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aliquo, homines inter se, to set at variance or by ANTEVERTERE ei, to come before ; damnathe ears; rem eo, to bring that to pass; gladiatores, tionem veneno, to prevent ; rem rei, to prefer, pugiles, Græcos cum Latinis, to match or pair; Plaut. committere, ut, to cause; incommoda sua legibus INTERVERTERE pecuniam alicujus, & aliquem & judiciis, to seek redress by law.

pecuniâ, to embessle, to cheat ; candelabrum, to COMPROMITTERE. Candidati compromiserunt, steal, to pilfer; promissum & receptum, sc. DoH. S. quingenis in singulos apud M. Catonem lobellæ consulatum intervertit, ad seque transtu. depositis, petere ejus arbitratu, ut qui contra lit, treacherously withheld, Cic. fecisset, ab eo condemnaretur, made a compro- PRÆVERTERE, & -ti, dep: ventos cursu, to outmise or agreement, &c.

strip; desiderium plebis, to prevent; metum supDIMITTERE exercitum, to disband; uxorem, & plicii morte voluntariâ, Liv. Aliquid alicui rei, to repudiare, nuntium v. repudium ad eam remit put before, Id. tere, to divorce.

SISTERE vadimonium; se in judicio, to apPROMITTERE id ei, to promise ; capillum, bar- pear in court at one's trial ; nec sisti posse, nor bam, to let grow, Liv.

could the state be saved, Liv. PERMITTERE alicui, to allow ; divis cætera, to ASSISTERE ei, to stand by; ad fores; contra, leave, Horat. se in fidem v. fidei ejus ; vela super eum. ventis ; equum in hostem ; rem suffragiis populi, CONSISTERE in digitos, to stand on tiptoe; in to let the people decide ; tribunatum vexandis anchoris, ad anchoram, to ride at anchor; friconsulibus, to give up, to employ, Liv.

gore, to be frozen, Ovid. Spes in velis consiste. REMITTERE animum, to ease; calces, tela, to bat, depended on; virtus in actione consistit, throw back ; ex pecunia, de supplicio, tributo, Cic. &c. to abate ; debitum, iras alicui, to give up, to INSISTERE jacentibus, to stand upon; vestigiis forgive ; justitium, to discontinue ; pugnam, to ejus ; viam, v. viâ ; in re aliqua, in rem, v. rei ; slacken ; remittit explorare, neglects, Sallust. in dolos, negotium, to insist upon, lo urge,

SUBMITTERE fasces populo, to lower ; se o. Plaut. animum, to submit, to humble; percussores alicui, OBSISTERE ei, to stop, to oppose. to suborn assassins.

RESISTERE ei, to resist. TRANSMITTERE in Africam, neut. to pass over. SUBSISTERE, to stand still ; sumptui, to bear. VERTERE in fugam, to put to flight; terga,

VO. to fly; ab imo, to overthrow; solum, to go into SOLVERE pecuniam ei, to pay; versurâ, to banishment ; id ei vitio, v. crimini, & in crimen, pay a debt by borrowing from another, Ter. Fito blame; in superbiam, to impute ; Platonem, dem, to break a promise, or according to others, Latinè Græca, Græca vel ex Græcis in Latinum, to perform, Ter. And. IV. 1. 19. litem æstimatam, to translate ; pollicem, to doom a gladiator to to pay the fine imposed on him, Nep. Votum, to death by turning up the thumb; terram, to plough; discharge ; obsidionem urbis, v. urbem obsidione, crateram, to empty, Virg. Stilum, to correct, to raise a siege ; navem e portu, to set sail ; episHorat. Salus vel causa in eo vertitur, depends; tolam, v. resignare, to break open; aliquem legifortuna verterat, Liv. Annus vertens, a whole year, bus, legum vinculis, to free from ; solvitur in Nep. Res bene vertat, Di bene vertant, prosper.somnos, Virg. Oratio soluta, i.e. libera, numeris

ANIMADVERTERE id, to observe ; in eum ver- non astricta & devicta, prose; solve metus, disberibus, morte, &c. to punish.

miss, Virg. ADVERTERE agmen urbi, to bring up to, Virg. DISSOLVERE societatem, to break. oras, to arrive at; aures, mentes, animum v. RESOLVERE vocem, v. ora, to break silence, animo ad aliquid, monitis, to attend to; in aliquem, Virg. jura, lo violate ; vectigal, to take off taxes, oftener animadvertere, to punish.

Tacit. In pulverem, to reduce to.

FOURTH CONJUGATION.

AUDIRE aliquem, aliquid ex v. ab aliquo, to convenient, will meet together; convenit mihi hear from one; de aliquo, about one, also from cum fratre de hac re, inter me et fratrem, inter one, as, sæpe hoc audivi de patre, for ex patre, nos; hæc fratri mecum conveniunt, I and my Cic. Audire bene v, malè apud socios, ab omni- brother are agreed ; sævis inter se convenit ursis, bus, to be well spoken of, to have a good charac- Juv. Ipsi secum non convenit, vel ipse, he is in. ter s rexque paterque audisti, have been called, consistent ; pax convenit, vel conventa est, is Hor. Antigonus credit de suo adventu esse agreed upon ; rem conventuram putamus, Cic. auditum, Nep.

conditiones non convenerunt; mores conveniunt, VENIRE ad finem, aures, pactionem, certa- agree ; calcei pedibus v. ad pedes conveniunt, fit, men, manus, nihilum, &c. in suspicionem, odium, suit ; hoc in illum convenit. Catilinam interfecgratiam, &c. in jus, to go to law, Liv. in circu- tum esse convenit, ought to have been slain, Cic. lum, into a company, Nep. Hæreditas ei venit, Convenire in manum, the usual form of marriage, he has succeeded to an estate ; ei usu venit, hap- named Coemptio, whereby women were called pened, Nep. Quod in buccam venerit, scribito, matres-familias. occurs, Cic.

SENTIRE sonorem, colorem, &c. to perceive; ADVENIRE & adventare ei, urbem, ad urbem, cum aliquo, to be of one's opinion ; bene vel to come to.

malè de eo, to think well or ill of him. ANTEVENIRE aliquem, et antevertere, Sall. rei, CONSENTIRE tibi tecum, inter se ; alicui rei, de Plaut. tempus, consilia et itinera.

v. in aliqua re ; ad aliquid peragendum, to agree; CONVENIRE in colloquium ; fratrem, to meet So dissentire ; et ab aliquo, to disagree; ne vita with, to speak to; ego et frater conveniemus, copiæ orationi dissentiat, Senec.

honour.

DEPONENT VERBS. PROFITERI philosophiam, to profess, to teach PROSEQUI aliquem amore, laudibus, &c. 1o love, publicly ; se candidatum, to declare himself a praise, &c. candidate for an office ; pecunias, agros, nomina, NITI hastâ; in cubitum, to lean; ejus consilio, &c. apud censorem, to give an account of, to de- eo, to depend on ; ad gloriam, ad v. in summa, clare how much one has ; indicium, to promise to to aim at ; in vetitum, in adversum, contra make a discovery.

aliquem, pro aliquo, to strive ; gradibus, to LOQUI cum aliquo, inter se, sometimes alicui, ascend. ad v. apud aliquem ; aliquid, de aliqua re. UTI eo familiariter, to be familiar with

SEQUI feras; sectam Cæsaris, to be of his one ; ventis adversis, to have have cross winds; party, Cic. Assequi, consequi, to overtake; glo- honore usus, one who has enjoyed a post of riam, to attain. Consequi hæreditatem, to get, Cic.

IRREGULAR VERBS. ESSE magni roboris, v. -no -re; ejus opini- minum, to be in every body's mouth; ab emptione, onis, v. ea opinione; in maxima spe: in timore, to retract his bargain; decem menses abierunt, luctu, opinione, itinere, &c. cum telo, in vel cum have past, Ter. Non hoc tibi sic abibit, i. e. non imperio; magno periculo, v. in periculo; in tuto; feres hoc impune, Ter. Abi in malam rem, a apud se, in his senses ; sui juris, v. mancipii, sui form of imprecation. potens, v. in sua potestate, to be at his own dis- ADIRE periculum capitis, to run the hazard of posal : Res est in vado, is safe, Ter. Est animus, one's life. sc, mihi, I have a mind, Virg. Est ut, cur, quamo- Exire vitâ, e, v. de vita, to die; ære alieno, brem, quod, quin, &c. There is cause; bene, male Cic. Verbum exit ex ore, Id. tela, to avoid, Virg. est mihi, with me; nihil est mihi tecum, I have Tempus induciarum cum Vejenti populo exierat, nothing to do with you : Quid est tibi, sc. rei, had expired, Liv. What is the matter with you ? Ter. Cernere INIRE magistratum; suffragium, rationem, erat, one might see; religio est mihi id facere, I consilium, pugnam, viam, &c. to enter upon, to scruple to do it; si est, ut facere velit, ut facturus begin ; gratiam ejus, apud eum, cum vel ab eo, sit, ut admiserit, &c. for si velit, &c. Ter. Est to gain his favour : Ineunte æstate, vere, anno, ut viro vir latius ordinet arbusta sulcis, it hap. &c. in the beginning of ; but we seldom say, Inpens, Hor. Certum est facere, sc. mihi, I am eunte die, nocte, &c. Ab ineunte ætate, from resolved, Ter. Non certum est, quid faciam, I our early years. am uncertain, Id. Cassius quærere solebat, Cui OBIRE diem edicti, vel auctionis; judicium, va: BONO FUERIT : Omnibus bono fuit, it was of ad- dimonium, to be present at ; provinciam, domos vantage, Cic.

nostras, to visit, to go through, Cic. negotia, res, ADESSE pugnæ, in pugna, ad exercitum, ad munus, officium, legationem, sacra, to perform ; tempus, in tempore, cum aliquo, to be present ; pugnas, Virg. mortem, vel morte; diem suprealicui, to farour, to assist; scribendo, v. esse ad mum v. diem, to die. soribendum, to subscribe one's name to a decree PRÆIRE alicui, to go before ; verba, carmen, of the senate, Cic. consilio utrique, to be a coun. vel sacramentum alicui, to repeat or read over sellor to, Nep.

before; alicui voce, quid judicet, to prescribe or ABESSE domo, urbe, a domo, ab signis, to be direct by crying, Cic. absent ; alicui, v. deesse, to be wanting, not to PRODIRE in publicum, to go abroad ; non præassist ; a sole, to stand out of the sun ; sumptus terit te, you are not ignorant, Cic. Dies induci. funeri defuit, he had not money to bury him, Liv. urum præteriit, is past, Nep. Abesse à persona principis, to be inconsistent with REDIRE in gratiam cum aliquo, to become the character, Nep. Paulum v. parum abfuit quin friends again ; ad se, to come to himself, to reurbem caperent, quin occideretur, &c. they were cover his senses. near taking, &c. Tantum abest ne enervetur SUBIRE murum, vel -o, ad montes, to come up oratio, ut, &c. is so far from being, &c. Cic. Tan- to; laborem vel -i, onus, pænam, periculum, tum abfuit a cupiditate pecuniæ, a societate crimen, lo undergo ; spes, timor subiit animum, sceleris, &c. Nep.

came into. INTERESSE convivio, v. in convivio, to be at a VELLE aliquem, sc. alloqui vel conventum, to feast ; anni decem interfuerent, intervened ; stulto desire to speak with; alicui, ejus causa, to wish intelligens quid interest, Ter. Hoc dominus, & one's good ; tibi consultum volo; nihil tibi nepater interest id. Inter hominem & belluam hoc gatum volo, I wish to deny, Liv. Quid sibi vult; interest, Cic. differ in this, this is the difference; What does he mean? Volo te hoc facere, hoc a multum interest, utrum, it is of great importance. te fieri: si quid recte curatum velis ; illos moniPons inter eos interest, is between, Cic

tos etiam atque etiam volo, sc. esse, I will adPRÆESSE exercitui, to command ; comitiis, monish them again and again, Cic. nollem facjudicio, quæstioni, lo preside in or at.

tum, I am sorry it was done ; nollem huc exitum, OBESSE ei, to hurt, to hinder.

8C esse a me, I wish I had not come out here, SUPERESSE, to be over and above ; alicui, to Ter, survive ; modo vita supersit, sc. mihi, if I live ; FERRE legem, to propose or make; privilegisuper est, ut, it remains, that.

um de aliquo, to propose or pass an act of im. IRE ad arma, ad saga, to go to war; in jus, to peachment against one, Cic. rogationem ad popugo to law; pedibus in sententiam alicujus, to agree Jum, to bring in a bill ; conditiones ei, to offer with ; viam v. viâ ; res bepe eunt, Cič. Tempus, terms ; suffragium, to vote; sententiam, to give dies, mensis it, passes.

an opinion ; centuriam, tribum, to gain the vote ABIRE magistratu, to lay down an office; a of ; perdere, to lose it ; victoriam ex eo; omne conspectu, to retire from company ; in ora ho- punctum, omnia suffragia, to gain all the potes ; repulsam, to be rejected; fructum hoc fructi, to cum funere, to bury; ad honorem, ad cælum reap, Ter, lætitiam de re, to rejoice ; præ se, to laudibus, to raise, to extol ; foras peccatum, to pretend or declare openly; alienam personam, to divulge. disguise one's self ; in oculis, to be fond of, Ter. INFERRE bellum patriæ; vim, manus, necem manus, in prælia, to engage, Virg: acceptum et alicui, to bring upon; signa, se, pedem, to adexpensum, to mark down as received and spent vance ; litem vel periculum capitis alicui, vel in or lent, as Dr. and Cr. Cic. animus, opinio fert, aliquem, to bring one to a trial for his life. inclines; tempus, res, causa fert, allows, requires

. OFFERRE se morti, ad mortem, in discrimen, CONFERRE benevolentiam alicui, in vel erga to expose, to present. aliquem, to shew; beneficia, culpam in eum, to PERFERRE legem, to carry through, to pass it. con fer, to lay; operam, tempus, studium, ad vel PRÆFERRE facem ei, to carry before ; salutem in rem, & impendere, to apply; capita inter se, ei reipublicæ suis commodis, & anteferre, anteconsilia sua, to lay their heads together, to con- ponere, to prefer. Prælatus equo, riding before. sult; signa, arma, manus, to engage ; omne bel- PROFERRE imperium, pomerium, terminos, to luin circa Corinthum, Nep. pedem, to set foot to enlarge; in medium, in apertum, in lucem, to foot ; rationes, to cast up accounts; castra castris, publish ; nuptias diem, to delay; diem Ilio, to to encamp over against one another; se in, vel defer the destruction of, Hor. ad urbem, to go to; tributa, to pay; se alicui, REFERRE alicui, to answer; se, gradum v. vel cum aliquo, to compare ; neminem cum illo pedem, to retreat ; gratiam alicui, to make a reconferendum pietate puto, Cic. Hæc conferunt quital ; par pari, Ter. victoriam ab, vel ex aliad aliquid ; oratori futuro, serve, are useful to, quo, et reportare, to gain ; institutum, to renew; Quinct.

judicia ad equestrem ordinem, to restore to the DEFERRE situlam vel sitellam, to bring the Equites the right of judging ; aliquid, de aliqua ballot box ; aliquid ad aliquem, to carry word, to re, ad senatum, ad consilium, ad sapientes, ad tell ; rarely alicui; causam ad patronos ; honores populum, to lay before; aliquid in tabulam, codiei; gubernacula rei publicæ in eum; summam cem, album, commentarium, &c. to mark down ; rerum ad eum, to confer ; in beneficiis ad æra- aliquid acceptum alicui, & in acceptum, to acrium, to recommend for a public service, Cic. knowledge one's self indebted; pecunias acceptas aliquem ambitûs, de ambitu, nomen alicujus ad & expensas ; nomina vel summas in codicem acprætorem, apud magistratum, to accuse of bribery; cepti et expensi, to mark down accounts ; alienos primas, sc. partes ei, to give him the preference, mores ad suos, to judge of by; in v. inter æraCic.

rarios, to reduce to the lowest class ; in numerum DIFFERRE vel transferre rem in annum; post deorum, in vel inter deos, & reponere, to rank bellum, diem solutionis, to put off ; rumores, to among ; pugnas, res gestas, to relate ; patrem spread ; ab aliquo, alicui, inter se, moribus, to ore, to resemble ; amissos colores, to regain, differ in character; amore, cupiditate, doloribus, Horat. differri, to be distracted or torn asunder, Cic. & TRANSFERRE rationes in tabulas, to post one's Ter.

books, state accounts; in Latinam linguam, to EFFERRE fruges, to produce ; verba, to utter ; translate; verba, to use metaphorically ; culpam verbum de verbo expressum, to translate, Ter. in eum & rejicere, to lay the blame on him. pedem domo, to go out; corpus amplo funere, &

II. FIGURES OF SYNTAX. A Figure is a manner of speaking different from the ordinary and plain way, used for the sake of beauty or force.

The figures of Syntax or Construction may be reduced to these three, Ellipsis, Pleonasm, and Hyperbăton.

The two first respect the constituent parts of a sentence; the last respects only the arrangement of the words.

1. ELLIPSIS. ELLIPSIS is when one or more words are wanting to complete the sense; as, Aiunt, ferunt, dicunt, perhibent, scil. homines: Dic mihi, Damæta, cujum pecus; that is, Dic (tu) mihi, Damæta, (eum hominem) cujum pecus ; (est hoc pecus.) Aberant bidui, . iter vel itinere. Decies sestertiúm, sc. centena millia. Quid multa ? sc. dicam. Antiquum obtines, sc. morem, y. institutum, Plaut. Hodie in ludum occepi ire literarium, ternas jam scio, sc. literas, i. e. AMO, Id. Triduo abs te nullas acceperam, sc. literas, i. e. epistolam, Cic. Brevi dicam sc. sermone : So Complecti, respondere, &c. breve. Dii meliora, sc. faciant: Rhodum volo, inde Athenas, sc. ire, Id. Bellicum, v. classicum canere, sc. signum, Liv. Civicâ donatus, sc. coronâ ; So obsidionalem, muralem adeptus, &c. Id. Epistola librarii manu est, sc. scripta, Cic.

When a conjunction is to be supplied, it is called AsynděTON; as, Deus optimus maximus, sc. et ; Sartum tectum, conservare, i. e. sartum et tectum ; So Abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit, Cic. Ferte citi flammas, date vela, impellite remos, Virg. Velis nolis, sc. seu.

To this figure may be reduced most of those irregularities in Syntax, as they are

called, which are variously classed by grammarians, under the names of EnAllăGE, i. e. the changing of words and their accidents, or the putting of one word for another ; Antiprāsis, i. e. the putting of one case for another; HELLENISM or Græcism, i. e. imitating the construction of the Greeks ; Syněsis, i. e. referring the construction, not to the gender or number of the word, but to the sense, &c. thus, Samnitium duo millia cæsi, is, Duo millia (hominum) Samnitium (fuerunt homines).cæsi, Liv. So Servitia immemores, Liv. Monstrum quæ, scil. mulier, Hor. Scelus qui, sc. homo, Ter. Omnia Mercurio similis, scil. secundum, Virg. Missi magnis de rebus uterque, legati ; i. e. Missi legati (et) uterque (legatus missus) de magnis rebus, Horat. Servitia repudiabat cujus, scil. servitii, Sall. Cat. 51. Familia nostra, quorum, &c. sc. hominum, Sall. Concursus* populi, mirantium, Liv. Illum ut vivat optant, for ut ille vivat, Ter. Populum late regem, for regnantem, Virg. Expediti militum, for milites ; Classis stabat Rhegii, for ad Rhegium, Liv. Latium Capuaque agro multati, sc. homines, Id. Utraque formosa, sc. mulieres, Ovid. Aperite aliquis ostium, Ter. Sensit delapsus, for delapsum, sc. se esse, Virg.

When a writer frequently uses the Ellipsis, his style is said to be elliptical or concise.

2. PLEONASM. PLEONASM is when a word more is added than is absolutely necessary to express the sense; as, Video oculis, I see with my eyes; Sic ore locuta est ; adest præsens : Nusquam gentium ; vivere vitam; servire servitutem ; Quid mihi Celsus agit? Fac me ut sciam, &c. Suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo, Ter. Suo sibi succo vivant, Plaut.

When a conjunction is used apparently redundant, it is called POLYSYNDěTON; as, Una Eurusque Notusque ruunt, Virg.

When that which is in reality one, is so expressed as if there were two, it is called HENDIADYS; as, Pateris libamus et auro, for aureis pateris, Virg.

When several words are used to express one thing, it is called PERIPHRASIS; as, Urbs Troja, for Troja, Virg. Res voluptatem, for voluptates, Plaut. Usus purpurarum,

for
purpura ; Genus piscium, for pisces; Flores rosarum, for rosa, Hor.

3. HYPERBATON. HYPERBATON is the transgression of that order or arrangement of words which is commonly used in any language. It is chiefly to be met with among the poets. The various sorts into which it is divided, are, Anastrophe, Hystěron protěron, Hypallage, Synchěsis, Tmesis, and Parenthèsis.

1. ANASTROPHE is the inversion of words, or the placing of that word last which should be first; as, Italiam contra ; His accensa super ; Spemque metumque inter dubii ; for contra Italiam, super his, inter spem, &c. Virg. Terram sol facit are, for arefacit, Lucret.

2. HystĚRON PROTÈRON is when that is put in the former part of the sentence, which, according to the sense, should be in the latter; as, Valet atque vivit, for vivit atque valet, Ter.

3. HYPALLOGE is the exchanging of cases; as, Dare classibus austros, for dare classes austris, Virg.

4. Synchěsis is a confused and intricate arrangement of words; as, Saxa vocant Itali mediis quæ in fluctibus aras ; for Quæ saxa in mediis fluctibus Itali vocant aras, Virg. This occurs particularly in violent passion; as, Per tibi ego hunc juro fortem castumque cruorem, Ovid. Fast. ii. 841. Per vos liberos atque parentes, sc. oro vos per liberos, &c. Sallust. Jug. 14.

5. Tmesis is the division of a compound word and the interposing of other words betwixt its parts; as, Septem subjecta trioni gens, for Septentrioni, Virg. Quæ meo cunque animo libitum est facere, for quæcunque, Ter. Quem sors dierum cunque dabit, lucro Appone, Horat.

6. Parenthèsis is the inserting of a member into the body of a sentence, which is neither necessary to the sense, nor at all affects the construction; as, Tityre, dum redeo, (brevis est via,) pasce capellas, Virg.

III. ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION. The difficulty of translating either from English into Latin, or from Latin into English, arises in a great measure from the different arrangement of words which takes place in the two languages.

In Latin the various terminations of nouns, and the inflection of adjectives and verbs, point out the relation of one word to another, in whatever order they are placed. But in English the agreement and government of words can only be determined from the particular part of the sentence in which they stand. Thus in Latin, we can either say, Alexander vicit Darium, or Darium vicit Alexander, or Alexander Darium vicit, or Darium Alexander vicit ; and in each of these the sense is equally obvious: but in English, we can only say, Alexander conquered Darius. This variety of arrangement in Latin, gives it a great advantage over the English; not only in point of energy and vivacity of expression, but also in point of harmony. We sometimes, indeed, for the sake of variety and force, imitate in English the inversion of words which takes place in Latin; as, Him the Eternal hurld, Milton. Whom ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you. But this is chiefly to be used in poetry.

With regard to the proper order of words to be observed in translating from English into Latin, the only certain rule which can be given, is to imitate the Classics.

The order of words in sentences is said to be either simple or artificial ; or, as it is otherwise expressed, either natural or oratorial.

The Simple or Natural order is, when the words of a sentence are placed one after another, according to the natural order of syntax.

Artificial or Oratorial order is, when words are so arranged, as to render them most striking, or most agreeable to the ear.

All Latin writers use an arrangement of words, which appears to us more or less artificial, because different from our own, although to them it was as natural as ours is to us. In order, therefore, to render any Latin author into English, we must first reduce the words in Latin to the order of English, which is called the Analysis or Resolution of sentences. It is practice only that can teach one to do this with readiness. However, to a beginner, the observation of the following rule may be of advantage.

Take first the words which serve to introduce the sentence, or show its dependence on what went before ; next the nominative, together with the words which it agrees with or governs; then, the verb and adverbs joined with it; and lastly, the cases which the verb governs, together with the circumstances subjoined, to the end of the sentence; supplying through the whole the words which are understood.

* If the sentence is compound, it must be resolved into the several sentences of which it is made up; as,

Vale igitur, mi Cicero, tibique persuade esse te quidem mihi carissimum ; sed multo fore cariorem, si talibus monumentis præceptisque lætaběre, Cic. Off. lib. 3. fin.

Farewell then, my Cicero, and assure yourself that you are indeed very dear to me; but will be much dearer, if you shall take delight in such writings and instructions.

This compound sentence may be resolved into these five simple sentences ; 1. Igitur, mi (fili) Cicero, (tu) vale, 2 et (tu) persuade tibi (ipsi) te esse quidem (filium) carissimum mihi : 3. sed (tu persuade tibi ipsi te) fore (filium) cariorem (mihi in) multo (negotio, 4. si (tu) lætabere talibus monumentis, 5. et (si tu lætabere talibus) præceptis.

1. Fare (you) well then, my (son) Cicero, 2. and assure (you) yourself that you are indeed (a son) very dear to me; 3. but (assure you yourself that you) will be (a son) much dearer (to me) 4. if you shall take delight in such writings, 5. and (if you shall take delight in such) instructions.

It may not be improper here to exemplify Analogical Analysis, as it is called, or the analysis of words, from the foregoing sentence, Vale igitur, &c. thus,

Vale, scil. tu; Fare (thou) well, Second person singular of the imperative mood, active voice, from the neuter verb, Valeo, valui, valitum, valere, to be in health ; of the second conjugation, not used in the passive. Vale agrees in the second person singular with the nominative tu, by the second rule of syntaa.

Igitur, then, therefore, a conjunction, importing some inference drawn from what went before.

Mi, Voc. sing. masc. of the adjective pronoun, meus, -a, -um, my; derived from the substantive pronoun Ego, agreeing with Cicero, by Rule 1. Cicero, voc. sing. from the nominative Cicero, -ōnis, a proper noun of the third declension.

El, and, a copulative conjunction, which connects the verb persuade with the verb vale, by Rule 28. We turn que into et because que never stands by itself.

Persuade scil. tu, persuade thou, second person singular of the imperative active, from the verb persua-deo, si, sum, dêre, to persuade; compounded of the preposition per, and suadeo, -si, -sum, to

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