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Molo, molui, molitum, to grind. So com-, e-, per-molo. The compounds of cello, which itself is not in use, want the supine; as, ante-, ex-, præ-cello, -cellui, to excel. Percello, to strike, to astonish, has perculi, perculsum. So ap-, as-, com-, de-, dis-, ex-, im-, per-, pro-,

Pello, pepuli, pulsum, to thrust. re-pello; appuli, appulsum, &c. Fallo, fefelli, falsum, to deceive. But refello, refelli, to confute, wants the supine. 3. Vello, velli or vulsi, vulsum, to pull, or pinch. So a-, con-, e-, inter-, prœ-, re-vello. But de-, di-, per-vello, have rather velli.

Sallo, salli, salsum, to salt. Psallo, psalli, —, to play on a musical instrument, wants the supine.

Tollo, to lift up, to take away, in a manner peculiar to itself, makes sustuli, and sublātum; extollo, extuli, elātum; but attollo, to take up, has neither preterite nor supine.

MO has ui, ĭtum; as,

Gěmo, gěmui, gemitum, to groan. So ad-, or ag-, circum-, con-, in-, re-gěmo. Fremo, fremui, fremitum, to rage or roar, to make a great noise. So af-, circum-, con-, in-, per-fremo.

Võmo, êvŏmo, -ui, -itum, to vomit or spew, to cast up.
Exc. 1. Dēmo, dempsi, demptum, to take away.
Promo, prompsi, promptum, to bring out.

Sumo, sumpsi, sumptum, to take. So ab-, as-, con-, de-, in-, præ-, re-, tran-sūmo.
Como, compsi, comptum, to deck or dress.

These verbs are also used without the p; as, demsi, demtum; sumsi, sumtum, &c. Exc. 2. Emo, emi, emptum or emtum, to buy. So ad-, dir-, ex-, inter-, per-, redimo and co-ěmo, -emi, -emptum or emtum.

Premo, pressi, pressum, to press. So ap-, com-, de-, ex-, im-, op-, per-, re-, supprimo.

Trěmo, trěmui, to tremble, to quake for fear, wants the supine. So at-, circum-, con-, in-trěmo.


1. Pōno, posui, positum, to put, or place. So ap-, ante-, circum-, com-, de-, dis-, ex-, im-, inter-, ob-, post-, præ-, pro-, re-, se-, sup-, super-, superim-, trans-pōno.

Gigno, genui, genitum, to beget. So con-, e-, in-, per-, pro-, re-gigno.

Căno, cecini, cantum, to sing. But the compounds have cinui and centum ; as, accino, accinui, accentum, to sing in concert. So con-, in-, præ-, suc-cino; oc-cino, and oc-căno; re-cino, and re-căno. But occanui, recanui, are not in use.

So de-, ex-promo.

Temno, to despise, wants both preterite and supine; but its compound contemno, to despise, to scorn, has contempsi, contemptum; or without the p, contemsi,


2. Sperno, sprēvi, sprētum, to disdain or slight.

So desperno.

Sterno, strāvi, stratum, to lay flat, to strow. So ad-, con-, in-, præ-, pro-, sub


Sino, sivi or sii, situm, to permit. So desino, desīvi, oftener desii, desitum, to leave off.

Lino, livi, or levi, litum, to anoint or daub. So al-, circum-, col-, de-, il, inter-, ob-, per-, prœ-, re-, sub-, subter-, super-, superil-lìno.

Cerno, crēvi, seldom crētum, to see, to decree, to enter upon an inheritance. So de-, dis-, ex-, in-, se-cerno.


Verbs in po have psi and ptum; as, Carpo, carpsi, carptum, to pluck or pull, to crop, to blame. So con-, de-, dis-, ex-, præ-cerpo, -cerpsi, cerptum.

Scalpo, to scratch or engrave: So circum-, ex-

Sculpo, to grave or carve. So ex-, in-sculpo.
Serpo, to creep as a serpent.

make a noise. So ad-, circum-, in-, inter-,

Clěpo, -psi, -ptum, to steal.
Repo, to creep: Ad-, v. ar-, cor-, de-, di-, e-,
ir-, intro-, ob-, per-, pro-, sub-repo, -psi,

Exc. 1. Strepo, strěpui, strěpitum, to ob-, per-strepo.

Exc. 2. Rumpo, rupi, ruptum, to break. So ab-, cor-, di-, e-, inter-, intro-, ir-, ob-, per-, præ-, pro-rumpo.

There are only two simple verbs ending in QUO, viz.

Coquo, coxi, coctum, to boil. So con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, per-, re-còquo. Linquo, liqui, —, to leave. The compounds have lictum; as, relinquo, reliqui, relictum, to forsake. So de-, and dērě-linquo.



1. Quæro, makes quæsivi, quæsitum, to seek. So ac-, an-, con-, dis-, ex-, in-, per-, re-quiro, -quisīvi, -quisitum.


Těro, trivi, tritum, to wear, to bruise. So at-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, ob-, per-, pro-, sub-tĕro.

Verro, verri, versum, to sweep, brush, or make clean. So ā-, con-, dē-, ē-, prœ-, rě-verro.

Ūro, ussi, ustum, to burn. So ăd-, amb-, comb-, de-, ex-, în-, pĕr-, sub-ūro.
Gero, gessi, gestum, to carry. So ag-, con-, di-, in-, prō-, re-, sug-gĕro.

2. Curro, cucurri, cursum, to run. So ac-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, oc-, per-, prœ-, prō-curro, which sometimes doubles the first syllable, and sometimes not; as, accurri, or accucurri, &c. Circum-, re-, suc-, trans-curro, hardly ever redouble the first syllable.

3. Sĕro, sēvi, sătum, to sow. The compounds which signify planting or sowing, have sevi, situm; as, consĕro, consevi, consitum, to plant together. So as-, circum-, dē-, dis-, in-, inter-, ob-, pro-, rè-, sub-, tran-sĕro.

Sero,, to knit, had anciently serui, sertum, which its compounds still retain; as, assero, asserui, assertum, to claim. So con-, circum-, de-, dis-, ēdis-, ex-, in-,


4. Furo, to be mad, wants both preterite and supine.

SO has sīvi, situm; as,

Arcesso, arcessīvi, arcessitum, to call, or send for. So căpesso, to take; făcesso, to do, to go away; lacesso, to provoke.

Exc. 1. Viso, visi,


to go to see, to visit. So in-, re-viso. Incesso, incessi,

to attack, to seize.


Exc. 2. Depso, depsui, depstum, to knead. So con-, per-depso.
Pinso, pinsui or pinsi, pinsum, pistum or pinsitum, to bake.


1. Flecto, has flexi, flectum, to bow. So circum-, de-, in-, re-, retro-flecto. Plecto, plexi and plexui, plexum, to plait. So implecto.

Necto, nexi and nexui, nexum, to tie, or knit. So ad-, vel an-, con-, circum-, in-, sub-necto.

Pecto, pexi and pexui, pexum, to dress, or comb. So de-, ex-, re-pecto.

2. Měto, messui, messum, to reap, mow, or cut down. So de-, e-, præ-měto.

3. Pěto, pětivi, pětitum, to seek, to pursue. So ap-, com-, ex-, im-, op-, re-, sup-pěto.

Mitto, misi, missum, to send. So a-, ad-, com-, circum-, dē-, di-, ē-, im-, inter-, intro-, ō-, per-, præ, præter, prō-, re-, sub-, super-, trans-mitto.

Verto, verti, versum, to turn. So a-, ad-, animad-, ante-, circum-, con-, de-, di-, en-, in-, inter-, ob-, per-, præ-, præter-, re-, sub-, trans-verto.

Sterto, stertui,

to snore. So de-sterto.


4. Sisto, an active verb, to stop, has stiti, stătum; but sisto, a neuter verb, to stand still, has stěti, stătum, like sto. The compounds have stiti, and stĭtum; as, assisto, astiti, astitum, to stand by. So ab-, circum-, cor-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, ob-, per-, re-, sub-sisto. But the compounds are seldom used in the supine.


There are three verbs in vo, which are thus conjugated :

1. Vivo, vixi, victum, to live. So ad-, con-, per-, pro-, re-, super-vivo.

Solvo, solvi, solutum, to loose. Volvo, volvi, võlutum, to roll. rě-, sub-volvo.

2. Texo, to weave, (the only verb of this conjugation ending in xo,) has texui, textum. So at-, circum-, con-, de-, in-, inter-, ob-, per-, præ-, pro-, re-, sub-texo.

So absolvo, to acquit, dis-, ex-, per-, re-solvo.
So ad-, circum-, con-, dē-, ē-, in-, ob-, per-, prō-,

Fourth Conjugation.

Verbs of the fourth conjugation make the preterite in ivi, and the supine in ītum ; as, Munio, munivi, munitum, to fortify.

Exc. 1. Singultio, singultīvi, singultum, to sob.
Sepělio, sepělivi, sepultum, to bury.
Věnio, vēni, ventum, to come.

So ad-, ante-, circum-, con-, contra-, de-, e-, in-, inter-, intro-, ob-, per-, post-, præ-, sub-, super-věnio.

Vēneo, věnii,

to be sold.


Salio, sălui, and sălii, saltum, to leap. The compounds have commonly silui, sometimes silii, or silivi and sultum; as, transilio, transilui, transilii and transilivi, transultum, to leap over. So ab-, as-, circum-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, re-, sub-, super-silio.

Exc. 2. Amicio, has amicui, amictum, seldom amixi, to cover or clothe.
Vincio, vinxi, vinctum, to tie. So circum-, de-, e-, re-vincio.

Sancio, sanxi, sanctum; and sancīvi, sancitum, to establish or ratify.
Exc. 3. Cambio, campsi, campsum, to change money.

Sepio, sepsi, septum, to hedge or enclose. So circum-, dis-, inter-, ob-, præ-sēpio. Haurio, hausi, haustum, rarely hausum, to draw out, to empty, to drink. So de-, ex-haurio.

So as-, con-, dis-, per-, prœ-,

Sentio, sensi, sensum, to feel, to perceive, to think. sub-sentio.

Raucio, rausi, rausum, to be hoarse.

Exc. 4. Sarcio, sarsi, sartum, to mend or repair. So ex-, re-sarcio. Farcio, farsi, fartum, to cram. So con-fercio; ef-fercio, or ef-farcio; in-fercio, or in-farcio; re-fercio.

Fulcio, fulsi, fultum, to prop or uphold. So con-, ef-, in-, per-, suf-fulcio. Exc. 5. The compounds of pario have perui, pertum ; as, apěrio, aperui, apertum, to open. So opěrio, to shut, to cover. But comperio has compèri, compertum, to know a thing for certain. Rěpěrio, repĕri, repertum, to find.

Exc. 6. The following verbs want the supine. Cœcutio, cæcutivi, to be dim-sighted. Gestio, gestivi, to show one's joy by the gesture of his body. Glocio, glòcivi, to cluck or cackle as a hen. Dementio, dementivi, to be mad. Ineptio, ineptivi, to play the fool. Prōsilio, prosilui, to leap forth. Fěrōcio, ferōcivi, to be fierce.

Ferio, to strike, wants both preterite and supine. So refĕrio, to strike again.


A deponent verb is that which, under a passive form, has an active or neuter signification; as, Loquor, I speak; morior, I die.

A common verb, under a passive form, has either an active or passive signification; as, Criminor, I accuse, or I am accused.

Most deponent verbs of old, were the same with common verbs. They are called Deponent, because they have laid aside the passive sense.

Deponent and common verbs form the participle perfect in the same manner as if they had the active voice; thus, Lætor, lætatus, lætāri, to rejoice; věreor, veritus, věrēri, to fear; fungor, functus, fungi, to discharge an office; potior, põtītus, potīri, to enjoy, to be master of.

The learner should be taught to go through all the parts of deponent and common verbs, by proper examples in the several conjugations; thus, lætor, of the first conjugation, like amor :

Indicative Mode.

Present. Lætor, I rejoice; lætāris, vel -āre, thou rejoicest, &c.
Imperfect. Letabar, I rejoiced, or did rejoice; lætabaris, &c.

Perfect. Lætatus sum vel fui,* I have rejoiced, &c.
Plu-perf. Lætatus eram vel fueram, I had rejoiced, &c.

Lætabor, I shall or will rejoice; lætaběris, or -aběre, &c.
Lætaturus sum, I am about to rejoice, or I am to rejoice, &c.
Subjunctive Mode.
Present. Later, I may rejoice; lætēris, or -ére, &c.
Imperfect. Latarer, I might rejoice; lætārēris, or -rēre, &c.
Perfect. Lætatus sim vel fuerim, I may have rejoiced, &c.
Plu-perf. Lætatus essem vel fuissem, I might have rejoiced, &c.
Future. Lætatus fuero, I shall have rejoiced, &c.


Present. Latare vel -ātor, rejoice thou: lætator, let him rejoice, &c.

Present. Lætari, to rejoice.

Perfect. Lætatus esse vel fuisse, to have rejoiced.
Lætaturus esse, to be about to rejoice.




Lætaturus fuisse, to have been about to rejoice.


Lætans, rejoicing.

Lætatus, having rejoiced.

Lætaturus, about to rejoice.
Lætandus, to be rejoiced at.

In like manner conjugate in the First
Gratulor, to rejoice, to wish one
Gråvor, to grudge.
Hariòlor, to conjecture.
Helluor, to guttle or gormandise,
to waste.

Abominor, to abhor.
Adulor, to flatter.
Emulor, to vie with, to envy.
Altercor, to dispute, to make a


Apricor, to bask in the sun.
Arbritror, to think.

Aspernor, to despise.
Aversor, to dislike.

Auctionor, to sell by auction.
Aucupor, and -o, to hunt after.
Augŭror, and -o, to forebode, or
presage by augury.
Auspicor, to take an omen, to

Auxilior, to assist.
Bacchor, to rage, to revel, to riot.
Calumnior, to accuse falsely.
Căvillor, to scoff.
Cauponor, to huckster, to retail.
Causor, to plead in excuse, to


Circulor, to meet in companies,

to stroll, to talk. Comessor, to revel. Comitor, to accompany.

Epůlor, to feast.
Exsecror, to curse.
Fămulor, to serve.
Ferior, to keep holy-day.
Frustror, to disappoint.
Furor, to steal.

Glōrior, to boast.

Hortor, to encourage.
Hallucinor, to speak at random,

to err.


Imaginor, to conceive.
Imitor, to imitate.
Indignor, to disdain.
Inficior, to deny.

Insector, to pursue, to inveigh

Insidior, to lie in wait.
Interprètor, to explain.
Jăcŭlor, to dart.
Jocor, to jest.
Lämentor, to bewail.
Lucror, to gain.
Luctor, to wrestle.
Machinor, to contrive.
Mědicor, to cure.

Měditor, to muse, or ponder.
Mercor, to purchase.

Commentor, to meditate on, or Mětor, to measure.

write what one is to say.
Conciōnor, to harangue.
Conflictor, to struggle.
Conor, to endeavour.
Conspicor, to spy, to see.
Contemplor, to view.
Convivor, to feast.

Minor, to threaten.
Miror, to wonder.
Misĕror, to pity.
Moděror, to rule.

Modŭlor, to play a tune.
Morigěror, to humour.
Moror, to delay.

Cornicor, to chatter like a crow. Munĕror, to present.

Criminor, to blame.
Cunctor, to delay.
Detestor, to abhor.
Dominor, to rule.

Mutuor, to borrow.
Núgor, to trifle.
Obtestor, to beseech.
Ŏdōror, to smell.
Opěror, to work.
Ŏpinor, to think.
Õpitulor, to help.
Oscilor, to kiss.
Ötior, to be at leisure.

Pālor, to stroll or straggle.

Palpor, or -o, to stroke or soothe.
Pătrōcinor, to patronise.
Percontor, to inquire.
Peregrinor, to go abroad.
Periclitor, to be in danger.
Pignĕror, to pledge.
Piscor, to fish.

Populor, and -o, to lay waste.
Prædor, to plunder.
Prælior, to fight.
Præstolor, to wait for.
Prævaricor, to go crooked, to
shuffle or prevaricate.
Precor, to pray.

Deprecor, to entreat, to pray

Procor, to ask, to woo.
Recordor, to remember.
Refrågor, to be against.
Rimor, to search.
Rixor, to scold or brawl.
Rusticor, to dwell in the coun-

Scrütor, to search.
Solor, to comfort.
Spǎtior, to walk abroad.
Spěcŭlor, to view, to spy.
Stipulor, to stipulate or agree.
Stomǎchor, to be angry.
Suavior, to kiss.

Suffragor, to vote for one, to favour.

Suspicor, to suspect.

Tergiversor, to boggle, to put off.
Testor, to witness.

Tútor, to defend.

Vădor, to give bail, to force to
give bail.

Vagor, to wander.
Văticiuor, to prophesy.
Velitor, to skirmish.
Věněror, to worship.
Vēnor, to hunt.
Versor, to be employed.
Vōciferor, to brawl.


Fui, fueram, &c. are seldom joined to the participles of deponent verbs ; and not so often to those of passive verbs, as, sum, eram, &c.

Měreor, měrĭtus, to deserve.
Tueor, tuitus, or tutus, to defend.

In the Second Conjugation,

Polliceor, pollicitus, to promise.
Liceor, licitus, to bid at an auction.
In the Third Conjugation,

Amplector, amplexus; and complector, complexus, to embrace.
Revertor, reversus, to return.

In the Fourth Conjugation,
Partior, to divide.

Blandior, to soothe, to flatter.
Mentior, to lie.

Molior, to attempt something difficult.

Sortior, to draw or cast lots.
Largior, to give liberally.

Participle Perfect, Blanditus, mentitus, molitus, partitus, sortitus, largitus.
There are no exceptions in the First Conjugation.


Reor, ratus, to think.

Misereor, misertus, or not contracted, miseritus, to pity.

Fateor, fassus, to confess. The compounds of fateor have fessus; as, profiteor, professus, to profess. So confiteor, to confess, to own or acknowledge.



Labor, lapsus, to slide. So al-, col-, de-, di-, e-, il-, inter-, per-, præter-, pro-, re-, sub-, subter-, super-, trans-labor.

Ulciscor, ultus, to revenge.

Utor, usus, to use. So ab-, de-útor. Loquor, loquutus, or locutus, to speak. pro-loquor.

So al-, col-, circum-, e-, inter-, ob-, præ-,

Sequor, sequutus, or secutus, to follow. So as-, con-, ex-, in-, ob-, per-, pro-, re-, sub-sequor.

Queror, questus, to complain. So con-, inter-, præ-queror.

Nitor, nisus, or nixus, to endeavour, to lean upon. So ad-, vel an-, con-, e-, in-, ob-, re-, sub-nitor: but the compounds have oftener nixus.

Păciscor, pactus, to bargain. So de-peciscor.

Grădior, gressus, to go. So ag-, ante-, circum-, con-, de-, di-, e-, in-, intro-, præ-, prætĕr-, pro-, re-, retro-, sug-, super-, trans-grědior. Proficiscor, profectus, to go a journey.

Nanciscor, nactus, to get.

Patior, passus, to suffer. So per-pětior.

Apiscor, aptus, to get. So adipiscor, adeptus; and indipiscor, indeptus.
Comminiscor, commentus, to devise or invent.

Fruor, fruitus or fructus, to enjoy. So per fruor.

Obliviscor, oblitus, to forget.

Expergiscor, experrectus, to awake.

Morior, mortuus, to die. So com-, de-, e-, im-, inter-, præ-mărior.

Nascor, natus, to be born. So ad-, circum-, de-, e-, in-, inter-, re-, sub-nascor. Orior, ortus, orīri, to rise. So ab-, ad-, co-, ex-, ob-, sub-ōrior.

The three last form the future participle in iturus; thus, moriturus, nascitūrus, ŏrĭtūrus.


Metior, mensus, to measure. So ad-, com-, di-, è-, præ-, re-mētior.
Ordior, orsus, to begin. So ex-, red-ordior.
Experior, expertus, to try.

Opperior, oppertus, to wait or tarry for one.

The following verbs want the participle perfect :

Vescor, vesci, to feed.

Liquor, liqui, to melt or be dissolved.
Mědeor, mederi, to heal.

Rěminscor, reminisci, to remember.
Irascor, irasci, to be angry.

Ringor, ringi, to grin like a dog.

Prævertor, præverti, to get before, to outrun.
Diffiteor, Diffiteri, to deny.

Divertor, diverti, to turn aside, to take lodging.
Défětiscor, defětisci, to be weary or faint.

The verbs which do not fall under any of the foregoing rules are called Irregular.


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