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which I wrote; The man I love, to wit, whom. But this omission of the relative is generally improper, particularly in serious discourse.
OBs. 6. The case of the relative sometimes seems to depend on that of the antecedent; as, Cùm aliquid agas eorum, quorum consuésti, for que consuêsti agere, or quorum aliquid agere consuêsti, Cic. Restitue in quem me accepisti locum, for in locum, in quo, Ter. And. iv. 1. 58. But such examples rarely occur.
OBs. 7. The adjective pronouns, ille, ipse, iste, hic, is, and idem, in their construction, resemble that of the relative qui ; as, Liber ejus, His or her book; Vita eorum, Their life, when applied to men; Vita earum, Their life, when applied to women. By the improper use of these pronouns in English, the meaning of sentences is often rendered obscure.
OBs. 8. The interrogative or indefinite adjectives, qualis, quantus, quotus, &c. are also sometimes construed like relatives ; as, Facies est, qualem decet esse sororum, Ovid. But these have commonly other adjectives either expressed or understood, which answer to them; as, Tanta est multitudo quantum urbs capere potest : and are often applied to different substantives ; as, Quales sunt cives, talis est civilas, Cic.
OBS. 9. The Latin relative often cannot be translated literally into English, on account of the different idioms of the two languages; as, Quod cùm ita esset, When that was so: not, Which when it was so, because then there would be two nominatives to the verb was, which is improper. Sometimes the accusative of the relative in Latin must be rendered by the nominative in English ; as, Quem dicunt me esse ? Who do they say that I am ; not whom. Quem dicunt adventare? Who do they say is coming ?
Obs. 10. As the relative is always connected with a different verb from the antecedent, it is usually construed with the subjunctive mode, unless when the meaning of the verb is expressed positively; as, Audire cupio, quæ legeris, I want to hear what you have read, that is, what perhaps or probably you may have read ; Audire cupio, quæ legisti, I want to hear what you (actually or in fact) have read.
To the construction of the Relative may be subjoined that of the ANSWER TO A QUESTION.
The answer is commonly put in the same case with the question; as,
Qui vocare ? Geta, sc. vocor. Quid quæris? Librum, sc. quæro. Quota horâ venisti ? Sextå. Sometimes the construction is varied; as, Cujus est liber? Meus, not mei. Quanti emptus est ? Decem assibus. Damnatusne es furli ? Imò alio crimine. Often the answer is made by other parts of speech than nouns ; as, Quid agitur ? Statur, sc. a me, a nobis. Quis fecit ? Nescio: aiunt Petrum fecisse. Quomodo vales ? Bene, male. Scripsistine ? Scripsi, ita, etiam, imò, &c. An vidisti ? Non vidi, non, minime, &c. Chærea tuam vestem detraxit tibi ? Factum. Et ea est indutus? Factum, Ter. Most of the Rules of Santax may thus be exemplified in the form of questions and answers.
The same Case after a Verb as before it.
I am a scholar.
You are named John.
She walks as a queen.
Scio vos esse discipulos, I know that you are scholars. So Redeo iratus, jaceo supplex ; Evadent digni, they will become worthy; Rempublicam defendi adolescens ; nolo esse longus, I am unwilling to be tedious ; Malim videri timidus, quàm parùm prudens, Cic. Non licet mihi esse negligenti, Cic. Natura dedit omnibus esse beatis, Claud. "Cupio me esse clementem ; cupio non putari mendacem ; Vult esse medium, sc. se, He wishes to be neuter, Cic. Disce esse pater ; Hoc est esse patrem ? sc. eum, Ter. Id est, dominum, non imperatorem esse, Sallust.
Obs. 1. This rule implies nothing else but the agreement of an adjective with a substantive, or of one substantive with another; for those words in a sentence which refer to the same object, must always agree together, how much soever disjoined,
OBS. 2. The verbs which most frequently have the same case after them as before them, are,
1. Substantive and neuter verbs; as, Sum, fio, forem, and existo ; eo, venio, sto, sedeo, evado, jaceo, fugio, &c.
2. The passive of verbs of naming, judging, &c. as, Dicor, appellor, vocor, nominor, nuncăpor ; to which add, videor, existimor, creor, constituor, salător, designor, &c.
These and other like verbs, admit after them only the nominative, accusative, or dative. When they have before them the genitive, they have after them an accusative; as, Interest omnium esse bonos, scil. se; it is the interest of all to be good. In some cases we can use either the nominative or accusative promiscuously; as, Cupio dici doctus or doctum, sc. me dici ; Cupio esse clemens, non putari mendax ; vult esse medius. OBs. 3. When any of the above verbs are placed between two nominatives of different numbers,
they commonly agree in number with the former; as, Dos est decem talenta, Her dowry is ten talents, Ter. Omnia pontus erant, Ovid. But sometimes with the latter; as, Amantium iræ amoris integratio est, The quarrels of lovers is a renewal of love, Ter. So when an adjective is applied to two substantives of different genders, it commonly agrees in gender with that substantive which is most the subject of discourse; as, Oppidum est appellatum Possidonia, Plin. Sometimes, however, the adjective agrees with the nearer substantive; as, Non omnis error stultitia est dicenda, Cic.
Obs. 4. When the infinitive of any verb, particularly the substantive verb esse, has the dative before it, governed by an Impersonal verb or any other word, it may have after it either the dative or the accusative ; as, Licet mihi esse beoto, I may be happy; or licet mihi esse beatum, me being understood ; thus, licet mihi (me) esse beatum. The dative before esse is often to be supplied ; as, Licet esse beatum, One may be happy, scil. alicui or homini.
Obs. 5. The poets use certain forms of expression, which are not to be imitated in prose; as, Rettulit Ajax Jovis esse proněpos, for Se esse pronepotem, Ovid's Met. xii. 141. Cum pateris sapiens emendatusque vocari, for sapientem, &c. Horat. Ep. 1. 16. 30. Acceptum refero versibus esse nocens, Ovid. Tutumque putavit jam bonus esse socer, Lucan.
4. Agreement of one Substantive with another.
Cicéro orător, Cicero the orator; Ciceronis oratoris, of Cicero the orator.
I. THE GOVERNMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES. VII. One Substantive governs another signifying a different person or thing in the genitive; as, Amor Dei, The love of God; Lex naturæ, The law of nature; Domus Cæsăris, The house of Cæsar, or Cæsar's house.
Obs. 1. When one substantive is governed by another in the genitive, it expresses in general the relation of property or possession, and therefore is often elegantly turned into a possessive adjec. tive; as, Domus patris, or paterna, a father's house ; Filius heri, or herilis, a master's son : and among the poets, Labor Herculeus, for Herculis ; Ensis Evandrius, for Evandri.
OBS. 2. When the substantive noun in the genitive signifies a person, it may be taken either in an active or passive sense; thus, Amor Dei, The love of God, either means the love of God towards us, or our love towards him. So caritas patris, signifies either the affection of a father to his children, or theirs to him. But often the substantive can only be taken either in an active or in a passive sense; thus, Timor Dei, always implies Deus timetur ; and Providentia Dei, Deus providet. So caritas ipsius soli, affection to the very soil, Liv. ii. 1.
OBs. 3. Both the former and latter substantive are sometimes to be understood; as, Hectoris Andromăche, scil. uxor ; Ventum est ad Veste, scil. ædem or templum ; Ventum est tria millia, scil. passuum, three miles.
Obs. 4. We find the dative often used after a verb for the genitive particularly among the poets ; as,
Ei corpus porrigitur, His body is extended, Virg. Æn. vi. 596. Obs. 5. Some substantives are joined with certain prepositions ; as, Amicitia, inimicitia, par cum aliquo ; Amor in vel erga aliquem; Gaudium de re; Cura de aliquo ; Mentio illius, vel de illo; Quies ab armis; Fumus ex incendiis ; Predator ex sociis, for sociorum, Sallust, &c.
OBs. 6. The genitive in Latin is often rendered in English by several other particles besides of; as, Descensus Averni, the descent to Avernus ; Prudentia juris, skill in the law.
Substantive pronouns are governed in the genitive like substantive nouns; as, pars mei, a part of me.
So also adjective pronouns, when used as substantives, or having a noun understood; as, Liber ejus, illius, hujus, &c. The book of him, or his book, sc. hominis : The book of her, or her book, sc. feminæ. Libri eorum, v. earum, their books; Cujus liber, the book of whom, or whose book; Quorum libri, whose books, &c. But we always say, meus liber, not mei ; pater noster, not nostri ; suum jus, not sui.
When a passive sense is expressed, we use mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri, nostrûm, vestrûm; but we use their possessives when an active sense is expressed; as, Amor mei, The love of me, that is, The love wherewith I am loved; Amor meus, My love that is, the love wherewith I love. We find, however, the possessives sometimes used passively, and their primitives taken actively; as, Odium tuum, Hatred of thee, Ter. Phorm. v. 8. 27. Labor mei, My labour, Plaut.
The possessives meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester, have sometimes nouns, pronouns, and participles after them in the genitive; as, Pectus tuum hominis simplicis, Cic. Phil. ii. 43. Noster duorum eventus, Liv. Tuum ipsius studium, Cic. Mea scripta
timentis, &c. Hor. Solius meum peccatum corrăgi non potest, Cic. Id maxime quemque decet, quod est cujusque suum maxime,
Id. The reciprocals SUI and SỨUS are used when the action of the verb is reflected as it were, upon its nominative; as, Cato interfecit se. Miles defendit suam vitam. Digit se scripturum esse. We find, however, is or ille sometimes used in examples of this kind; as, Deum agnoscimus ex operibus ejus, Cic. Persuadent Rauracis, ut und cum iis proficisscantur, for und secum, Cæs.
VIII. If the latter of two Substantives have an Adjective of praise or dispraise, joined with it, it may be put either in the genitive or ablative; as,
Vir summæ prudentiæ, or summâ prudentid, A man of great wisdom.
A boy of a good disposition. Obs. 1. The ablative here is not properly governed by the foregoing substantive, but by some preposition understood; as, cum, de, ex, in, &c. Thus, Vir summâ prudentiâ, is the same with Vir cum sumnil prudentia.
Obs. 2. In some phrases the genitive is only used; as, Magni formica laboris, the laborious ant; Vir imi subsellii, homo minimi pretii, a person of the lowest rank. Homo nullius stipendii, a man of no experience in war, Sallust
. Non multi cibi hospitem accipies, sed multi joci, Cic. Ager trium jugerum. In others only the ablative; as, Es bono animo, Be of good courage. Mirâ sum alacritate ad litigandum, Cic. Capite aperto est, His head is bare; obvoluto, covered. Capite et supercilio semper est rasus, Id. Mulier magna natu, Liv. Sometimes both are used in the same sentence; as, Adolescens eximiâ spe, summæ virtutis, Cic. The ablative more frequently occurs in prose than the genitive.
OBs. 3. Sometimes the adjective agrees in case with the former substantive, and then the latter substantive is put in the ablative; thus we say, either, Vir præstantis ingenii, or præstanti ingenio ; or Vir præstans ingenio, and sometimes præstans ingenü. Among the poets, the latter substantive is frequently put in the accusative by a Greek construction, secundum or quod ad, being understood by the figure commonly called Synecdoche; as, Miles fractus membra, i. e. fractus, secundum or quod ad membra, or habens membra fracta, Horat. Os humerosque deo similis, Virg.
Adjectives taken as Substantives. IX. An adjective in the neuter gender without a substantive, governs the genitive; as,
Multum pecuniæ, Much money. Quid rei est? What is the matter? Obs. 1. This manner of expression is more elegant than Multa pecunia, and therefore is much used by the best writers ; as, Plus eloquentiæ, minus sapientiæ, tantum fidei, id negotii ; quicquid erat patrum, reos diceres, Liv. Id loci ; Ad hoc ætatis, Sallust.
Obs. 2. The adjectives which thus govern the genitive like substantives, generally signify quantity; as, multum, plus, plurimum, tantum, quantum, minus, minimum, &c. To which add, hoc, illud, istud, id, quid, aliquid, quidvis, quiddam, &c. Plus and quid almost always govern the genitive, and therefore hy some are thought to be substantivés.
Obs. 3. Nihil, and these neuter pronouns, quid, aliquid, &c. elegantly govern neuter adjectives of the first and second declension in the genitive; as, nihil sinceri, no sincerity ; but seldom govern in this manner adjectives of the third declension, particularly those which end in is and e; as, Nequid hostile timerent, not hostilis : we find, however, quicquid civilis, Liv. v. 3.
OBS. 4. Plural adjectives of the neuter gender also govern the genitive, commonly the genitive plural; as, Angusta viarum, Opaca locorum, Telluris operta ; loca being understood. So Amara curarum, acuta belli, sc. negotia, Horat. An adjective, indeed, of any gender, may have a genitive after it, with a substantive understood; as, Amicus Cæsaris, Patria Ulyssis, &c.
Opus and Usus.
Esl opus pecuniâ, There is need of money. Usus viribus, Need of strength. Obs. 1. Opus and usus are substantive nouns, and do not govern the ablative of themselves, but by some preposition, as pro, or the like understood. They sometimes also, although more rarely, govern the genitive; as, Lectionis opus est, Quinct. Operæ usus est, Liv.
Obs. 2. Opus is often construed like an indeclinable adjective; as, Dux nobis opus est, We need a general, Cic. Dices nummos mihi opus esse, Id. Nobis exempla opus sunt, Id. Obs. 3. Opus is elegantly joined with the perfect participle;
as, Opus maturato, Need of haste; Opus consulto, Need of deliberation ; Quid facto usus est ? Ter. The participle has sometimes a substantive joined with it; as, Mihi opus fuit Hirtio convento, It behoved me to meet with Hirtius, Cic.
Obs. 4. Opus is sometimes joined with the infinitive, or the subjunctive with ut ; as, Siquid forte sit, quod opus sit sciri, Cic. Nunc tibi opus est, agram ut te adsimules, Plaut. Sive opus est imperitare equis, Horat. It is often placed absolutely, i. e, without depending on any other word ; as, sic opus est ; si opus sit, &c.
II. GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES.
1. Adjectives governing the Genitive. XI. Verbal adjectives, and such as signify an affection of the mind, govern the genitive; as,
Avidus gloriæ, Desirous of glory. Ignarus fraudis, Ignorant of fraud.
Memor benficiorum, Mindful of favours. To this rule belong : I. Verbal adjectives in AX; as, capax, edax, ferax, tenax, pertinax, &c. and certain participial adjectives in NS and TUS; as, amans appetens, cupiens, insolens, sciens ; consultus, doctus, expertus, insuetus, insolitus, &c. II. Adjectives expressing various affections of the mind : 1. Desire; as, avarus, cupidus, studiosus, &c. 2. Knowledge, ignorance, and doubting; as, callidus, certus, certior, conscius, gnarus, perītus, prudens, &c. Ignarus, incertus, inscius, imprudens, imperitus, imměmor, rudis ; Ambiguus, dubius, suspensus, &c. 3. Care and diligence, and the contrary; as, Anxius, curiosus, solicitus, providus, diligens; Incuriosus, securus, negligens, &c. 4. Fear, and confidence; as, Formidolosus, pavidus, timidus, trepidus ; Impavidus, interritus, intrepidus. 5. Guilt, and innocence; as, Noxius, reus, suspectus, compertus; Innoxius, innocens, insons.
To these add many adjectives of various significations; as, eger animi ; ardens, audax, aversus, diversus, egregius, erectus, falsus, felix, fessus, furens, ingens, integer, lætus, præstans animi ; modicus voti ; integer vitae ; seri studiorum, Hor. But we say,æger pedibus, ardens in cupiditatibus, præstans doctrinâ, modicus cultu ; Lætus negotio, de re, or propter rem, &c. and never æger pedum, &c.
Obs. 1. Verbals in NS are used both as adjectives and participles; thus, patiens algoris, able to bear cold ; and patiens algorem, actually bearing cold. So amans virtutis, and amans virtutem: doctus grammaticæ, skilled in grammar; doctus grammaticam, one who has learned it.
Obs. 2. Many of these adjectives vary their construction; as, avidus in pecuniis, Cic. Avidior ad rem, Ter. Jure consultus et peritus, or juris, Cic. Rudis literarum, in jure civili, Cic. Rudis arte, ad mala, Ovid. Doctus Latine, Latinis literis, Cic. Assuetus labore, in omnia, Liv. Mense herili, Virg. Insuetus moribus Romanis, in the dative, Liv. Laboris, ad onera portanda, Cæs. Desuetus bello'et triumphis, in the dative or ablative, rather the dative, Virg. Anxius, solicitus, securus, de re aliqua; diligens in, ad, de, Cic. Negligens in aliquem, in or de re; Reus de vi, criminibus, Cic. Certior factus de re, rather than rei, Cic.
Obs. 3. The genitive after these adjectives is thought to be governed by causâ, in re, or in negotio, or some such word understood; as, Cupidus laudis, i. e. causâ, or in re laudis, desirous of praise, that is, on account of, or in the matter of praise. But many of the adjectives themselves may be supposed to contain in their own signification the force of a substantive; thus, studiosus pecunia, fond of money, is the same with habens studium pecuniæ, having a fondness for money.
XII. Partitives, and words placed partitively, comparatives, superlatives, interrogatives, and some numerals, govern the genitive plural; as,
Aliquis philosophorum, Some one of the philosophers.
The elder of the brothers.
Which of us ?
One of the muses.
The eighth of the wise men. Adjectives are called Partitives, or are said to be placed partitively, when they signify a part of any number of persons or things, having after them, in English, of or among ; as, alius, nullus, solus, &c. quis and qui, with their compounds : also Comparatives, Superlatives, and some Numerals: as, unus, duo, tres; primus, secundus, &c. To these add multi, pauci, plerique, medius.
Obs. 1. Partitives, &c. agree in gender with the substantive which they have after them in the genitive; but when there are two substantives of different genders, the partitive, &c. rather agrees with the former; as, Indus fluminum maximus, Cic. Rarely with the latter; as, Delphinus animalium velocissimum, Plin. The genitive here is governed by ex numero, or by the same substantive understood in the singular number; as, Nulla sororum, scil. soror,
Obs. 2. Partitives, &c. are often otherwise construed with the prepositions de, e, ex, or in; as, Unus de fratribus ; or by the poets, with ante or inter; as, Pulcherrimus ante omnes, for omnium, Virg. Primus inter omnes, Id.
OBs. 3. Partitives, &c. govern collective nouns in the genitive singular, and are of the same gender with the individuals of which the collective noun is composed; as, Vir fortissimus nostra civitatis, Cic. Marimus stirpis, Liv. Ultimos orbis Britannos, Horat. Od. i. 35. 29.
Obs. 4. Comparatives are used when we speak of two; Superlatives, when we speak of more
or ex numero
than two; as, Major fratrum, the elder of the brothers, meaning two ; Maximus fratrum, The eldest of the brothers, meaning more than two. In like manner, uter, alter, neuter, are applied with regard to two ; quis, unus, alius, nullus, with regard to three or more; as, Uter vestrum, Whether or which of you two ; Quis vestrum, Which of you three : but these are sometimes taken promiscuously, the one for the other.
2. Adjectives governing the Dative. XIII. Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, likeness or unlikeness, &c. govern the dative; as, Ulilis bello,
Profitable for war.
Like to his father. Or thus, Any adjective may govern the dative in Latin, which has the signs TO or FOR after it in English.
To this rule belong : 1. Adjectives of profit or disprofit; as, Benignus, bonus, commodus, felix, fructuosus, prosper, saluber. -Calamitosus, damnosus, dirus, exitiosus, funestus, incommodus, malus, noxius, perniciosus, pestifer.
2. Of pleasure or pain; as, Acceptus, dulcis, gratus, gratiosus, jucundus, lætus, suavis.- -Acerbus, amarus, insuavis, injucundus, ingratus, molestus, tristis.
3. Of friendship or hatred ; as, Addictus, æquus, amicus, benevolus, blandus, carus, deditus, fidus, fidelis, lenis, mitis, propitius.- -Adversus, æmulus, asper, crudelis, contrarius, infensus, infestus, infidus, immitis, inimicus, iniquus, invisus, invidus, iratus, odiosus, suspectus, trux.
4. Of clearness or obscurity; as, Apertus, certus, compertus, conspicuus, manifestus, notus, perspicuus.Ambiguus, dubius, ignotus, incertus, obscurus.
5. Of nearness ; as, Finitimus, proprior, proximus, propinquus, socius, vicinus.
6. Of fitness or unfitness ; as, Aptus, appositus, accommodatus, habilis, idoneus, opportunus. Ineptus, inhabilis, importunus, inconveniens.
7. Of ease or difficulty; as, Facilis, levis, obvius, pervius. Difficilis, arduus, gravis, loboriosus, periculosus, invius. To these add such as signify propensity or readiness ; as, Pronus, proclivis, propensus, promptus, paratus.
8. Of equality or inequality; as, Æqualis, æquævus, par, compar, suppar. -Inequalis, impar, dispar, discors
. Also of likeness or unlikeness ; as, Similis, æmulus, geminus.Dissimilis, absonus, alienus, diversus, discolor.
9. Several adjectives compounded with CON; as, Cognatus, concolor, concors, confinis, congruus, consanguineus, consentaneus, consonus, conveniens, contiguus, continuus, continens, contiguous; as, Mari, aer continens, est, Cic.
To these add many other adjectives of various significations; as, Obnoxius, subjectus, supplex, credulus, absurdus, decorus, deformis, præsto, indecl. at hand, secundus, &c.—-particularly. Verbals in Bilis and dus govern the dative; as,
Amandus vel amabilis omnibus, To be loved by all men. So Mors est terribilis malis; Optabilis omnibus pax; Adhibenda est nobis diligentia, Cic.' Semel omnibus calcanda est via lethi, Hor. Also some participles of the perfect tense; as, Bella matribus detestata, hated by, Hor.
Verbals in DUS are often construed with the preposition a; as, Deus est venerandus & colendus a nobis, Cic. Perfect participles are usually so; as, Mors Crassi est a multis, defleta, rather than multis defleta, Cic. A te invitatus, rogatus, proditus, &c. hardly ever tibi.
Obs. 1. The dative is properly not governed by adjectives, nor by any other part of speech; but put after them, to express the object to which their signification refers.
The particle to in English is often to be supplied ; as, Similis patri, Like his father, to being understood.
Obs. 2. Substantives have likewise sometimes a dative after them; as, Ille est pater, dux, vel filius mihi, He is father, leader, or son to me; so, Præsidium reis, decus amicis, &c. Hor. Exilium pecori, Virg. Virtutibus hostis, Cic.
Obs. 3. The following adjectives have sometimes the dative after them, and sometimes the genitive; Affinis, similis, communis, par, proprius, finitimus, fidus, conterminus, superstes, conscius, æqualis, contrarius, and adversus; as, Similis tibi, or tui ; Superstes patri, or patris ; Conscius facinori, or facinoris. Conscius and some others frequently govern both the genitive and dative; as, Mens sibi conscia recti. We say, Similes, dissimiles, pares, dispares, æquales, communes, inter se : Par et communis cum aliquo. Civitas secum ipsa discors; discordes ad alia, Liv.
Obs. 4. Adjectives signifying usefulness or fitness, and the contrary, have after them the dative or the accusative with a preposition; as,
Ulilis, inutilis, aptus, ineptus, accommodatus, idoneus, habilis, inhabilis, opportūnus, conveniens, &c. alicui rei, or ad aliquid. Many other adjectives governing the dative, are likewise construed with prepositions; as, Attentus quæsitis, Hor. Altentus ad rem, Ter.
OBs. 6. Of adjectives which denote friendship or hatred, or any other affection of the mind towards any one: I. Some are usually construed with the dative only; as, Affabilis, arrogans, asper, carus, difficilis, filelis, invisus, iratus, offensus, suspectus, ALICUI. II. Some with the preposition in and the accusative; as, Acerbus, animatus, beneficus, gratiosus, injuriosus, liberalis,