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To these add tergeo, terges; and tergo, tergis, to wipe, which are equally common.
Potior, poteris, and potior, potiris, potiri, to enjoy.
There is likewise a verb, which is usually of the second conjugation, and more rarely of the fourth, namely, cio, cies, cière; and cio, cis, cire, to rouse; whence, accire, and accitus.
To these we may add the verb EDO, to eat, which though regularly formed, also agrees in several of its parts with sum; thus,
Ind. Pres. Edo, edis or es, edit or est; editis or estis
Passive Ind. Pres. Editur or estur.
Colo, -as, to strain.
It may not be improper here to subjoin a list of those verbs which resemble one another in some of their parts, though they differ in signification. Of these some agree in the present, some in the preterite, and the others in the supine.
1. The following agree in the present, but are differently conjugated:
Aggero, -is, to bring together.
Edŭco, -as, to train up.
Lego, as, to send on an embassy.
Of this class some have a different quantity; as,
Colo, -is, to till.
Dico, -is, to say.
Aceo, acui, to be sour.
2. The following Verbs agree in the Preterite :
Acuo, acui, to sharpen.
Cresco, crétum, to grow.
Verro, versum, to sweep.
Cerno, cretum, to behold.
THE OBSOLETE CONJUGATION.
This chiefly occurs in old writers, and only in particular conjugations and tenses.
1. The ancient Latins made the imperfect of the indicative active of the fourth conjugation in IBAM, without the e; as, audibam, scībam, for audiebam, sciēbam.
2. In the future of the indicative of the fourth conjugation, they used IBO in the active, and ibor in the passive voice; as, dormibo, dormibor, for dormiam, dormiar.
3. The present of the subjunctive anciently ended in IM; as, edim for edam, duim for dem.
4. The perfect of the subjunctive active sometimes occurs in SSIM, and the future in SSO; as, levassim, levasso, for levaverim, levavero; capsim, capso, for caperim, capero. Hence the future of the infinitive was formed in ASSERE; as, levassere, for levaturus esse.
5. In the second person of the present of the imperative passive, we find MINO in the singular, and minor in the plural; as, famino, for fare; and progrědiminor, for progrědimini.
6. The syllable ER was frequently added to the present of the infinitive passive; as, farier for fari; dicier, for dici.
7. The participles of the future time active, and perfect passive, when joined with the verb esse, were sometimes used as indeclinable; thus, credo inimicos dicturum esse, for dicturos, Cic. Cohortes, ad me missum facias, for missas, Cic. ad Attic. viii. 12.
DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION OF VERBS.
Verbs are derived either from nouns or from other verbs.
Verbs derived from nouns are called Denominative; as, Cano, to sup; laudo, to praise; fraudo, to defraud; lapido, to throw stones; opěror, to work; frumentor, to forage; lignor, to gather fuel, &c. from cana, laus, fraus, &c. But when they express imitation or resemblance, they are called Imitative; as, Patrisso, Græcor, būbŭlo, cornicor, &c. I imitate or resemble my father, a Grecian, an owl, a crow, &c. from pater, Græcus, bubo, cornix.
Of those derived from other verbs, the following chiefly deserve attention; namely, Frequentatives, Inceptives, and Desideratives.
1. FREQUENTATIVES express frequency of action, and are all of the first conjugation. They are formed from the last supine, by changing ātu into ito, in verbs of the first conjugation; and by changing u into o, in verbs of the other three conjugations; as, clamo, to cry, clamito, to cry frequently; terreo, territo; verto, verso; dormio, dormito.
In like manner, Deponent verbs form Frequentatives in or; as, minor, to threaten; minitor, to threaten frequently.
Some are formed in an irregular manner; as, nato from no; noscito from nosco; scitor, or rather sciscitor from scio; pavito from paveo; sector from sequor; loquitor from loquor. So quærito, fundito, agito, fluito, &c.
From Frequentative verbs are also formed other Frequentatives; as, curro, curso, cursito ; pello, pulso, pulsito, or by contraction, pulto; capio, capto, capito; cano, canto, cantito; defendo, defensi, defensito; dico, dicto, dictito; gero, gesto, gestito ; jacio, jacto, jactito; venio, ventito ; mutio, musso, (for mutito) mussito, &c.
Verbs of this kind do not always express frequency of action. Many of them have much the same sense with their primitives, or express the meaning more strongly.
2. INCEPTIVE Verbs mark the beginning or continued increase of any thing. They are formed from the second person singular of the present of the indicative, by adding co; as, caleo, to be hot, cales, calesco, to grow hot. So in the other conjugations, labasco from labo; tremisco from tremo; obdormisco from obdormio. Hisco from hio is contracted for hiasco. Inceptives are likewise formed from substantives and adjectives; as, puerasco from puer; dulcesco from dulcis; juvenesco from juvenis.
All Inceptives are Neuter verbs, and of the third conjugation. They want both the preterite and supine; unless very rarely, when they borrow them from their primitives.
3. DESIDERATIVE Verbs signify a desire or intention of doing a thing. They are formed from the latter supine, by adding rio, and shortening the u; as, cœnaturio, I desire to sup, from cœnatu. They are all of the fourth conjugation; and want both preterite and supine, except these three, ésŭrio, -ivi, -itum, to desire to eat; parturio, -ivi,- to be in travail: nuptūrio, ivi,
desire to be married.
~, to There are a few verbs in LLO, which are called Diminutive; as, cantillo, sorbillo, -are, I sing, I sup a little. To these some add albico, and candico, -are, to be or to grow whitish; also, nigrico, fodico, and vellico. Some verbs in SSO are called Intensive; as, Capesso, facesso, petesso or petisso, I take, I do, I seek earnestly.
Verbs are compounded with nouns, with other verbs, with adverbs, and chiefly with prepositions. Many of these simple verbs are not in use; as, Futo, fendo, specio, gruo, &c. The component parts usually remain entire. Sometimes a letter is added; as, prodeo, for pro-eo: or taken away; as, asporto, omitto, trado, pejero, pergo, debeo, præbeo, &c. for absporto, obmitto, transdo, perjuro, perrego, dehibeo, præhibeo, &c. So demo, premo, sumo, of de, pro, sub, and emo, which anciently signified to take, or to take away. Often the vowel or diphthong of the simple verb, and the last consonant of the preposition, is changed; as, damno, condemno; calco, conculco; lado, collido; audio, obedio, &c. Affero, aufĕro, collaudo, implico, &c. for adfero, abfero, conlaudo, inplico, &c.
A Participle is a kind of adjective formed from a verb, which in its signification implies time.
It is so called, because it partakes both of an adjective and of a verb, having gender and declension from the one, time and signification from the other, and number from both.
Participles are declined like adjectives; and their signification is various, according to the nature of the verbs from which they come; only participles in dus, are always passive, and import not so much future time, as obligation or necessity.
Latin verbs have four Participles, the present and future active; as, Amans, loving; ămātūrus, about to love: and the perfect and future passive; as, amātus, loved, amandus, to be loved.
The Latins have not a participle perfect in the active, nor a participle present in the passive voice; which defect must be supplied by a circumlocution. Thus, to express the perfect participle active in English, we use a conjunction, and the plu-perfect of the subjunctive in Latin, or some other tense, according to its connexion with the other words of a sentence; as, he having loved, quum amavisset, &c.
Neuter verbs have commonly but two Participles; as, Sedens, sessurus; stans, statūrus.
From some neuter verbs, are formed Participles of the perfect tense; as, Erratus, festinatus, juratus, laboratus, vigilatus, cessatus, sudatus, triumphatus, regnatus, decursus, desitus, emeritus, emersus, obitus, placitus, successus, occasus, &c. and also of the future in dus; as, Jurandus, vigilandus, regnandus, carendus, dormiendus, erubescendus, &c. Neuter passive verbs are equally various. Veneo has no participle; Fido, only fidens and fisus; soleo, solens, and solitus; vapulo, vapulans, and vapulaturus; Gaudeo, gaudens, gavisus, and gavisurus; Audeo, audens, ausus, ausurus, audendus. Ausus is used both in an active and passive sense; as, Ausi omnes immane nefas, ausoque potiti. Virg. En. vi. 624.
Deponent and Common verbs have commonly four Participles; as,
Loquens, speaking; locuturus, about to speak; locutus, having spoken; loquendus, to be spoken. Dignans, vouchsafing; dignaturus, about to vouchsafe; dignatus, having vouchsafed, being vouchsafed, or having been vouchsafed; dignandus, to be vouchsafed. Many participles of the perfect tense from Deponent verbs have both an active and passive sense; as, Abominatus, conatus, confessus, adortus, amplexus, blanditus, largitus, mentitus, oblitus, testatus, reneratus, &c.
There are several Participles compounded with in signifying not, the verbs of which do not admit of such composition: as, Insciens, insperans, indicens for nondicens, inopinans, and necopinans, immerens; Iliæsus, impransus, inconsultus, incustoditus, immetatus, impunitus, imparatus, incomitatus, incomptus, indemnatus, indotatus, incorruptus, interritus, and imperterritus, intestatus, inausus, inopinatus, inultus, incensus for non census, not registered; infectus for non factus, invisus for non visus, indictus for non dictus, &c. There is a different incensus from incendo; infectus from inficio; invisus from invideo; indictus from indico, &c.
If from the signification of a Participle we take away time, it becomes an adjective, and admits the degrees of comparison; as,
Amans, loving, amantior, amantissimus; doctus, learned, doctior, doctissimus or a substantive; as, Præfectus, a commander or governor; consonans, f. sc. litera, a consonant; continens, f. sc. terra, a continent; confluens, m. a place where two rivers run together; oriens, m. sc. sol, the east; occidens, m. the west; dictum, a saying; scriptum, &c.
There are many words in ATUS, ITUS, and UTUS, which, although resembling participles, are reckoned adjectives, because they come from nouns, and not from verbs; as, alatus, barbatus, cordatus, caudatus, cristatus, aurītus, pellītus, turrītus; astutus, cornutus, nasutus, &c. winged, bearded, discreet, &c. But auratus, æratus, argentatus, ferratus, plumbatus, gypsatus, calceatus, clypeatus, galeatus, tunicatus, larvatus, palliatus, lymphatus, purpuratus, prætextatus, &c. covered with gold, brass, silver, &c. are accounted participles, because they are supposed to come from obsolete verbs. So perhaps calamistratus, frizzled, crisped, or curled; crinītus, having long hair; peritus, skilled, &c.
There is a kind of Verbal adjectives in BUNDUS, formed from the imperfect of the indicative, which very much resemble Participles in their signification, but generally express the meaning of the verb more fully, or denote an abundance or great deal of the action; as, vitabundus, the same with valdè vitans, avoiding much. Sal. Jug. 60, and 101. Liv. xxv. 13. So errabundus, ludibundus, populabundus, moribundus, &c.
GERUNDS AND SUPINES.
GERUNDS are participial words, which bear the signification of the verb from which they are formed; and are declined like a neuter noun of the second declension through all the cases of the singular number, except the vocative.
There are both in Latin and English, substantives derived from the verb, which so much resemble the Gerund in their signification, that frequently they may be substituted in its place. They are generally used however in a more undetermined sense than the Gerund, and in English have the article always prefixed to them. Thus, with the Gerund, Delector legendo Ciceronem, I am delighted with reading Cicero. But with the substantive, Delector lectione Ciceronis, I am delighted with the reading of Cicero.
The Gerund and Future Participle of verbs in io, and some others, often take u, instead of e; as, faciundum, di, do, dus; experiundum, potiundum, gerundum, potundum, ducundum, &c. for faciendum, &c.
SUPINES have much the same signification with Gerunds, and may be indifferently applied to any person or number. They agree in termination with nouns of the fourth declension, having only the accusative and ablative cases.
The former Supine is commonly used in an active, and the latter in a passive sense, but sometimes the contrary; as, coctum non vapulatum, dudum conductus fui, i. e. ut vapularem, v. verberarer, to be beaten. Plaut.
An adverb is an indeclinable part of speech, added to a verb, adjective, or other adverb, to express some circumstance, quality, or manner of their signification.
All adverbs may be divided into two classes, namely, those which denote Circumstance; and those which denote Quality, Manner, &c.
I. Adverbs denoting CIRCUMSTANCE are chiefly those of Place, Time, and Order. 1. Adverbs of Place, are five-fold, namely, such as signify,
Hic, Illic, Isthic,
3. Motion towards a place.
To that place.
2. Adverbs of Time are three-fold, namely, such as signify,
4. Motion from a place.
5. Motion through or by a place.
From the same place.
3. Adverbs of Order.
From some place.
If from any place.
On both sides.
3. Vicissitude or repetition of time.
In the mean time.
For several times.
Ever and anon, now and
Four times, &c.
II. Adverbs denoting QUALITY, MANNER, &c. are either Absolute or Comparative. Those called Absolute denote,
DERIVATION, COMPARISON, AND COMPOSITION OF ADVERBS. 123
1. QUALITY, simply; as, beně, well; malè, ill; fortiter, bravely; and innumerable others that come from adjective nouns or participles.
2. CERTAINTY; as, profectò, certè, sănè, plānè, næ, utique, ita, ětiam, truly, verily, yes; quidni, why not? omnino, certainly.
3. CONTINGENCE; as, fortè, forsan, fortassis, fors, haply, perhaps, by chance, peradventure. 4. NEGATION; as, non, haud, not; nequaquam, not at all; neutiquam, by no means; měněme, nothing less.
5. PROHIBITION; as, ne, not.
6. SWEARING; as, hercle, pol, eděpol, měcastor, by Hercules, by Pollux, &c.
7. EXPLAINING; as, utpote, videlicet, scilicet, nimirum, nempe, to wit, namely.
8. SEPARATION; as, seorsum, apart; sēpărātim, separately; sigillātim, one by one; viritim, man by man; oppidatim, town by town, &c.
9. JOINING TOGETHER; as, simul, unà, păriter, together; généraliter, generally; únĭversaliter, universally; plerumque, for the most part.
10. INDICATION or POINTING OUT; as, en, ecce, lo, behold.
11. INTERROGATION; as, cur, quare, quamobrem, why, wherefore? num, an, whether? quomodo, quì, how? To which add, Ubi, quò, quorsum, unde, quà, quando, quamdiu, quoties. Those Adverbs which are called Comparative, denote,
1. EXCESS; as, Valdè, maximè, magnopěre, maximopere, summopere, admodum, oppidò, perquam, longè, greatly, very much, exceedingly; nimis, nimium, too much; prorsus, penitus, omnino, altogether, wholly: magis, more; meliùs, better; pejùs, worse; fortiùs, more bravely; and optimè, best; pessimè, worst; fortissimè, most bravely; and innumerable others of the comparative and superlative degrees.
2. DEFECT; as, Ferme, fèrè, pròpemòdum, pēnè, almost; părùm, little; paulo, paululum, very little.
3. PREFERENCE; as, põtiùs, sătiùs, rather; põtissimùm, præcipuè, præsertim, chiefly, especially; imò, yes, nay, nay rather, yea rather.
4. LIKENESS or EQUALITY; as, ita, sic, ădeò, so; ut, ŭti, sicut, sicuti, vělut, veluti, ceu, tanquam, quasi, as, as if; quemadmodum, even as; sătis, enough; ibidem, in like manner; juxta, alike, equally.
5. UNLIKENESS or INEQUALITY; as, aliter, secus, otherwise, aliōqui or aliōquin, else; nedum, much more or much less.
6. ABATEMENT; as, sensim, paulatim, pědětentim, by degrees, piece-meal; vix, scarcely; agre, hardly, with difficulty.
7. EXCLUSION; as, tantùm, sõlùm, mõdò, tantummodo, duntaxat, demum, only.
DERIVATION, COMPARISON, AND COMPOSITION OF ADVERBS.
Adverbs are derived,
1. From substantives, and end commonly in TIM or TUS; as, Partim, partly, by parts; nominatim, by name; generatim, by kinds generally; speciatim, vicatim, gregatim; radicitus, from the root, &c.
2. From adjectives, and these are by far the most numerous. Such as come from adjectives of the first and second declension, usually end in E; as, liberè, freely; plenè, fully some in O, UM, and TER; as, falsò, tantùm, graviter a few in A, ITUS, and IM; as, rectà, antiquitus, privatim. Some are used two or three ways, as, primùm, v. -ò; purè, -iter; certè, -ò; cautè, -tim, humane, -iter, -itus, publicè, publicitùs, &c. Adverbs from adjectives of the third declension commonly end in TER, seldom in E; as, turpiter, feliciter, acriter, pariter; facilè, repente; one in O, omnino. The neuter of adjectives is sometimes taken adverbially; as, recens natus, for recenter; perfidum ridens, for perfide, Hor. multa reluctans, for multum or valde, Virg. So in English we say, to speak loud, high, &c. for loudly, highly, &c. In many cases a substantive is understood; as, primo, sc. loco, optatò advenis, sc. tempore; hàc, sc. viâ, &c.
3. From each of the pronominal adjectives, ille, iste, hic, is, idem, &c. are formed adverbs, which express all the circumstances of place; as, from ille, illic, illuc, illorsum, illiuc, and illac. So from quis, ubi, quo, quorsam, unde, and quà. Also of time; thus, quando, quandiu, &c.
4. From verbs and participles; as, casim, with the edge; punctim, with the point; strictim, closely; from cado, pungo, stringo; amanter, properanter, dubitanter; distinctè, emandatè ; meritò, inopinato, &c. But these last are thought to be in the ablative, having ex understood.
5. From prepositions; as, intus, intro, from in; clanculum, from clam; subtus, from sub, &c.
Adverbs derived from adjectives are commonly compared like their primitives. The positive generally ends in e, or ter; as, durè, facilè, acriter; the comparative, in ius; as, duriùs, faciliùs, acriùs; the superlative, in ime; as, durissimè, facillimè,
If the comparison of the adjective be irregular or defective, the comparison of the adverb is so too; as, bene, meliùs, optimè; malè, pejùs, pessimè; parùm, minùs, minimè, and -ùm; mulțùm, plus, plurimùm; prope, propius, proximè; ocyus, ocyssime; priùs, primò, -ùm ; nuper, nuperrimè; nove and noviter, novissime; meritò, meritissimo, &c. Those adverbs also are compared whose primitives are obsolete; as, sapè, sæpiùs, sæpissimè; penitùs, penitius, penitissime; satis, satiùs; secus, seciùs, &c. Magis, maxime; and potius, potissimum, want the positive.