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Lúceo, luxi, to shine. So al-,, circum-, col-, di-, è-, il-, inter-, per, or pel-, præ-, pro-, re-, sub-, trans-lūceo. Exc. 2. The following verbs in DEO:

Prandeo, prandi, pransum, to dine.
Video, vidi, visum, to see. So in-, per-, prœ-, pro-, rě-video.

Sědeo, sēdi, sessum, to sit. So as-, con-, de-, dis-, in-, ob-, per-, pos-, præ-, re-, svb-sideo: Circumsideo, or circumsĕdeo, supersedeo. But de-, dis-, per-, præ-, re-, sub-sideo, seem to want the supine.

Strideo, strīdi, to make a noise.
Pendeo, pěpendi, pensum, to hang. So de-, im-, pro-, super-pendeo.
Mordeo, momordi, morsum, to bite. So ad-, com-, de-, ob-, præ-, re-mordeo.
Spondeo, spopondi, sponsum, to promise. So de-, re-spondeo.
Tondeo, totondi, tonsum, to clip. So at-, circum-, de-tondeo.
But the compounds of these verbs do not double the first syllable; thus, dependi,
remordi, respondi, attondi, &c.

Rideo, risi, risum, to laugh. So ar-, de-, ir-, sub-rideo.
Suãdeo, suāsi, suasum, to advise. So dis-, per-suadeo.
Ardeo, arsi, arsum, to burn. So ex-, in-, ob-ardeo.
Exc. 3. The following verbs in GEO:

Augeo, auxi, auctum, to increase. So ad-, ex-augeo.
Lūgeo, luxi, to mourn. So e-, pro-, sub-lugeo.
Frigeo, frixi,
to be cold. So per-, re-frigeo.
Tergeo, tersi, tersum, to wipe. So abs-, circum-, de-, ex-, per-tergeo.
Mulgeo, mulsi, mulsum, or mulctum, to milk., So e-, im-mulgeo.
Indulgeo, indulsi, indultum, to grant, to indulge.

to press.

So ad-, ex-, in-, per-, sub-, super-urgeo.


Urgeo, ursi,
Fulgeo, fulsi, to shine. So af-, circum-, con-, ef-, inter-, præ-, re-, super-fulgeo.
Turgeo, tursi, to swell. Algeo, alsi, to be cold.
Exc. 4. The following verbs in IEO and LEO:

Vieo, viēvi, viētum, to bind with twigs, to hoop a vessel.

Cieo, (civi) citum, to stir up, to rouse. So ac-, con-, ex-, in-, per-cieo. Cīvi comes from cio of the fourth conjugation.

Fleo, flevi, fletum, to weep. So af-,


Compleo, complevi, complētum, to fill. So the other compounds of pleo; de-, ex-, im-, adim-, op-, re-, sup-pleo.

Deleo, dēlēvi, deletum, to destroy, to blot out.

oleo, to smell, has ŏlui, õlitum. So likewise its compounds, which have a similar signification; ob-, per-, red-, sub-ŏleo. But such of the compounds as have a different signification make evi and ētum; thus, exoleo, exõlēvi, exõlētum, to fade. So insoleo, -ēvi, -ětum, or -itum, to grow into use; obsoleo, -ēvi, -ětum, to grow out of use. Aboleo, to abolish, has ǎbõlēvi, abolitum; and adoleo, to grow up, to burn, adŏlēvi, adultum. Exc. 5. Several verbs in NEO, QUEO, REO, and SEO.

Maneo, mansi, mansum, to stay. So per-, re-măneo.

Neo, nevi, nētum, to spin. So per-neo.

Těneo, těnui, tentum, to hold. So con-, de-, dis-, ob-, re-, sus-tineo. But attineo, pertineo, are not used in the supine; and seldom abstineo.

Torqueo, torsi, tortum, to throw, to whirl, to twist. Thus, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, ob-, re-torqueo.

Hæreo, hasi, hæsum, to stick. Torreo, torrui, tostum, to roast. Censeo, censui, censum, to judge. be angry.

Exc. 6. Verbs in VEO have vi, tum; as, moveo, mōvi, mōtum, to move; Foveo, fovi, fötum, to cherish. So con-, re-foveo. So voveo, to vow or wish, and devoveo. Faveo, to favour; has fāvi, fautum; and căveo, to beware of; cavi, cautum. So præ-căveo.

Thus, ad-, con-, in-, ob-, sub-hæreo.
So extorreo.

So ac-, per-, re-censeo, to review; succenseo, to

Neuter verbs in veo want the supine; as, păveo, pāvi, to be afraid.

Ferveo, to boil, to be hot, makes ferbui. So de-, ef-, in-, per-, re-ferveo.

Conniveo, to wink, has connivi and connixi.

Exc. 7. The following verbs want both preterite and supine: Lacteo, to suck milk; liveo, to be black and blue; scăteo, to abound; renideo, to shine; mæreo, to be sorrowful; ǎveo, to desire; polleo, to be able; flaveo, to be yellow; denseo, to grow thick; glabreo, to be smooth or bare. To these add calveo, to be bald; cěveo, to wag the tail, as dogs do when they fawn on one; hebeo, to be dull; ūveo, to be moist; some others.


Third Conjugation.

Verbs of the third conjugation form their preterite and supine variously, according to the termination of the present.


1. Făcio, feci, factum, to do, to make. So the compounds which retain a: lucri-, magni-, ărě-, călě-, mădě-, těpě-, běně-, mălě-, satis-facio, &c. But those which change a into i have ectum; as, afficio, affeci, affectum. So con-, de-, ef-, in-, inter-, of-, per-, præ-, pro-, re-, suf-ficio. Note; FACIO, compounded with a noun, verb, or adverb, retains a; but when compounded with a preposition, it changes a into i.

Some compounds of facio are of the first conjugation; as, Amplifico, sacrifico, terrifico, magnifico; gratificor, to gratify, or do a good turn, to give up; ludificor, to mock.

Jăcio, jēci, jactum, to throw. So ab-, ad-, circum-, con-, de-, dis-, e-, in-, inter-, ob-, pro-, re-, sub-, super-, superin-, tra-jicio; in the supine, -ectum.

The compounds of specio and lacio, which themselves are not used, have exi, and ectum; as, aspicio, aspexi, aspectum, to behold. So circum-, con-, de-, dis-, in-, intro-, per-, pro-, re-, retro-, su-psicio.

Allicio, allexi, allectum, to allure. So il-, pel-licio; but elicio, to draw out, has elicui, elicitum.

2. Fŏdio, födi, fossum, to dig, to delve. So ad-, circum-, con-, ef-, in-, inter-, per-, præ-, re-, suf-, trans-fodio.

Fugio, fugi, fugitum, to fly. So au-, (for ab-,) con-, de-, dif-, ef-, per-, pro-, re-, suf-, subter-, trans-fugio.

3. Capio, cepi, captum, to take. So ac-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, oc-, per-, prœ-, re-, sus-cipio, (in the supine -ceptum ;) and ante-căpio.

Rapio, răpui, raptum, to pull or snatch. So ab-, ar-, cor-, de-, di-, e-, præ-, pro-, sur-ripio, -ripui, -reptum.

Săpio, săpui, to favour, to be wise. So consipio, to be well in one's wits; desipio, to be foolish; resipio, to come to one's wits.

Cupio, cupivi, cupitum, to desire. So con-, dis-, per-cupio.

4. Părio, pěpěri, paritum, or partum, to bring forth a child, to get. Its compounds are of the fourth conjugation.

Quatio, quassi, quassum, to shake; but quassi is hardly used. Its compounds have cussi, cussum; as, concutio, concussi, concussum. So de-, dis-, ex-, in-, per-, re-,

reper-, suc-cutio.

UO has ui, ūtum; as,

Arguo, argui, argutum, to show, to prove, or argue, to reprove. So co-, red-arguo, to confute. So,

Acuo, Exăcuo, to sharpen.
Batuo, vel battuo, to beat, to fight, to fence with


Induo, to put on clothes.
Exuo, to put off clothes.

Imbuo, to wet or imbue, to season or instruct.
Minuo, to lessen: Com-, de-, di-, im-minuo.
Spuo, to spit: Con-, de-, ex-, in-spuo.

Stǎtuo, to set or place, to ordain.

Con-, de-, in-, præ-, pro-, re-, sub-stituo. Sternuo, to sneeze.

Suo, to sew or stitch, to tack together: As-, circum-, con-, dis-, præ-, rě-, suo.

Tribuo, to give, to divide: At-, con-, dis-, re


Exc. 1. Fluo, fluxi, fluxum, to flow. So af-, circum-, con-, de-, dif-, ef-, in-, inter-, per-, præter-, pro-, re-, subter-, super-, trans-fluo.

Struo, struxi, structum, to put in order, to build. So ad-, circum-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, ob-, præ-, sub-, super-struo.

Exc. 2. Luo, lui, luitum, to pay, to wash away, to suffer punishment. Its com

pounds have ūtum; as, abluo, -ui, -ūtum, to wash away, to purify. So al-, circum-, col-, de-, di-, e-, inter-, per-, pol-, pro-, sub-luo.

Ruo, rui, ruitum, to rush, to fall. Its compounds have utum; as, diruo, dirui, dirutum, to overthrow. So ē,- ob-, prō-, sub-ruo. Corruo and irruo, want the supine; as likewise do mětuo, to fear; pluo, to rain; ingruo, to assail; congruo, to agree; respuo, to reject, to slight; annuo, to assent; and the other compounds of the obsolete verb nuo; abnuo, to refuse; innuo, to nod, or beckon with the hand; rěnuo, to deny; all of which have ui in the preterite.

BO has bi, bitum; as,

Bibo, bibi, bibitum, to drink. So ad-, com-, e-, im-, per-, præ-bìbo.

Exc. 1. Scribo, scripsi, scriptum, to write. So ad-, circum-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, per-, post-, præ-, pro-, re-, sub-, super-, supra-, trans-scribo.

Nubo, nupsi, nuptum, to veil, to be married. So de-, e-, in-, ob-nubo. Instead of nupsi, we often find nupta sum.

Exc. 2. The compounds of cubo in this conjugation insert an m before the last syllable; as, accumbo, accubui, accubitum, to recline at table. So con-, de-, dis-, in-, oc-, pro-, re-, suc-, superin-cumbo, -cubui, -cubitum.

These two verbs want the supine; scābo, scābi, to scratch; lambo, lambi, to lick. So ad-, circum-, de-, præ-lambo.

Glubo and deglubo, to strip, to flay, want both preterite and supine.


1. Dico, dixi, dictum, to say. So ab-, ad-, con-, contra-, e-, in-, inter-, præ-, pro-dico.

Duco, duxi, ductum, to lead. So ab-, ad-, circum-, con-, de-, di-, e-, in-, intro-, ob-, per-, præ-, pro-, re-, se-, sub-, tra-, or trans-dúco.

2. Vinco, vici, victum, to overcome. So con-, de-, e-, per-, rě-vinco.

Parco, peperci, parsum, seldom parsi, parsitum, to spare. So comparco, or comperco, which is seldom used.

Ico, ici, ictum, to strike.

SCO has vi, tum; as,

Nosco, nōvi, nōtum, to know; future participle, nosciturus. So, Dignosco, to distinguish : ignosco, to pardon; also inter-, per, præ-nosco. Cresco, -ěvi, -étum, to grow: Con-, de-, ex-, re-, and without the supine, ac-, in-, per-, pro-, suc-, super-cresco. Quiesco, -ēvi, -ētum, to rest: Ac-, con-, inter-, re-quiesco.

Scisco, -ivi, itum, to ordain; ad-, or ascisco,
to take, to associate; concisco, to vote, to
commit; also præ-, re-scisco; descisco, to

Suesco, to be accustomed; as-, con-, de-, in-suesco,
-ēvi, -ētum.

Exc. 1. Agnosco, agnōvi, agnitum, to own; cognosco, cognovi, cognitum, to know. So recognosco, to review.

Pasco, pāvi, pastum, to feed. So com-, de-pasco.

Exc. 2. The following verbs want the supine:

Disco, didici, to learn. So ad-, con-, de-, e-, per-, præ-disco, -didici.

Posco, poposci, to demand. So ap-, de-, ex-, re-posco.

Compesco, compescui, to stop, to restrain. So dispesco, dispescui, to separate. Exc. 3. Glisco, to grow; fatisco, to be weary; and likewise inceptive verbs want both preterite and supine: as, aresco, to become dry. But these verbs borrow the preterite and supine from their primitives; as, ardesco, to grow hot, arsi, arsum, from ardeo.

Ascendo, to mount.
Descendo, to go down.

Con-, e-, ex-, in-, tran-scendo.
Accendo, to kindle: In-, suc-


DO has di, sum; as,

Scando, scandi, scansum, to climb; ědo, edi, ésum, to


Cudo, lo forge, to stamp, or coin:
Ex-, in-, per-, pro-, re-cúdo.
Defendo, to defend.
Offendo, to strike against, to
offend, to find.


Mando, to chew: Præ-, re-

Prehendo, to take hold of: Ap-,
com-, de-prehendo.


Exc. 1. Divido, divisi, divisum, to divide.

Rado, rāsi, rāsum, to shave. So ab-, circum-, cor-, de-, e-, inter-, præ-, subrado.

Claudo, clausi, clausum, to close. So circum-, con-, dis-, ex-, in-, inter-, præ-, re-,' se-clūdo.

Plaudo, plausi, plausum, to clap hands for joy. So ap-, circum-plaudo: also com-, dis-, ex-, sup-plodo, -plosi, -plosum.

Ludo, lūsi, lusum, to play. So ab-, al-, col-, de-, e-, il-, inter-, ob-, præ-, pro-, re-lūdo.

Trūdo, trūsi, trūsum, to thrust. So abs-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, ob-, pro-, re-trūdo. Lædo, læsi, læsum, to hurt. So al-, col-, e-, il-lido-, -līsi, -līsum.

Rodo, rōsi, rōsum, to gnaw. So ab-, ar-, circum-, cor-, de-, e-, ob-, per-, præ-rodo. Vado, to go, wants both preterite and supine; but its compounds have si, sum; as, invado, invāsi, inväsum, to invade, or fall upon. So circum-, ē-, super-vādo.

Cedo, cessi, cessum, to yield. So abs-, ac-, ante-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, inter-, præ-, pro-, re-, retro-, se-, suc-cēdo.

Exc. 2. Pando, pandi, passum, and sometimes pansum, to open, to spread. So dis-, ex-, op-, præ-, rě-pando.


Comědo, comēdi, comēsum or comestum, to eat. But ĕdo itself, and the rest of its compounds, have always ēsum; as, ad-, amb-, ex-, per-, sub-, super-ědo, -ēdi,


Fundo, fudi, fusum, tỏ pour forth. So af-, circum-, con-, de-, dif-, ef-, in-, inter-, of-, per-, pro-, re-, suf-, super-, superin-, trans-fundo.

Scindo, scidi, scissum, to cut. So as-, circum-, con-, ex-, inter-, per-, præ-, pro-, re-, tran-scindo.

Findo, fidi, fissum, to cleave. So con-, dif-, in-findo.

Exc. 3. Tundo, tétŭdi, tunsum, and sometimes tūsum, to beat. have tudi, tūsum; as, contundo, contŭdi, contūsum, to bruise. re-tundo.

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The compounds

So ex-, ob-, per-,

Cado, cěcidi, căsum, to fall. The compounds want the supine; as, ac-, con-, de-, ex-, inter-, pro-, suc-cido, -cidi: except, incido, incidi, incasum, to fall in; recido, recidi, recasum, to fall back; and occido, occidi, occasum, to fall down.

Cado, cecidi, casum, to cut, to kill. The compounds change æ into i long; as, accido, accidi, accisum, to cut about. So abs-, con-, circum-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, oc-, per-, præ-, rě-, suc-cido.

Tendo, tětendi, tensum or tentum, to stretch out. So at-, con-, de-, dis, ex-, ob-, præ-, pro-tendo-, -tendi, -tensum, or tentum. But the compounds have rather tentum, except ostendo, to show; which has commonly ostensum.

Pēdo, pěpēdi, peditum, to break wind backward. So op-pēdo.

Pendo, pependi, pensum, to weigh. So ap-, de-, dis-, ex-, im-, per-, re-, sus-pendo, -pendi, -pensum.

Exc. 4. The compounds of do have didi, and ditum; as, abdo, abdidi, abditum, to hide. So ad-, con-, dē-, di-, ē-, ob-, per-, pro-, red-, sub-, tra-do: also, decon-, re-condo and coad-, superad-do; and deper-, disper-do. To these add credo, credidi, creditum, to believe; vendo, vendidi, venditum, to sell. Abscondo, to hide, has abscondi, absconditum, rarely abscondidi.

Exc. 5. These three want the supine: strido, strīdi, to creak; rudo, rudi, to bray like an ass; and sido, sīdi, to sink down. The compounds of sido borrow the preterite and supine from sedeo; as, consido, consēdi, consessum, to sit down. So as-, circum-, de-, in-, ob-, per-, rě-, sub-sido.

Note. Several compounds of verbs in do and deo, in some respects resemble one another, and therefore should be carefully distinguished; as, concido, concedo, concido; consido and consideo; conscindo, conscendo, &c.

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GO, GUO, has xi, ctum; as,

Rego, rexi, rectum, to rule, to govern; dirigo, -exi, -ectum, to direct; arigo and ĕrigo, -exi, -ectum, to raise up; corrigo, to correct; porrigo, to stretch out; subrigo, to raise up. So,

Cingo, cinxi, cinctum, to gird, to surround: Ac-,
dis-, circum-, in-, præ-, re-, suc-cingo.
Fligo, to dash, or beat upon: Af-, con-, in-fligo;
also pro-fligo, to rout, of the first conjugation.
Jungo, to join: abjungo, to separate: Ad-, con-,
de-, dis-, in-, inter-, se-, sub-jungo.
Lingo, to lick: de-, e-lingo; and pollingo, to
anoint a dead body.

Mungo, to wipe, or clean the nose.

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Exc. 1. Surgo, to rise, has surrexi, surrectum. So as-, circum-, con-, de-, ex-, in-,


Pergo, porrexi, perrectum, to go forward.

Stringo, strinxi, strictum, to bind, to strain, to lop. So ad-, con-, de-, dis-, ob-, per-, præ-, re-, sub-stringo.

Fingo, finxi, fictum, to feign. So af-, con-, ef-, re-fingo.

Pingo, pinxi, pictum, to paint. So ap-, de-pingo.

Exc. 2. Frango, fregi, fractum, to break. So con-, de-, dif-, ef-, in-, per-, prœ-, re-, suf-fringo, -fregi, -fractum.

Ago, egi, actum, to do, to drive. So ab-, ad-, ex-, red-, sub-, trans-, transad-igo, and circum-, per-ăgo: cōgo, for coago, coēgi, coactum, to bring together, to force.

These three compounds of ago want the supine: sătugo, sategi, to be busy about a thing; prodigo, prodēgi, to layish, or spend riotously; dego, for deǎgo; degi, to live or dwell. Ambigo, to doubt, to dispute, also wants the preterite.

Lego, legi, lectum, to gather, to read. So al-, per-, præ, re-, sub-lego: also, col-, de-, e-, recol-, se-ligo, which change into ē.

Diligo, to love, has dilexi, dilectum. So negligo, to neglect; and intelligo, to understand; but negligo has sometimes neglēgi, Sall. Jug. 40.

Exc. 3. Tango, tětigi, tactum, to touch. So at-, con-, ob-, per-tingo; thus attingo, attigi, attactum, &c.

Pungo, pupugi, punctum, to prick, or sting. The compounds have punxi; as, compungo, compunxi, compunctum. So dis-, ex-, inter-pungo; but repungo has repunxi, or repupugi.

Pango, panxi, pactum, to fix, to drive in, to compose: or pegigi, which comes from the obsolete verb pago, to bargain, for which we use paciscor. The compounds of pango have pegi; as, compingo, compēgi, compactum, to put together. So im-, ob-, sup-pingo.

Exc. 4. Spargo, sparsi, sparsum, to spread. So ad-, circum-, con-, di-, in-, inter-, per-, pro-, re-spergo.

Mergo, mersi, mersum, to dip, or plunge. So de-, e-, im-, sub-mergo.
Tergo, tersi, tersum, to wipe, or clean. So abs-, de-, ex-, per-tergo.

Figo, fixi, fixum, to fix, or fasten. So af-, con-, de-, in-, of-, per-, præ-, re-, suf-, trans-figo.

Frigo, frixi, frixum or frictum, to fry.

Exc. 5. These three want the supine: clango, clanxi, to sound a trumpet; ningo, or ninguo, ninxi, to snow; ango, anxi, to vex. Vergo, to incline, or lie outwards, wants both preterite and supine. So e-, de-, in-vergo.


1. Traho, traxi, tractum, to draw. So abs-, at-, circum-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, per-, pro-, re-, sub-trăho.

Veho, vexi, vectum, to carry. So a-, ad-, circum-, con-, di-, e-, in-, per-, prœ-, præter-, pro-, re-, sub-, super-, trans-věho.

2. Mejo, or mingo, minxi, mictum, to make water. So immejo.


1. Colo, călui, cultum, to adorn, to inhabit, to honour, to till. So ac-, circum-. exin-, per-, præ-, re-colo: and likewise occulo, occului, occultum, to hide.

Consulo, consului, consultum, to advise or consult.
Alo, ălui, alitum, or contracted, altum, to nourish.

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