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OBS. 1. We find the dative also used among the poets, but more seldom; as, Carthagini nuntios mittam, Horat.

OBS. 2. Names of towns are sometimes put in the accusative after verbs of telling and giving, where motion to a place is implied; as, Romam, erat nuntiatum, The report was carried to Rome, Liv. Hæc nuntiant domum Albani, Id. Messanam literas dedit, Cic.

3. The Place WHENCE.

LXVII. The name of a town, signifying the place whence, or through what place, is put in the ablative; as,

Discessit Corintho, He departed from Corinth.
Laodiced iter faciebat, He went through Laodicea.

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When motion by or through a place is signified, the preposition per is commonly used; as, Per Thebas iter fecit, Nep.

Domus and Rus.

LXVIII. Domus and rus, signifying the place where, are construed like the names of towns; as,

Manet domi,

He stays at home.

Domum revertitur,

He returns home.

Domo arcessitus sum,

I am called from home.

Vivit rure, or more frequently ruri, He lives in the country.
Rediit rure,

Abiit rus,

He is returned from the country.
He is gone to the country.

OBS. 1. Humi, militiæ, and belli, are likewise construed in the genitive, as names of towns; thus,

Domi et militiæ, or belli, At home and abroad. Jacet humi, He lies on the ground.

OBS. 2. When Domus is joined with an adjective, we commonly use a preposition; as, In domo paterna, not domi paternæ; So Ad domum paternam: Ex domo paterna. Unless when it is joined with these possessives, Meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester, regius, and alienus; as, Domi meæ vixit, Cic. Regiam domum comportant, Sall.

OBS. 3. When domus has another substantive in the genitive after it, the preposition is sometimes used, and sometimes not; as, Deprehensus est domi, domo, or in domo Cæsaris.

OBS. 4. To names of countries, provinces, and all other places, except towns, the preposition is commonly added; as,

When the question is made by

Ubi? Natus in Italia, in Latio, in urbe, &c.

Quo? Abiit in Italiam, in Latium, in or ad urbem, &c.
Unde? Rediit ex Italia, e Latio, ex urbe, &c.

Qua? Transit per Italiam, per Latium, per urbem, &c.

UBS. 5. A preposition is often added to names of towns; as, In Roma, for Romæ ; ad Romam, ex Roma, &c.

Peto always governs the accusative as an active verb without a preposition; as, Petivit Egyptum, He went to Egypt.

OBS. 6. Names of countries, provinces, &c. are sometimes construed without the preposition like names of towns; as, Pompeius Cypri visus est, Cæs. Creta jussit considere Apollo, Virg. Non Lybia, for in Lybia; non ante Tyro, for Tyri, Id. Æn. iv. 36. Venit Sardiniam, Cic. Roma, Numidiaque facinora ejus memorat, Sall.

THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE.

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LXIX. A noun, or pronoun, joined with a participle expressed or understood, when its case depends on no other word, is put in the ablative absolute; as,

Sole oriente, fugiunt tenebræ, The sun rising, or while the sun riseth, darkness flies away.
Opere peracto, ludemus, Our work being finished, or when our work is finished, we will play.

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So Dominante libidine, temperantiæ nullus est locus; Nihil amicitia præstabilius est, exceptâ virtute; Oppressa libertate patriæ, nihil est quod speremus, amplius; Nobilium vite victuque mutato, mores mutari civitatum puto, Cic. Parumper silentium et quies fuit, nec Etruscis, nisi cogerentur, pugnam inituris, et dictatore arcem Romanam respectante; at ab auguribus, simul aves rite admisissent, ex composito tolleretur signum, Liv. Bellice, depositis clypeo paulisper et hastâ, Mars ades, Ovid. Fast. iii. 1.

OBS. 1. This ablative is called Absolute, because it does not depend upon any other word in the

sentence.

For if the substantive with which the participle is joined, be either the nominative to some following verb, or be governed by any word going before, then this rule does not take place; the ablative absolute is never used, unless when different persons or things are spoken of; as, Milites, hostibus

victis, redierunt. The soldiers having conquered the enemy, returned. Hostibus victis, may be rendered in English several different ways, according to the meaning of the sentence with which it is joined; thus, 1. The enemy conquered, or being conquered: 2. When or after the enemy is or was conquered: 3. By conquering the enemy: 4. Upon the defeat of the enemy, &c.

OBS. 2. The perfect participles of deponent verbs are not used in the ablative absolute; as, Cicero locutus hæc consedit, never his locutis. The participles of common verbs may either agree in case with the substantive before them, like the participles of deponent verbs, or may be put in the ablative absolute, like the participles of passive verbs; as, Romani adepti libertatem floruerunt ; or, Romani, libertate adeptâ floruerunt. But as the participles of common verbs are seldom taken in a passive sense, we therefore rarely find them used in the ablative absolute.

OBS. 3. The participle existente or existentibus, is frequently understood; as, Cæsare duce, scil. existente. His consulibus, scil. existentibus. Invitâ Minervâ, sc. existente, against the grain; Crassâ Minerva, without learning, Hor. Magistrâ ac duce naturâ; viris fratribus; te hortatore; Cæsare impulsore, &c. Sometimes the substantive must be supplied; as, Nondum comperto, quam regionem hostes petissent, i. e. cum nondum compertum esset, Liv. Tum demum palam facto, sc. negotio, Id. Excepto quod non simul esses, cætera lætus, Hor. Parto quod avebas, Id. In such examples negotio must be understood, or the rest of the sentence considered as the substantive, which perhaps is more proper. Thus we find a verb supply the place of a substantive; as, Vale dicto, having said farewell, Ovid.

OBS. 4. We sometimes find a substantive plural joined with a participle singular; as, Nobis presente, Plaut. Absente nobis, Ter. We also find the ablative absolute, when it refers to the same person with the nominative to the verb; as, me duce ad hunc voti finem, me milite, veni, Ovid. Amor. ii. 12. 12. Lætos fecit se consule fastos, Lucan, v. 384. Populo spec fieri credam, quicquid me conscio faciam, Senec. de. Vit. Beat. c. 20. But examples of this construction rarely occur.

OBS. 5. The ablative called absolute is governed by some preposition understood; as, a, ab, cum, sub, or in. We find the preposition sometimes expressed; as, Cum diis juvantibus, Liv. The nominative likewise seems sometimes to be used absolutely; as, Perniciosa libidine paulisper usus, infirmitas naturæ accusatur, Sall. Jug. i.

OBS. 6. The ablative absolute may be rendered several different ways; thus, Superbo regnante, is the same with cum, dum, or quando Superbus regnabat. Opere peracto, is the same with Post opus peractum, or Cum opus est peractum. The present participle, when used in the ablative absolute, commonly ends in e.

OBS. 7. When a substantive is joined with a participle in English independently in the rest of the sentence, it is expressed in the nominative; as, Illo descendente, He descending. But this manner of speech is seldom used except in poetry.

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APPENDIX TO SYNTAX.

I. VARIOUS SIGNIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF VERBS. [The verbs are here placed in the same order as in Etymology.]

FIRST CONJUGATION.

A SPIRARE ad gloriam & laudem, to aim at;

in curiam, to desire to be admitted, Cic. equis Achillis, to wish for; labori ejus, to favour; amorem dictis, sc. ei, to infuse, Virg.

DESPERARE sibi de se; salutem, saluti, de salute, to despair of.

LEGARE aliquem ad alium, to send as an ambassador; aliquem sibi, to make his lieutenant; pecuniam alicui, i. e. testamento relinquere N. B. Publice legantur homines; qui inde legati dicuntur privatim allegantur: unde allegati.

DELEGARE æs alienum fratri, to leave him to pay; laborem alteri, to lay upon; aliquid ad aliquem, i. e. in eum transferre, Cic.

LEVARE metum ejus & ei, eum metu, to

ease.

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MUTARE locum, solum, to be banished; aliquid aliqua re; bellum pro pace, to exchange; vestem, i. e. sordidam togam induere, Liv. vestem cum aliquo, Ter. fidem, to break.

OBNUNTIARE comitiis vel concilio, i. e. comitia auspiciis impedire, to hinder, by telling bad omens, and repeating these words ALIO DIE; Consuli v. magistratui; i. e. prohibere ne cum populo agat, Cic.

PRONUNTIARE pecuniam pro reo, to promise; aliquid edicto, to order; sententias, to sum up the opinions of the senators, Cic.

RENUNTIARE aliquid, de re, alicui, ad aliquem, to tell; consulem, to declare, to name; vitæ amicitiam ei, to give up; muneri, hospitio, to refuse; repudium, to divorce.

OCCUPARE aliquem, to seize; se in aliquo negotio, to be employed; se ad negotium, Plaut. pecuniam alicui, v. apud aliquem grandi fœnore, to give at interest, Cic. occupat facere bellum, transire in agrum hostium, begins first, anticipates, Liv.

PREOCCUPARE saltum, portas Ciciliæ, to seize beforehand, Nep.

PRÆJUDICARE aliquem, to condemn one from the precedent of a former sentence or trial, Cic.

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EROGARE pecuniam in classem, in vestes, to lay out money on.

IRROGARE multam ei, to impose.

OBROGARE legi, to enact a new law contrary to an old.

PROROGARE imperium, provinciam alicui, to prolong; diem ei ad solvendum, to put off.

SUBROGARE aliquem in locum alterius, to substitute; legi, to add a new clause or to put one in place of another.

SPECTARE orientem, ad orientem, to look towards; aliquem ex censu, animum alicujus ex suo, to judge of.

SUPERARE hostes, to overcome; montes, to pass; superat pars cœpti, sc. operis, remains; Captæ superavimus urbi, survived, Virg.

TEMPERARE iras, ventos, to moderate; orbem, to rule; mihi sibi, to restrain, to forbear; alicui, to spare; cædibus, a lacrymis, to abstain from.

VACARE curâ, culpâ, morbo, munere militiæ, &c. a labore, to be free from; animo, sc. in, to be at ease; philosophiæ, in v. ad rem, to apply to; vacat locus, is empty; si vacas v. vacat tibi, if you are at leisure.

VINDICARE mortem ejus, to revenge; ab interitu, exercitum fame, to free; id sibi, & ad se, to claim; libertatem ejus, to defend; se in libertatem, to set at liberty.

DARE animam, to die; animos, to encourage; manus, to yield; manum ei, to shake hands, Plaut. jura, to prescribe laws; literas alicui ad aliquem, to give one a letter to carry to another; terga,fugam, v. se in fugam, in pedes, to fly; hostes in fugam, to put to flight; operam, to endeavour; operam philosophiæ, literis palæstræ, to apply to; operam honoribus, to seek, Nep. veniam ei, to grant his request, Ter. gemitus, lacrymas, amplexus, cantus, ruinam, fidem, jusjurandum, &c. to groan, weep, embrace, sing, fall, &c. cognitores honestos, to give good vouchers for one's character, Cic. aliquid mutuum, v. utendum, to lend; pecuniam fœnori, & collocare, to place at interest; se alicui ad docendum, Cic. multum suo ingenio, to think much of; se ad aliquid, to apply to; se auctoritati senatûs, to yield; fabulam, scripta foras, to publish, Cic. effectum, to perform; senatum, to give a hearing of the senate; actionem, to grant leave to prosecute; præcipitem, to tumble headlong; aliquid paternum, to act like one's father; lectos faciendos, to bespeak, Ter. litem secundum aliquem, to determine a law-suit in favour of one; aliquem exitio, morti, neci, letho, rarely lethum alicui, to kill; aliquid alicui dono, v. muneri, to make a present; crimini, vitio, laudi, to accuse, blame, praise; pœnas, to suffer; nomen militiæ, v. in militiam, to list one's self to be a soldier; se alicui, to be familiar with, Ter. Da te mihi hodie, be directed by me, Id.

goes; auri ratio constat, the sum is right, Constat, impers. It is evident, certain, or agreed on; mihi, inter omnes, de hac re.

EXTARE aquis, to be above, Ovid. ad memo. riam posteritatis, to remain, Cic. sepulchra extant, Liv.

aures, to listen; oblivioni, to forget; civitatem ei, to make one free of the city; dicta, to speak; verba alicui, to impose on, to cheat; se in viam, to enter on a journey; viam ei, to give place; jus gratiæ, to sacrifice justice to interest; se turpiter, to make a shabby appearance; fundum vel domum alicui, mancipio, to convey the property of, to warrant the title to; Vitaque mancipio nulli datur, omnibus usu, Lucr. servos in quæstionem, to give up slaves to be tortured; primas, secundas, &c. (sc. partes) actioni, to ascribe every thing to delivery, Cic. Dat ei bibere, Ter. comas diffundere ventis, to let them flow loose, Virg. Da mihi v. nobis, tell us, Cic. Ut res dant se, as matters go; solertem dabo, I'll warrant him expert, Ter.

SATISDARE judicatum solvi, to give security that what the judge has determined shall be paid, Cic.

STARE contra aliquem; ab, cum, v. pro aliquo, to side with, to be of the same party; judicio ejus, to follow; in sententia; pacto, conditionibus, conventis, to stand to, to make good an agreement; re judicatâ, to keep to what has been determined; stare, v. constare animo, to be in his senses: Non stat per me quo minus pecunia solvatur, It is not owing to me that, &c. multorum sanguine ea Pœnis victoria stetit, cost, Liv. Mihi stat alere morbum, desinere, I am resolved, Nep.

ADSTARE mensæ, to stand by; ad mensam, in conspectu.

CONSTARE ex multis rebus, animo et corpore, to consist of; secum, to be consistent with, Cic. liber constitit v. stetit mihi duobus assibus, cost me; non constat ei color, his colour comes and

HABERE spem, febrim, finem, bonum exitum, tempus; consuetudinem, voluntatem nocendi ; opus in manibus, v. inter manus, to have; gratiam & gratum, to have a grateful sense of a favour; judicium, to hold a trial; honorem ei, to honour; in oculis, to be fond of, Ter. fidem alicui, to trust or believe; curam de v. pro eo; rationem alicujus, to pay regard to, to allow one to stand candidate for an office; rationem, v. rem cum aliquo, to have business with; satis, to be satisfied; orationem, concionem ad populum, to make a speech; aliquem odio, in odium, to hate; ludibrio, to mock; religioni, to have a scruple about it; So, habere aliquid quæstui, honori, prædæ, voluptati, &c. sc. sibi; se bene v. graviter, to be well or ill; se parcè et duriter, to live, Ter. aliquid compertum, cognitum, perspectum, exploratum, certum, v. pro certo, to know for certain; aliquem contemptui, despicatui, -um, v. in despicatum, to despise; excusatum, to excuse; susque deque, to scorn, to slight; Ut rès se habet, stands, is; rebus ita se habentibus, in this state of affairs; Hæc habeo, v. habui dicere de, &c. Non habeo necesse scribere, quid sim facturus, Cic. Habe tibi tuas res, a form of divorce.

ADHIBERE diligentiam, celeritatem, vim, severitatem in aliquem, to use; in convivium v. consilium, to admit; remedium vulneri, curationem morbo, to apply; vinum ægrotis, to give ; aures versibus, to hear with taste; cultum & preces diis, to offer, Cic. Exhibere molestiam alicui, to cause trouble.

INSTAKE Victis, to press on the vanquished; rectam viam, to be in the right way; currum Marti, to make speedily, Virg. instat factum, insists that it was done, Ter.

OBSTARE ei, to hinder.

SECOND CONJUGATION.

JUBERE legem, to vote for, to pass; regem, to choose; aliquem salvere, to wish one health;

PRÆSTARE multa, to perform; alicui, v. aliquem virtute, to excel; silentium ei, to give; auxilium, to grant, Juv. impensas, to defray; iter tutum, to procure; se incolumem, to preserve; se virum, i. e. præbere, exhibere; amorem, v. benevolentiam alicui, to show; culpam, v. damnum, i. e. in se transferre, to take on one's self; præstabo de me eum facturum, I will be answerable. In iis rebus repetendis, quæ mancipi sunt, is periculum judicii præstare debet, qui se nexu obligavit, In recovering, or in an action to recover those things which are transferable, the seller ought to take upon himself the hazard of a trial, Cic. N. B. Those things were called, Res mancipî, (contracted for mancipii, i. e. quas emptor manu caperet,) the property of which might be transferred from one Roman citizen to another; as houses, lands, slaves, &c.

Præstat impers. i. e. it is better; Præsto esse alicui, adv. to be present, to assist; Libri præstant venales, the books are exposed to sale.

ACCUBARE alicui in convivio, to recline near; apud aliquem. Incubare ovis & ova, to sit upon; stratis & super strata.

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depend; de, ex, ab & in arbore; Opera pendent
interrupta, Virg.
IMPENDET malum nobis, nos, v. in nos,
threatens.

not to treat rigorously, Liv. Id ad me, ad religi-
gionem, &c. pertinet, concerns me; crimen ad te
pertinet, Cic. But it is not proper to say, Liber
ad me, ad fratrem pertinet, for mei fratris est,
belongs to; venæ ad vel in omnes corporis partes
pertinet, reach.

SPONDERE & despondere filiam alicui, to

betroth.

DESPONDERE domum alicujus sibi, to be sure of, Cic. animo & -is, to promise, to hope; animum -OS, to despair, Liv.

RESPONDERE ei, literis ejus, his, ad hæc, ad nomen, to answer; votis ejus, to satisfy his wishes; ad spem.

SUADERE ei pacem, v. de pace; legem, to speak in favour of.

DOLERE casum ejus; de, ab, ex, in, pro, re; dolet mihi cor, v. hoc dolet cordi meo; caput dolet a sole.

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VALERE gratiâ apud aliquem, to be in favour with one; lex valet, is in force; quid verbum valeat, non video, signifies; valet decem talenta, or oftener talentis, is worth; vale vel, valeas, farewell; or ironically, away with you.

EMINERE aliqua re, vel in aliqua re, inter omnes; super cætera, Liv. super utrumque, Hor. to be eminent, to excel; ex aqua, v. aquam, super undas, to be above. Imminere alicui, to hang over, to threaten; in occasionem, exitio alicujus, to seek, to watch for.

TENERE promissum; se domi, oppido, castris, sc. in, to keep; modum, ordinem, to observe; rem, dicta, lectionem, to understand, to remember; linguam, but not suam, silentium, se in silentio, to be silent; ora, to keep the countenance fixed; secundum locum imperii, to hold, Nep. jura civium, to enjoy, Cic. causam, to gain; mare, to be in the open sea, to hold, to be master of; terram, portum, metam, montes, to reach ; risum, lachrymas, to restrain: se ab accusando, quin accuset, Cic. Ventus tenet, blows; teneri legibus, jurejurando, &c. to be bound by; leges tenent eum, bind; teneri in manifesto furto, to be seized; tenet fama, prevails.

ABSTINERE maledictis, v. a, lo abstain; publico, to live retired, Tacit. animum a scelere, ægrum a cibo, to keep from; jus belli ab aliquo,

SUSTINERE personam judicis, nomen consulatûs, to bear the character; assensionem, v. se ab assensu, to withhold assent; rem in noctem, to defer.

FACERE initium, finem, pausam, finem vitæ; pacem, amicitiam; testamentum, nomen, fossam, pontem in flumine, in Tiberim, to make; divortium cum uxore, Cic. bellum regi, Nep. se hilarem, to show, Ter. se divitem, miserum, pauperem, to pretend, Cic. æs alienum, contrahere, v. conflare, to contract debt; animos, to encourage; damnum, detrimentum, jacturam, to loose; naufragium, to suffer; sumptum, to spend; gratum alicui, to oblige; gratiam delicti, to pardon a fault; gratiam legis, to dispense with; justa vel funus alicui, to perform one's funeral rites; rem, to make an estate; pecuniam, divitias ex metallis; fœdus, v. inire, icere, ferire, percutere, jungere, sancire, firmare, &c. to make a league; moram alicui, to delay; verba, to speak; audientiam sibi, Cic. negotium, et facessere, to trouble; aliquid missum, to pass over: aliquem missum, to dismiss or excuse; ad aliquid, rarely alicui, to be fit or useful; ratum, to ratify; planum, to explain; palam suis, to make known, Nep. stipendium pedibus, v. equo, & merere, to serve in the army; sacra, sacrificium, v. rem divinam, to sacrifice;

MANERE apud aliquem; in castris; ad urbem; in urbe ; proposito, sententiâ, in sententia, statu suo, &c. adventum hostium, to expect, Liv. promissis, to stand to, to keep, Virg. Omnes una manet nox, awaits, Horat. Manent ingenia senibus, modò permaneat studium & industria, Cic. Munera vobis certa manent, Virg.

MERERE laudem; bene, male de aliquo; stipendia, equo, pedibus, to serve as a soldier; fustuarium, to be beaten to death.

HÆRERE lateri; tergis, v. in terga hostium, Liv. curru, Virg. alicui in visceribus, Cic. Hæret mihi aqua, I am in doubt; Vide, ne hæreas, lest you be at a loss, Cic.

ADHÆRERE & adhærescere justitiæ; ad turrim; in me. Inhærere rei, & in re.

MOVERE castra, to decamp; bella, to raise; aliquem tribu, to remove a Roman citizen from a more honourable to a less honourable tribe; e senatu, to degrade a senator; risum vel jocum alicui, to cause laughter; stomachum ei, to trouble, Cic.

FAVETE ore, vəl linguis, sc. mihi, attend in silence, or abstain from words of a bad omen.

CAVERE aliquid, aliquem, vel ab aliquo, to guard against, to avoid; alicui, to provide for, to advise as a lawyer does his client; aliquid alicui, Cic. sibi ab aliquo vel per aliquem de re aliqua, to get security on; mihi prædibus & chirographo cautum est, I have got security by bail and bond; veteranis cautum esse volumus, Cic. Cave facias, sc. ne, see you don't do it; mihi cavendum, vel mea cautio est, I must take care.

CONNIVERE ad fulgura, Suet. to wink; in hominum sceleribus, to take no notice of, Cic.

THIRD CONJUGATION.

Verbs in IO.

reum, to impeach; fabulam, carmen, versus, &c. to write a play, &c. copiam consilii ei, to offer advice; copiam vel potestatem dicendi legatis, to grant leave; fidem, to procure or give credit; periculum, to make trial; potestatem sui, to expose himself, Nep. aliquem loquentem, v. loqui, to suppose or represent, Cic. piraticam, sc. rem, to be a pirate; argentariam, medicinam, mercaturam, &c. to be an usurer, a physician, &c. versuram, to contract a new debt, to discharge an old one, to borrow money at great interest, Cic. cum v. ab aliquo, to side with; contra v. adversus, to oppose; nomen, v. nomina, to borrow money; and also, to settle accounts; i. e. rationes acceptarum, sc. pecuniarum & expensarum inter se conferre ; nomen in litura, to write it where something was before, Cic. pedem, v. pedes, to trim the sails, Virg. Fac ita esse, suppose it is so; obvius fieri alicui, to meet; ne longum, v. longa faciam, ut breve faciam, not to be tedious; equus non facit, will not move, Cic. Fac velle, sc. me, suppose me to be willing, Virg. Æn. iv. 540.

AFFICERE aliquem laude, honore, præmio, &

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