A. Cornibús. num caput. Parvum sedile. Minus sedile. Minimum

FIFTH DECLENSION. sedile. Facilis Musa. FaciRēs, a thing, fem.

Făcřēs, a face, fem. lior Musa. Facillima Mu N. Rés, N. Rés,

N. Făciés,

N. Făcies, sa. Tener dominus. Te

G. Rëī,
G. Rěrům,

G. Faciēr, G. Faciērum,
D. Rēbūs,

D. Faciei, nerior dominus. Tener. D. Rëī,

D. Faciēbus,
A. Rem,
A. Res,

A. Faciem,

1. Facies, rimus dominus. Leniora

V. Rés,
V. Rés,

V. Facies, V. Facies, itinera.

A. Rė;
A. Rēbūs.

A. Facie ; A. Faciēbus.

Mite po

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSION. EXERCISES.
Bónus, bỏnă, bonům, good.

Benignus gener. Libe-
Singular.

Plural.

ralis socer. Formosa filia. masc. fem. neut.

masc. fem. neut. Fortis filius. Amabilis puN. Bónus, bónă,

bonum,
N. Bỏni, bonæ, bỏnă,

ella. Mitis vir. Una hora, G. Boni, bonæ, boni, G. Bonorum, bonárům, bonorum,

Mitis aura. D. Bono,

Atra cura. bonæ, hono, D. Bonis, bonis, bonis, A. Bonům, bonăm, honům, A. Bonos, bonās, bonă, Magna stella. V. Boně, bonă,

bonům,

V. Boni, bonæ, bonă, mum. Hilaris fæmina. BoA. Bono, bona, bono; A. Bonis, bonis, bonis.

num exemplum. Difficile Těněr, těněră, těněrům, tender.

principium. Doctus vir. N. Těněr, těněră, těněrům,

N. Těněrī, těněræ, těněră, Carus socius. Magna pru. G. Teneri, teneræ, teneri, G. Tenerörům,-árům, -örům,

dentia. Pretiosa gemma. D. Tenero, teneræ,

tenero, D. Teneris, teneris, teneris, A. Tenerům, tenerăm, tenerům, A. Tenerös, tenerās, teneră,

Utilis" poeta. Fidus amiV. Teněr, teneră, tenerům,

V. Teneri, teneræ, teneră, cus. Pauper homo. Dives A. Tenero, tenerâ, tenero; A. Teneris, teneris, teneris.

stultus. Perniciosa lex. Pulchěr, pulchră, pulchrům, fair.

Medicabilis amor. Bonus N. Pulcher, pulchră, pulchrům, N. Pulchrī, pulchræ, pūlchră,

animus. Fulvus

ager.

r.Casta G. Pulchri, pulchræ, pulchri, G. Pulchrorům, -ārům, —örům, D. Pulchrö, pulchræ, pulchro, D. Pulchris, pulchris, pulchris,

fæmina. Vafer vulpes. AsA. Pulchrům, pulchrăm, pulchrům, A. Pulchrós, pulchrās, pulchră, sidua apis. Multus honor. V. Pulchěr, pulchră, pulchrům, V. Pulchri, pulchræ, pulchră, Parvum agmen. Clamosus A. Pulchro, pulchrâ, pulchró; A Pulchris, pulchris, pulchris.

risus. Nigra felis. Miser Unŭs, ună, únům, one.

bufo. Misera ovis. Ruber N. Unús, ună, ūnům, N. Uni, ūnæ, únă,

draco. Prospera vitis. VeG. Uniùs,

uniŭs, unius, G. Unorům, unárům, unorům, D. Uni,

rus honor. Rigidus Aquilo. uni, uni, D. Unis,

unis, unis, A. Unům, unăm, unům, A. Unos, unās, ună,

Pallidus timor. Falsum V. Uně, ună, unům,

V. Uni, unæ, ună, omen. Purum ebur. ObA. Uno, unâ, uno;

A. Unis,
unis, unis.

tusum telum. Acidum vi. ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

num. Horrida bella. Tumis Félix, fēlis, fēlis, happy.

dum flumen. Raucus fucN. Félix, felix, felis,

N. Fēlicēs, fēlicēs, felicīă, tus. Claudus manus. Dulce G. Félicis, felicis, fēlicis, G. Félicium, fēlicřům, fēliciům, D. Félici, fēlici, félici, D. Fēlicībůs, félicibús, fēlicibús,

pomum. Maturus fructus. A. Fēlicěm, fēlicěm, fēlix, A. Fēlicēs, fēlicés, fēliciă,

Ferox latro. Grandis aula. V. Félix, fēlix, fēlis, V. Félicēs, fēlicēs, fēlicță, Brevis vita. Fragile filum. A. Félice, v. félici, &c.

A. Fēlicibús, fēlicibus, fēlicibús. Velox cervus. Subtilis raLēnis, lēnis, lēně, mild.

tio. Terrestris res. Pernix N. Lėnys, lēnys, lēně, N. Lēnēs, lēnēs, lënță, ala. Immanis lacus. SaG. Lenis, lenys, leně, G. Lenjům, leniūm, lențăm,

gax vultus. Ignobile noD. Leni, leni, leni, D. Lenibús, lenībūs, lenibus, A. Leněm, leněm,

leně,
A. Lenės, lenés, leníă,

men. Terribilis lues. Turpe V. Lenis, lenis, leně, V. Lenēs, lenēs, lentă,

crimen. Triste negotium. A. Leni, leni,

A Lenībůs, lenibús, lenibús. Viridis vitis. Exsanguis Lêniðr, lēniðr, lēnius, milder.

manus. Inanes spes. InN. Lénior, lēniðr, lénius, N. Lēniorěs, lēnsörés, lēnjöră, gens veru. Exilis cervus. G. Lenioris, lenioris, lenioris, G. Leniorům, leniorům, leniorům,

Sagax equus. Deformis D. Leniori, leniori,

leniori,
D. Leniórībūs,leniórībūs, lenioribús,

lupus. Vile regnum. SaA. Leniorēm, leniorěm, leniùs, A. Lenjörès, leniorěslenioră, V. Lcnior, lenior, leniùs, V. Leniorěs, leniores, lenioră,

piens homo. Amabilis muA. Leniorě, v. leniori, &c.

A. Leniórībūs,lenioribus, lenioribús. lier. Hilaris puella. Do. Duo, two, & Tres, three, are thus declined.

cilis puer. Canina rabies. N. Dŭo, důæ, dŭo,

N. Tres, trēs, trià, Malum consilium. MagG. Duorům, duārům, duorúin,

G. Triùm, trìăm, trìům, num concilium. Dulcis liD. Duobús, duåbūs, duobės, D. Tribùs, tribus, tribus,

bertas. Candidus ursus. A. Duos, v. dŭo, duās, důó, A. Trēs,

trēs, tră, V. Důó, dŭæ, důó, V. Trēs, trēs, triả,

Alta domus. Longus dies. 4. Duábús, duabús, duobús. A. Tribės,

tribús, tribūs. Magna salus. Divinus aCOMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

mor. Matutinum cantiPos.

Com.
Sup.
Pos.

Com. Sup. cum. Publicus vicus. Su Altus, high, altior, altissimus. Bonus, good, melior, optimus. prema dies. Dulcia oscula. Durus, hard, durior, durissimus. Malus, bad, pejor, pessimus. Novi fluctus. Timidus naFelix, happy, felicior, felicissimus. Magnus, great, major, maximus.

vita. Inutile genus. OriLenis, mild, lenior, lenissimus. Parvus, small, minor, minimus.

ens Sol. Sedens luna. JuTener, tender, tenerior, tenerrimus. Multus, much, plus, n. plurimus. Facilis, easy, facilior, facillimus. Dexter, right, dexterior, dextimus. lium sidus. Densa silva.

leni;

a

illă,

illâ,

illó;

RULES,

Ego, I.
2.
Singular.

Plural.
The verb agrees with G. Mei, of me,
N. Ego, I,

N. Nós, we,

G. Nostrûm, v, nostri, of us, its nominative case, in D. Mihi, to me,

D. Nobis, to us.
number and person.
A. Mē, me,

A. Nós, 163,
V.
3.
A. , with me ;

A. Nobis, with us.
The relative,qui, quæ,

Tu, thou. quod, agrees with its antecedent in gender, G. Tüi, of thee, or you, N. Tu, thou, or you,

N. Vös, ye, or you,

G. Vestrûm, v. vestri, of you, number, and person. *D. Tībi, to thee, or you,

D. Vobis, to you,
4.
A. , thee, or you,

A. Vós, you,
If no nominative come
V. Tú, O thou, or you,

V. Vos, 0 ye, or you,

A. Vobis, with you. between the relative A. Te, with thee, or you ; and the verb, the rela

Sui, of himself, of herself, of itself. tive is the nominative N.

N.

G. Súi, of themselves, to the verb; but when G. Súi, of himself, &c. D. Sibi, to himself, &c.

D. Sibi, to themselves, nominative inter- A. Se, himself, &c.

A. Sē, themselves, venes, the relative is V.

V.

A. , with themselves. governed by the verb, A. , with himself, &c. or some other word in

Ille, illa, illud, he, she, it, or that. the sentence. N. Illě, illă, illúd, N. Illi, illæ,

illă, 5.

G. Illius, illius, illius, G. Illorum, illarum, illorum, illi, illi,

D. Illīs,

illis, Any verb may have D. Illī,

illis, A. Illům, illăm, illúd,

A. Illos,

illas, illă, the same case after, as

V. Illě,
illă, illúd,

V. Illi,

illæ, before it, when both A. Mo,

A. Illis,

illis,

illis, words refer to the same

In the same manner decline iste, ista, istud, that person or thing. 6.

Ipse, ipsa, ipsum, himself, herself, itself.

ipsă., ipsům, N. Ipsė, ipsæ, Substantives signify- Ni Ipě,

ipsă, G. Ipsius, ipsius, ipsius, G. Ipsorum, ipsarum, ipsorum, ing the same person or D. Ipsi,

ipsi,
ipsi,

D. Ipsis, ipsis, ipsis, thing, agree in case.

A. Ipsum,
ipsam,

A. Ipsos, ipsas, ipsa,
V. Ipse,

ipsa,
ipsum,
V. Ipsi,

ipsæ, ipsa, EXERCISES. A. Ipso, ipsa, ipso; A. Ipsis,

ipsis, ipsis. Ego sum. Tu es. Ille

Hic, hæc, hoc, this.

N. Hic, est. Nos sumus. Vos es

hæc, hoc,

hæ, hæc, G. Hujus, hūjus, hūjus, G. Hörum, harum, horuin, tis. Illi sunt.-Ego eram. D. Huic, huic, huic,

D. His, his,

his, Tu eras. Ille erat. Nos A. Hunc, hanc, boc,

A. Hos, has, hæc, eramus. Vos eratis. Illi V. Hic, hæc,

V. Hi,

hæ, hæcz hoc; A. His, his,

his. erant.-Ego fui. Tufuisti. A. Hoc, Ille fuit. Nos fuimus. Vos

Is, eă, id, he, she, it, or that. fuistis. Illi fuerunt.-Ego N. Is,

id,
D. li

eă,
ējus,

G. Eorum, earum, fueram. Tu fueras. Ille G. Ejus,

eorum, či, či,

D. Iis, v. eis, &c. fuerat. Nos fueramus. Vos D. Ei,

A. Eům, eăm,

id,
A. Eos,

eas, eă,
fueratis. Illi fuerant. Ego v.
ero. Tu eris. Ille erit. Nos A. Eo, eâ, eo;

A. lis, v. eis, &c. erimus. Vos eritis. Illi

Quis, quæ, quod, v. quid, who ? which ? what? erunt. -Ego sim. Tu sis.

N. Quis,
quæ, quod, v. quid, N. Qui,

quæ, quæ, Ille sit. Nos simus. Vos

G. Cūjus,

cujus, cujus, G. Quorum, quarum, quorum, sitis. Illi sint. Ego essem.

D. Cus,
cui,

D. Queis, v. quibus, &c.

quam, quod, v. quid, A. Quos, quas, Tu esses. Ille esset. Nos A. Quem,

quæ,

V. essemus. Vos essetis. Illi V.

A. Quó,

qua, quo; A. Queis, v. quibus, &c essent.--Ego fuerim. Tu fueris. Ille fuerit. Nos fu

Qui, quæ, quod, who, which, that.

quæ, erimus. Vos fueritis. Illi N. Qui,

quod,
N. Qui,

quæ, quæ,

cujus, cujus, fuerint.--Ego fuissem. Tu G. Cūjus,

G. Quórum, quarum, quorum, D. Cui,

cui, cui, D. Queis, v. quibus, &c. fuisses. Ille fuissety Nos A. Quěm, quăm, quod,

A. Quós,

quas, quæ, fuissemus. Vos fuissetis. V.

V.. Illi fuissent.--Ego fuero. A. Quo,

A. Queis, v. quibus, &c.

ipsum,

N. Hi,

hoc,

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eæ,

că, ējus,

V.

cui,

quá,

quo;

Sum, an irregular neuter verb, is thus CONJUGATED. Pres. Indic. Perf. Indic.

Pres. Infin.

Part. Fut.
Sum,
fui,
esse,

futurus, To be.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Tense, am. Singular.

Plural. 1. Sum, I am,

Sūmus, we are, 2. Es, thou art,

Estis, ye are, 3. Est, he is;

Sunt, they are.

Imperfect, was. ). Eram, I was,

Erāmus, we were, 2. Eras, thou wast,

Erātis, ye were, 3. Erăt, he was ;

Erānt they were.

Perfect, have been. 1, Fui, I have been,

Fuìmůs, we have been, 2. Fuisti, thou hast been,

Fuistis, ye have been, 3. Fuit, he has been ;

Fuerunt v. fuére, they have been.

Pluperfect, had been. 1. Fuěrăm, I had been,

Fuěrāmus, we had been, 2. Fuěrás, thou hadst been, Fuěrātis, ye had been, 3. Fuěrăt, he had been ;

Fuěránt, they had been.

Future, shall, or will be. 1. Ero, I shall be,

Erimus, we shall be, 2. Eris, thou shalt be,

Eritis, ye shall be, 3. Erit, he shall be ;

Erunt, they shall be.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Present Tense, may, or can be. 1. Sim, I may be,

Simus, we may be, 2. Sis, thou mayest be,

Sitis, ye may be, 3. Sit, he may be ;

Sint, they may be. Imperfect, might, could, would, or should be. 1. Essěm, I might be,

Essēmus, we might be, 2. Essēs, thou mightest be,

Essėtis, ye might be, 3. Essět, he might be ;

Essent, they might be.

Perfect, may have been. 1. Fuěrịm, I may have been, Fuěrìmus, we may have been, 2. Fuerys, thou mightest have been, Fuerītis, ye may have been, 3. Fuerst, he might have been; Fuerint, they may have been.

Pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have been. 1. Fuissem, I might have been, Fuissēmus, we might have been, 2. Fuissés, thou mightest have been, Fuissētis, ye might have been, 3. Fuisset, he might have been ; Fuissent, they might have been.

Future, shall have been. 1. Fuěro, I shall have been, Fuěrimus, we shall have been, 2. Fuěris, thou shalt have been, Fuěrītis, ye shall have been, 3. Fuěrst, he shall have been; Fuěrint, they shall have been.

EXERCISES. Tu fueris. Ille fuerit. Nos fuerimus. Vos fueritis. Illi fuerint.-Es, v. esto tu. Esto ille. Este, v. estote vos. Sunto illi.- Esto illa. Illa sit. Ego sum discipulus. Tu es bonus puer. Ille est vir. Pax est jucunda. Divitiæ sunt perniciosæ.

Veritas est magna, Charitas est benigna. Vir. tus est pretiosa gemma. Principium est difficile. Nos omnes essemus meliores. Nulla potentia est longa. Senes sunt cauti. Cives sunt candidi. Boni homines erunt beati. Improbi viri essent miseri. Pueri sint callidi. Esto perpetua. Hoc est pulchrum facinus. Puer, qui est studiosus, erit doctus. Puella quæ est amabilis, erit ama. ta. Pueri, qui sunt studiosi erunt docti. Puellæ, quæ sunt amabiles, erunt amatæ. Illi sunt boni homines, qui sunt justi, probi, clementes, pii, benigni, sobrii. Hic est manus, qui fuit victus. Hæc est domus, quæ fuit deserta. Hoc est negotium, quod fuit perfectum. Vir, cujus opus est. Viri, quorum opus est. Is est vir honestus. Ea est mulier pulcherrima. Hæ puellæ sunt formosæ ; illæ sint amabiles. Hic vir est amatus. Iste vir est exosus. Homo es. Homi. nes sumus. Vita est brevis. Mors est certa. Quis musicus est hic ? Quæ mulier est ea ? Quid negotium est illud ? Cujus opus est id ? Hoc est opus. America est mea patria. Georgius est meus carus amicus. Petrus est docilis. Johannes fuit juvenis. Cicero, orator, fuit consul. Horatius, homo ingenioSus, fuit poeta. Si Wash. ington, dux, fuisset rex. Virgilius, poeta, fuit verecundus.

IMPERATIVE MOOD, 2. Es, v. esto, Be thou,

Estě, v. estötě, Be ye, 2. Esto, Let him be ;

Sunto, Let them be.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present Tense Esse, To be.
Perf

Fuisse, To have been.
Fui.

Esse futūrus, a, um, To be about to be.
Fuisse futūrus, a, um, To have been about to be.

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