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are pes, cubitus, ulna, passus, digitus, an inch; palmus, a span, a hand-breadth, &c. The accusative or ablative of distance is used only after verbs which express motion or distance; as, Eo, curro, absum, disto, &c. The accusative is governed by ad or per understood, and the ablative by a or ab.
OBS. 2. When we express the measure of more things than one, we commonly use the distributive number; as, Muri sunt denos pedes alti, and sometimes denûm pedum, for denorum, in the genitive, ad mensuram being understood. But the genitive is only used to express the measure of things in the plural number.
OBS. 3. When we express the distance of a place where any thing is done, we commonly use the ablative; or the accusative with the preposition ad; as, Sex millibus passuum ab urbe consedit, or ad sex millia passuum, Cæs. Ad quantum milliarium, v. milliare consedit, Cic. Ad quintum lapidem, Nep.
OBS. 4. The excess or difference of measure and distance is put in the ablative; as,
Hoc lignum excedit illud digito. Toto vertice supra est, Virg. Britanniæ longitudo ejus latitudinem ducentis quadraginta milliaribus superat.
LIV. Nouns, signifying the time when, are put in the ablative; those, how long, in the accusative-sometimes in the ablative; as,
Venit horâ tertiâ, He came at three o'clock.
¶ When the question is made by Quamdiu? How long? time is put in the accusative or ablative, but oftener in the accusative; as,
Mansit paucos dies,
He staid a few days.
* Or thus, Time when is put in the ablative; time how long is put in the accusative. OBS. 1. When we speak of any precise time, it is put in the ablative; but when continuance of time is expressed, it is put, for the most part, in the accusative.
OBS. 2. All the circumstances of time are often expressed with a preposition; as, In præsentia, or in præsenti, scil. tempore; in vel ad præsens; Per decem annos; Surgunt de nocte; ad horam destinatam; Intra annum ; Per idem tempus, ad Kalendas soluturos ait, Suet. The preposition ad or circa is sometimes suppressed, as in these expressions, hoc, illud, id, isthuc ætatis, temporis, horæ, &c. for hac ætate, hoc tempore, &c. And ante or some other word; as, Annos natus unum & viginti, sc. Siculi quotannis tributa conferunt sc. tot annis, quot vel quotquot sunt, Cic. Prope diem, sc. ad, soon; Oppidum paucis diebus, quibus eò ventum est, expugnatum, sc. post eos dies, Cæs. Ante diem tertium Kalendas Maias accepi tuas literas, for die terlio ante, Cic. Qui dies futurus esset in ante diem octavum Kalendas Novembris, Id. Ex ante diem quintum Kal. Octob. Liv. Lacedæmonii septingentos jam annos amplius unis moribus et nunquam mutatis legibus vivunt, sc. quam per, Cic. We find, Primum stipendium meruit annorum decem septemque, sc. Allicus; for septemdecim annos natus, seventeen years old, Nep.
OBS. 3. The adverb ABHINC, which is commonly used with respect to past time, is joined with the accusative or ablative without a preposition; as, factum est abhinc biennio or biennium. It was done two years ago. So likewise are post and ante; as, Paucos post annos : but here, ea, or id, may be understood.
1. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Genitive.
LV. Verbs of accusing, condemning, admonishing, and acquitting, govern the accusative of a person with the genitive of a thing; as,
He accuses me of theft.
Arguit me furti,
I condemn myself of laziness.
Verbs of accusing are, Accuso, ago, appello, arcesso, inquiro, arguo, defero, insimulo, postulo, alligo, astringo; of condemning, Damno, condemno, infamo, noto; of acquitting, Absolvo, libero, purgo; of admonishing, Moneo, admoneo, commonefacio.
OBS. 1. Verbs of accusing and admonishing, instead of the genitive, frequently have after them an ablative with the preposition de; as, Monere aliquem officii, or de officio; Accusare aliquem furti, or de furto. De vi condemnati sunt, Cic.
OBS. 2. Crimen and caput are put either in the genitive or ablative; but in the ablative usually without a preposition; as, Damnare, postulare, absolvere eum criminis, v. capitis; and crimine, v. capite; also Absolvo me peccato, Liv. And we always say, Plectere, punire aliquem capite, and not capitis, to punish one capitally, or with death.
OBS. 3. Many verbs of accusing, &c. are not construed with the accusative of a person, and the genitive of a thing, but the contrary; thus we say, Culpo, reprehendo, taxo, traduco, vitupero, calumnior, criminor, excuso, &c. avaritiam alicujus, and not aliquem avaritia. We sometimes also find accuso, incuso, &c. construed in this manner; as, Accusare, inertiam adolescentium, for adolescentes inertia, Cic. Culpam arguo, Liv. We say, Agere cum aliquo furli, rather than aliquem, to accuse one of theft, Cic.
OBS. 4. Verbs of accusing and admonishing sometimes govern two accusatives, when joined with hoc, illud, istud, id, unum, multa, &c. as, Moneo, accuso te illud. We seldom find, however, Errorem but erroris or de errore; except in old writers, as Plautus.
LVI. Verbs of esteeming, govern the accusative of the person, or thing esteemed, and the genitive of the value; as,
Estimo te magni, I value you much.
Verbs of valuing are, Æstimo, existimo, duco, facio, habeo, pendo, puto, taxo. They govern several other genitives; as, tanti, quanti, pluris, majoris, minoris, minimi, plurimi, maximi, nauci, pili, assis, nihili, teruncii, hujus.
OBS. 1. Estimo sometimes governs the ablative; as, Estimo te magno, permagno, parvo, scil. pretio and also nihilo. We likewise say, Pro nihilo, habeo, puto, duco.
OBS. 2. qui and boni are put in the genitive after facio and consulo; as, Hoc consulo boni, aqui bonique facio, I take this in good part.
OBS. 3. The genitive after all these verbs is governed by some substantive understood; as, Arguere aliquem furti, scil. de crimine furti; Estimo rem magni, scil. pretii, or pro re magni pretii; Consulo bono, i. e. statuo or censeo esse factum, or manus boni viri, or animi; Monere aliquem officii, i. e. officii causâ, or de re or negotio officii.
2. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Dative.
LVII. Verbs of comparing, giving, declaring, and taking away, govern the accusative and dative; as,
Or rather,-ANY ACTIVE VERB MAY GOVERN THE ACCUSATIVE AND THE DATIVE, (when together with the object of the action, we express the person or thing with relation to which it exerted,) as,
Legam lectionem tibi, I will read the lesson to you. Emit librum mihi, He bought a book for Sic vos non vobis fertis aratra boves, Virg. Paupertas sæpe suadet mala hominibus, advises men to do bad things, Plaut. Imperare pecuniam, frumentum, nāves, arma aliquibus, to order them to furnish, Cæs.
OBS. 1. Verbs of comparing and taking away, together with some others, are often construed with a preposition; as, Comparare unam rem cum alia, and ad aliam, or comparare res inter se : Eripuit me morti, morte, a or ex morte: Mittere epistolam alicui, or ad aliquem; Intendere telum alicui, or in aliquem: Incidere æri, in æs, or in ære; and so in many others.
OBS. 2. Several verbs governing the dative and accusative, are construed differently; as,
Impertire salutem alicui, or aliquem salute, to salute one.
Interdixit Galliam Romanis, or Romanos Gallia, he debarred the Romans from Gaul.
Induere, exuere vestem sibi, or se veste, to put on, to put off one's clothes.
Levare dolorem alicui; dolorem alicujus; aliquem dolore, to ease one's distress.
Minari aliquid alicui, or sometimes, alicui aliquo, Cic. to threaten one with any thing; Cæsari gladio, Sall.
Gratulor tibi hanc rem, hac re, in, pro, and de, hac re, I congratulate you on this. Mettus Tullo devictos hostes gratulatur, Liv.
Restituere alicui sanitatem, or aliquem sanitati, to restore to health.
Aspergere labem alicui, or aliquem labe, to put an affront on one; aram sanguine, litare Deum sacris, and sacra Deo, to sacrifice.
Excusare se alicui and apud aliquem, de re; valetudinem ei.
Exprobare vitium ei v. in eo, to upbraid.
Occupare pecuniam alicui and apud aliquem, i. e. pecuniam fœnori locare, to place at interest, Cic. Opponere se morti, and ad mortem; Renunciare id ei, and ad eum, to tell.
OBS. 3. Verbs signifying motion or tendency to a thing, instead of the dative, have an accusative after them, with the preposition ad; as,
Porto, fero, lego, as, præcipito, tollo, traho, duco, verto, incito, suscito; also hortor and invito, voco, provoco, animo, stimulo, conformo, lacesso; thus, Ad laudem milites hortatur; Ad prætorem hominem traxit, Cic. But after several of these verbs, we also find the dative; as, Inferre Deos Latio, for in Latium, Virg. Invitare aliquem hospitio, or in hospitium, Cic.
OBS. 4. The accusative is sometimes understood; as, Nubere alicui, scil. se; Cedere alicui, scil. locum; Detrahere alicui, scil. laudem; Ignoscere alicui, scil. culpam. And in English the particle to is often omitted; as, Dedit mihi librum, He gave me a book, for to me.
3. Verbs governing two Accusatives.
LVIII. Verbs of asking, and teaching, govern two accusatives; the one of a person, and the other of a thing; as,
Poscimus te pacem,
Verbs of asking which govern two accusatives are, Rogo, oro, exoro, obsecro, precor, poscó, reposco, flagito, &c. Of teaching, Doceo, edoceo, dedoceo, erudio.
OBS. 1. Celo likewise governs two accusatives; as, Celavil me hanc rem, He concealed this matter from me; or otherwise, celavil hanc rem mihi, or celavit me de hac re.
OBS. 2. Verbs of asking and teaching are often construed with a preposition; as, Rogare rem ab aliquo; Docere aliquem de re, to inform; but we do not say, docere aliquem de grammatica, but grammaticam, to teach. And we always say, with a preposition, Peto, exigo, a v. abs te; Perconlor, scitor, sciscitor ex or a te, or te without the preposition: Interrogo, consulto te de re; Ut facias le obsecro; Exoral pacem divûm, for divos, Virg. Instruo, instituo, formo, informo aliquem artibus, in the ablative, without a preposition. Imbuo eum artibus, in v. ab artibus. Also instruo ad rem, v. in re, ignorantiam alicujus. Erudire aliquem artes, de v. in re, ad rem. Formare ad studium, mentem studiis, studia ejus.
OBS. 3. The accusative of the thing is not properly governed by the verb, but by quod ad or secundum understood.
4. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Ablative.
LIX. Verbs of loading, binding, clothing, depriving, and some others, govern the accusative and the ablative; as,
Onerat naves auro, He loads the ships with gold.
Verbs of loading are, onero, cumulo, premo, opprimo, obruo. Of unloading, levo, exonero, &c. Of binding, astringo, ligo, alligo, devincio, impedio, irretio, illaqueo, &c. Of loosing, solvo, exsolvo, libero, laxo, expedio, &c. Of depriving, privo, nudo, orbo, spolio, fraudo, emungo. Of clothing, vestio, amicio, induo, cingo, tego, velo, corōno, and calceo. Of unclothing, exuo, discingo, &c.
OBS. 1. The preposition by which the ablative is governed after these verbs, is sometimes expressed; as, Solvere aliquem ex catenis, Cic. Sometimes the ablative is to be supplied; as, Complet naves, sc. viris, mans the ships, Virg.
OBS. 2. Several of these verbs likewise govern the genitive; as, Adolescentem suæ temeritatis implet, Liv. And also vary their construction; as, Induit, exuit se vestibus, or vestes sibi.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF PASSIVE VERBS.
LX. When a verb in the active voice governs two cases, in the passive it retains the latter case; as,
Virgilius comparatur Homero,
I am accused of theft.
-pueros Sometimes, the active has three cases, and then the passive has the two last cases; as, Habetur ludibrio iis.
So Scio homines accusatum iri furti ;- -Eos ereptum iri morti, morte, a vel ex morte;doctum iri grammaticam ;—rem celatum iri mihi vel me; me celatum iri de re, &c.
OBS. 1. Passive verbs are commonly construed with the ablative and the preposition a; as, Tu laudaris a me, which is equavalent to Ego laudo te. Virtus diligitur a nobis; Nos diligimus virtutem; Gaudeo meum factum probari a te, or te probare meum factum. And so almost all active verbs. Neuter and deponent verbs also admit this preposition; as, Mare a sole collucet, Cic. Phalaris non a paucis interiit, Id. So cadere ab hoste; Cessare a preliis; Mori ab ense; Pati, furari, aliquid ab aliquo, &c. Also Venire ab hostibus, to be sold; Vapulare ab aliquo, Exulare ab urbe. Thus likewise many active verbs ; as, Sumere, petere, tollere, pellere, expectare, emere, &c. ab aliquo.
The preposition is sometimes understood after passive verbs; as, Deseror conjuge, Ovid. Desertus suis, sc. a, Tacit. Tabulâ distinguitur undâ, qui navigat, sc. ab unda, Is kept from the water by a plank, Juvenal.
The preposition PER is also used in the same sense with A; as, Per me defensa est respublica, or a me; Per me restitutus; Per me v. a me factum est, Cic. But PER commonly marks the instrument, and A the principal efficient cause; as, Res agitur per creditores, a rege, sc. a rege vel a legato ejus, Cic. Fam. i. 1.
OBS. 2. Passive verbs sometimes govern the dative, especially among the poets; as,
Neque cernitur ulli, for ab ullo, Virg. Vix audior ulli, Ovid. Scriberis Vario, for a Vario, Hor. Honesta bonis viris quæruntur, for a viris, Cic. VIDEOR, to seem, always governs the dative; as, Videris mihi, You seem to me: but we commonly say, Videris a me, You are seen by me; although not always; as, Nulla tuarum audita mihi, neque visa sororum, for a me, Virg.
OBS. 3. Induor, amicior, cingor, accingor, also exuor, and discingor, are often construed with the accusative, particularly among the poets, though we do not find them governing two accusatives in the active voice; as, Induitur vestem or veste.
OBS. 4. Neuter verbs are for the most part only used impersonally in the passive voice; unless when they are joined with a noun of a similar signification to their own; as, Pugna pugnata est, Cic. Bellum militabitur, Horat. Passive impersonal verbs are most commonly applied either to
a multitude, or to an individual taken indefinitely; as, Statur, fletur, curritur, vivitur, venitur, &c. a nobis, ab illis, &c. We are standing, weeping, &c. Bene potest vivi a me, vel ab aliquo, I or any person may live well. Provisum est nobis optimè a Deo; Reclamatum est ab omnibus, all cried out against it, Cic.
They also govern the same cases as when used personally; as, Ut majoribus natu assurgatur, ut supplicum misereatur, Cic. Except the accusative: for in these phrases, Itur Athenas, pugnatum est biduum, dormitur totam noctem, the accusative is not governed by the verb, but by the prepositions ad and per understood. We find, however, Tota mihi dormitur hyems; Noctes vigilantur amara; Oceanus raris ab orbe nostro navibus audetur, Tacit.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF IMPERSONAL VERBS.
LXI. Impersonal verbs govern the dative; as,
Expedit reipublicæ, It is profitable for the state.
Verbs which in the active voice govern only the dative, are used impersonally in the passive, and likewise govern the dative; as,
Favetur mihi, I am favoured, and not Ego faveor. So nocetur mihi, imperatur mihi, &c. We find, however, Hæc ego procurare imperor; Ego cur invideor; for imperatur, invidetur mihi, Hor. OBS. 1. These verbs, Potest, cœpit, incipit, desinit, debet, and colet, are used impersonally, when joined with impersonal verbs; as,
Non potest credi tibi, You cannot be believed; Mihi non potest noceri, I cannot be hurt; Negat jucunde posse vivi sine virtute, Cic. Per virtutem potest iri ad astra. Aliorum laudi et gloriæ invideri solet, The praise and glory of others use to be envied, Id. Neque a fortissimis infirmissimo generi resisti posse, Sallust.
OBS. 2. Various verbs are used both personally and impersonally; as, Venit in mentem mihi hæc res vel de hac re, vel hujus rei, scil. memoria, This thing came into my mind. Est curæ mihi hæc res vel de hac re. Doleo vel dolet mihi id factum esse.
OBS. 3. The neuter pronoun it is always joined with impersonal verbs in English; as, It rains, it shines, &c. And in the Latin an infinitive is commonly subjoined to impersonal verbs, or the subjunctive with ut, forming a part of a sentence which may be supposed to supply the place of a nominative; as, nobis non licet peccare, the same with peccatum; Omnibus bonis expedit rempublicam esse salvam, i. e. Salus reipublicæ expedit omnibus bonis, Cic. Accidit, evenit, contigit, ut ibi essemus. These nominatives, hoc, illud, id, idem, quod, &c. are sometimes joined to impersonal verbs; as, idem mihi licet, Cic. Eadem licent, Catull.
OBS. 4. The dative is often understood; as, Faciat quod libet, sc. sibi, Ter. Stat casus renovare omnes, sc. mihi, I am resolved, Virg.
LXII. Interest and refert require the genitive; as,
Interest omnium, It is the interest of all.
¶ But mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra, are put in the accusative plural neuter; as,
Refert patris, It concerns my father.
Non mea refert, It does not concern me.
OBS. 1. Some think mea, tua sua, &c. to be in the ablative singular feminine. We say either cujus interest, and quorum interest; or cuja interest, from cujus, -a, -um.
OBS. 2. Interest and refert are often joined with these nominatives, Id, hoc, illud, quid, quod, nihil, &c. also with common nouns; and with these genitives, Tanti, quanti, magni, permagni, parvi, pluris; as, Illud mea magni interest, Cic. Hoc parvi refert. Usque adeo magni refert studium, Lucret. Incessus in gravida refert, Plin.
They are frequently construed with these adverbs, Tantum, quantum, multum, plus, plurimum, infinitum, parum, maximè, vehementer, minimè, &c. as, Faciam, quod maximè reipublicæ interesse judicabo, Cic. Sometimes instead of the genitive, they take the accusative with the preposition ad; as, Quid id ad me, aut ad meam rem refert, Persæ quid rerum gerant? Of what importance &c. Plaut. Magni ad honorem nostrum interest, Cic. rarely the dative; as, Dic quid referat intra naturæ fines viventi, &c. Hor. Sometimes they are placed absolutely; as, Magnopere interest opprimi Dolobellam, It is of great importance, Cic. Permultum interest, qualis primus aditus sit, Id. Adeone est fundata leviter fides, ut ubi sim, quam qui sim, magis referat, Liv. Plurimum enim intererit, quibus artibus, aut quibus hunc tu moribus instituas, Juv.
OBS. 3. The genitive after interest and refert is governed by some substantive understood, with which the possessives mea, tua, sua, &c. likewise agree; as, Interest Ciceronis, i. e. est inter negotia Ciceronis; Refert patris, i. e. refert se hæc res ad negotia patris. So Interest mea, est inter negotia
Miseret me tui, I pity you.
Pænitet me peccati, I repent of my sin.
LXIII. Miseret, pœnitet, pudet, tædet, and piget, govern the accusative of a person, with the genitive of a thing; as,
Tædet me vitæ, I am weary of life.
Pudet me culpæ, I am ashamed of my fault.
OBS. 1. The genitive here is properly governed either by negotium understood, or by some other substantive of a signification similar to that of the verb with which it is joined; as, miseret me tui, that is, negotium or miseratio tui miseret me.
OPS. 2. An infinitive or some part of a sentence may supply the place of the genitive; as, Pœnitet
me peccasse, or quod peccaverim. The accusative is frequently understood as, Scelerum si bene pœnitet, scil. nos, Horat.
OBS. 3. Miseret, pœnitet, &c. are sometimes used personally, especially when joined with these nominatives, hoc, id, quod, &c. as, Ipsa sui miseret, Lucr. Nonne hæe te pudent, Ter. Nihil quod pœnitere possit, facias, for cujus te poenitere possit, Cic.
We sometimes find miseret joined with two accusatives; as, Menedemi vicem miseret me, scil. secundum or quod ad, Ter.
OBS. 4. The preterites of miseret, pudet, tædet, and piget, when used in the passive form, govern the same cases with the active; as, Miseritum est me tuarum fortunarum, Ter. We likewise find, miserescit and miseretur used impersonally; as, Miserescit me tui, Ter. Misereatur te fratrum: Neque me tui, neque tuorum liberorum misereri potest, Cic.
LXIV. Decet, delectat, juvat, and oportet, govern the accusative of a person, with the infinitive mood; as,
Delectat me studere, It delights me to study.
Non decet te rixari, It does not become you to scold.
OBS. 1. These words are sometimes used personally; as, Parvum parva decent, Hor. Est aliquid, quod non oporteat, etiamsi liceat, Cic. Hæc facta ab illo oportebant, Ter.
OBS. 2. Decet is sometimes construed with the dative; as, Ita nobis decet, Ter.
Sibi quisque consulat oportet, Cic. Or with the perfect participle, esse or fuisse being understood; as, Communicatum oportuit; mansum oportuit; Adolescenti morem gestum oportuit, The young man should have been humoured, Ter.
OBS. 4. Fallit, fugit, præterit, latet, when used impersonally, also govern the accusative with the infinitive; as, In lege nullâ esse ejusmodi caput, non te fallit; De Dionysio fugit me ad te antea scribere, Cic.
NOTE. Altinet, pertinet, and spectat, are construed with ad; Ad rempublicam pertinet, me conservari, Cic. And so personally, Ille ad me attinet, belongs, Ter. Res ad arma spectat, looks, points, Cic.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE NAMES OF PLACES.
The circumstances of place may be reduced to four particulars. 1. The place where, or in which. 2. The place whither, or to which. 3. The place whence, or from which. 4. The place by, or through which.
AT or IN a place is put in the genitive; unless the noun be of the third declension, or of the plural number, and then it is expressed in the ablative.
To a place is put in the accusative; FROM or BY a place in the ablative.
But these cases will be more exactly ascertained by reducing the circumstances of place to particularly questions.
1. The Place WHERE.
LXV. The name of a town, signifying the place where, or in which, if it be of the first or second declension and singular number, is put in the genitive; but if it be of the third declension, or plural number, it is put in the ablative; as,
OBS. 1. When a thing is said to be done, not in the place itself but in its neighbourhood, or near it, we always use the preposition ad or apud; as, Ad or apud Trojam, At or near Troy.
OBS. 2. The name of a town, when put in the ablative, is here governed by the preposition in understood; but if it be in the genitive, we must supply in urbe, or in oppido. Hence, when the name of a town is joined with an adjective or common noun, the preposition is generally expressed; thus, we do not say, Natus est Romæ urbis celebris: but either Romæ in celebri urbe, or in Romæ celebri urbe, or in Roma celebri urbe, or sometimes Romæ celebri urbe. In like manner we usually say, Habitat in urbe Carthagine, with the preposition. We likewise find, Habitat Carthagini, which is sometimes the termination of the ablative when the question is made by ubi ?
2. The Place WHITHER.
LXVI. The name of a town, signifying the place whither, is put in the accusative; as,