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RULES.

Jesus Christus, filius Dei, est Salvator mundi. Cicero, ora7. One substantive tor, fuit consul Romæ. Numa Pompilius erat rex secundus Rogoverns another signifying a different person

manorum. Ille fuit vir magnæ prudentiæ. Ego sum publicus orthing, in the genitive. nuncius populi Romani ; verbis meis fides sit. Ancus Marcius

8. If the latter of two erat nepos Numæ Pompilii, similis avo æquitate et religione.. substantives have an Augustus est puer probâ indole. Petrus est vir minimi pretii. adjective of praise or Est homo nullius stipendii. Est ager trium jugerum. Es bono dispraise, joined with it

, animo. Capite aperto est. Cervice obvoluta est. Johannes it may be put either in the genitive or ablative. est adolescens eximia spe, summæ virtutis. Paulus est vir præ

9. An adjective in stantis - zenii—-præstanti ingenio-præstans ingenio—præthe neuter gender with stans ingenii. Os humerosque deo similis sit. Esto forti aniout a substantive, go- mo. Vox populi est vox Dei. Hæc est domus Cæsaris. Faverns the genitive.

cilis est descensus Averni. Multum pecuniæ est illi. Plus elo10. Opus and Usus, quentiæ est tibi. Est nobis minus sapientiæ. Est vobis nihil signifying need, require the ablative. sinceri. Quid rei est illis ? Quicquid ingenii sit mihi. Per hoc

11. Verbal adjec- noctis. Ad hoc ætatis. Circum id loci. Libri permulti sunt tives, and such as signi- mihi. Eadem mens est mihi, eadem tibi. Nobis est opus pefy an affection of the cuniâ. Vobis est usus viribus. Dux nobis opus sit. Nobis mind, govern

the genitive.

exempla opus sunt. Est regis. Pecus est Meliboi. Hæc sunt 12. Partitives, and hominis. Temeritas est florentis ætatis, prudentia senectutis. words placed partitive- Tuum est. Meum fuisset. Suum sit. Vestrum fuerit. Nos. ly, comparatives, su- trum erit. Est regium. Est humanum. Lex naturæ est uniperlatives, interroga- versalis. Illi est summa prudentia juris. Quorum magna pars tives, and some nume- fui. Liber mei est novus. Liber tui est novellus. Salus populi rals, govern the genitive plural.

est suprema lex. Hoc est tuum munus. Hoc est tui muneris. 13. Adjectives signi

Liber deest mihi. Libri desunt mihi. Præfuit exercitui. Adfying profit or dispro- fuit precibus. Mali nec prosunt sibi, nec aliis. Est mihi vofit, likeness or unlike- luptati. Est tibi exemplo. Horatius fuit cupidus pacis. Cato ness, govern the fuit tenax propositi. Cicero fuit amans patriæ. Cæsar fuit

pedative.

ritus literarum. Petrus est memor beneficiorum. Petrus est 14. These adjectives, dignus, indignus, præ- avidus gloriæ. Paulus est ignarus fraudis. Memor esto brevis ditus, and contentus ;

ævi. Catilina fuit audax ingenii. Est sapientis esse contenalso, natus, satus, or- tum sua sorte. Hic est assuetus labore in omnia. Nos sumus tus, editus, and the like, insueti moribus Romanis. Fæminæ sunt desuetæ bello, et trigovern the ablative. 15. Adjectives, signi

umphis. Una sororum fuit pulchra. Ille est aliquis philosofying plenty, or want, phorum. Uterque nostrum fuit ibi. Quis vestrum est senior govern the genitive, or fratrum ? Cicero fuit optimus consulum. Sunt lecti juvenum. ablative.

O sancte deorum. Ille est vir præstantissimus nostræ civitatis. 16. Sum, when it Poeta est utilis urbi. Hic puer est similis suo patri. Lex fuit signifies possession, perniciosa Reipublicæ. Censura est facilis cuivis. Hoc est property, or duty, governs the genitive.

commune mihi tecum. Mens est mihi sibi conscia recti. Regis 17. Sum, taken for dicto audiens erat. Superbia est aliena dignitatis. Nemo est habeo, (to have,) go- immunis vitio. Omnes sụnt proni ad vitium. Hic puer est verns the dative of a dignus laude. Sapiens est contentus sua sorte. Dux est prædiperson.

tus virtute. Stultus est captus mente. Homo superbus sapien18. Sum, taken for Affero, to bring,) go

tiâ est stultissimus. Æneas fuit ortus Anchise. Omnia plena verns two datives; the sunt Dei. Non inopes temporis, sed prodigi sumus. Lentulus one of a person, and non est verbis inops. Omnium consiliorum ejus, participes suithe other of a thing. mus. Quando erimus vacui molestiâ ? Nihil insidiis est vacuum.

&c.

Ille est doctus grammaticæ. Hic est patiens algoris. Sa- RULES. pientia est melior gemmis. Nihil est dulcius libertate. Nihil 19. The compounds fuit facundius Cicerone. Tu es nihilo melior alio. Amor non of Sum, except Posest medicabilis herbis. Via lethi est calcanda semel omnibus. Sum, govern the dative.

20. Words of the Hic liber est mei fratris. Hæc toga erat tua. Jacobus et Jo

comparative degree gohannes, qui sunt mortui, fuerunt fratres. Jupiter est omnibus

vern the ablative when idem. Peripatetici quondam iidem erant qui Academici. Est

quam

is qmitted in animus erga te idem ac fuit. Res est soliciti plena timoris Latin. amor. Maxima quæque domus servis est plena superbis. Amor

21. Adverbs qualify et melle et felle est fæcundissimus. Anna est amanda omnibus. verbs, participles, ad

jectives, and other adMors est terribilis malis. Pax est optabilis omnibus. Adhi

verbs. benda est nobis diligentia. Bella matribus detestata sunt. Deus 22. Some adverbs est venerandus et colendus à nobis. Mors Crassi est à multis of time, place, and defleta. Pedibus longè melior fuit Lycus. Dum anima est, spes quantity, govern the est. Donec eris felix, sunt tibi multi amici. Fuit olim quasi ego

genitive.

23. The prepositions sum, senex. Nihil abest quin sim miserrimus. En hostis. Ecce

ad, apud, ante, &c.gosignum. Ecce miserum hominem. Ecce duas aras tibi, Daphni.

vern the accusative. O vir bone! O vir fortis atque amicus! Heu me miserum! Heu 24. The prepositions vanitas humana! Hei mihi! Væ vobis ! Proh hominum fidem! a, ab, abs, &c. govern Proh Sancte Jupiter ! Et ego sum in culpa, et tu. Nihil hic the ablative. nisi carmina desunt. Mens, ratio, et consilium in senibus sunt.

25. The prepositions

in, sub, super, and subEtsi sit liberalis, tamen non est profusus. Non bonus est som

ter, govern the accusanus de prandio. Ah virgo infelix! O crudelis Alexi! Es penes tive, when motion to a te ? Lentæ adversus imperia aures fuerunt. Hic illius arma, place is signified; but hic currus fuit. Timor Domini est initium sapientiæ. Facies when motion or rest in rerum est mutata. Quantum nummi sit ubivis, tantum fidei est

a place is signified, in

and sub govern the etiam ibidem. Ubi plurimum est studii, ibi est minimum stre

ablative; super and pitûs. O, Fons Blandusiæ, splendidior vitro. Nil mortalibus subter either the accuarduum est. Sine amore jocisque nil est jucundum. O cives, sative or ablative. quærenda pecunia est primum, Virtus post nummos. Sapien- 26. The interjectissimus philosophorum est aliquando deceptus. Heliodorus fuit tions 0, heu, proh, and longè doctissimus Græcorum. Stertinius, octavus sapientium, some others, govern the

nominative, erat Stoicus. Satis est verborum ubique gentium, ergo virtutis.

tive, or vocative. Rex, Solomon, fuit sapientior omnibus. Pax est melior bello.

27. The interjecCicero fuit candidior Cæsare. Dux est major milite. Cortex tions hei and væ, goPeruvianus est efficax contra febrim. Fuit Ciceroni mentis ad vern the dative. omnia capacitas. Sunt ebrii omnes ad unum. In vino est veri

28. The conjunc

tions et, ac, atque, nec, tas. Tu es homo ad unguem factus. Hæ sunt herbæ ad lu

aut, neque, and some nam messæ. Ira est brevis, et ad tempus. Nebula erat ad others, - connect like multum diei. Est mihi fides apud illum. Adversus infimos cases and modes. justitia est servanda. Sunt clamosi ab ovo usque ad mala. Est 29. Two, or more calor à sole. Fuissent omissiores de re. Erat Caio Mario in

substantives singular,

connected by a congenuarum artium et liberalium studiorum contemptor animus. Lucius Cornelius Scylla, patricio genere natus, bello Jugurthino verb, adjective, or rela

junction, may have a quaestor Marii fuit ; vir ingentis animi, cupidus voluptatum, tive plural to agree with sed gloriæ cupidior; literis Græcis atque Latinis eruditus, et them. virorum literatorum multùm amans. Est mihi nomen Alexan

30. The conjuncdro. Ducitur honori tibi. Id vertitur mihi vitio. Petrus et

tions ut, quo, licet, &c. Johannes, qui sunt docti, fuerunt studiosi.

govern the subjunctive mood.

accusa

EXERCISES. Accuso, lo accuse.

FIRST CONJUGATION, ACTIVE VOICE.
Adumbro, to shade.

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
Ædifico, lo build.
Æstimo, to value.

Pres. Indic. Perf. Indic. Supine. Pres. Infin.
Animo, to encourage.

Amo.
ămāvi, ămātum,

ămāre, To love. Appello, to call. Apto, to fit.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Assevero, to affirm.
Bello, to war.

Present Tense, love, do love, or am loving.
Beo, to bless.
Singular.

Plural.
Calco, to tread.
1. Amo, I love,

Amāmus, we love, Castigo, to chastise. 2. Amas, thou lovest,

Amatis, ye love, Celo, to conceal. 3. Amat, he loves;

Amant, they love.
Clamo, to cry.

Imperfect, loved, did love, or was loving.
Cogito, lo think.
Comparo, to compare.
1. Amăbam, I loved,

Amabamus, we loved,
Considero, to consider.
2. Amabas, thou lovedst,

Amabatis, ye loved, Contamino, to pollute. 3. Amabat, he loves;

Amabant, they loved. Creo, to create.

Perfect, loved, have loved, or did love. Curo, to care. 1. Amăvi, I have loved,

Amavimus, we have loved, Damno, to condemn. 2. Amavisti, thou hast loved, Amavistis, ye have loved, Declaro, to declare. 3. Amavit, he has loved ;

Amavērunt,v.—ēre, they have loved. Decoro, to adorn.

Pluperfect, had loved.
Dedico, to dedicate.
Desolo, to lay waste.

1. Amávěram, I had loved, Amaveramus, we had loved, Dono, to present.

2 Amaveras, thou hadst loved, Amaveratis, ye had loved, Educo, to bring up.

3. Amaverat, he had loved ; Amaverant, they had loved. Emendo, to amend.

Future, shall, or will love. Erro, to wander. 1. Amabo, I shall love,

Amabỉmus, we shall love, Exploro, to search. 2. Amabis, thou shalt love,

Amabitis, ye shall love,
Extrico, to disentangle. 3. Amabit, he shall love;

Amabunt, they shall love.
Fabrico, to frame.
Fascino, to bewitch.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Fatigo, to weary.

Present Tense, may, or can love.
Festino, to hasten.
Flagito, to dun.
1. Amem, I may love,

Amēmus, we may love,
Flo, to blow.
2. Ames, thou mayest love,

Ametis, ye may love, Frio, to crumble. 3. Amet, he may love ;

Ament, they may love. Fugo, to put to flight.

Imperfect, might, would, could, or should love. Guberno, to govern. 1. Amārem, I might love,

Amarēmus, we might love, Gusto, to taste.

2. Amares, thou mightest love, Amaretis, ye might love, Honoro, to honour. 3. Amaret, he might love ;

Amarent, they might love. Jacto, to boast.

Perfect, may have loved. Immolo, to sacrifice. Impero, to command. 1. Amáverim, I may have loved, Amaverimus, we may have loved, Inchoo, to begin.

2. Amaveris, thou mayest have loved, Amaveritis, ye may have loved, Indico, to show.

3. Amaverit, he may have loved ; Amaverint, they may have loved. Instigo, to push on.

Pluperfect, might, would, could, or should have loved. Intro, to enter.

1. Amávissem, I might have loved, Amavissemus, we might have loved, Invito, to invite.

2. Amavisses, thou mightest have loved, Amavissetis, ye might have loved, Jubilo, to shout fe joy. 3. Amavisset, he might have loved; Amavissent, they might have loved. Juro, to swear.

Future, shall have loved. Laboro, to labour.

1. Amávěro, I shall have loved, Amaverimus, we shall have loved, Lacero, to tear.

2. Amaveris, thou shalt have loved, Amaveritis, ye shall have loved, Latro, to bark.

3. Amaverit, he shall have loved ; Lego, to send an eňbassy.

Amaverint, they shall have loved. Libo, to taste.

IMPERATIVE MOOD. Libero, to free.

2. Ama, v. amåto, love thou, Amāte v. amatote, love ye,
Ligo, to bind.
3. Amato, let him love ;

Amanto, let them love.
Mando, to command.
Meneoro, to tell.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Migro, to remove.

Pres. Amāre, to love. Perf. Amavisse, to have loved. Muto, to charge.

Fut. Esse amaturus, to be about to love, Fuisse amaturus, to have been Narro, to relate.

about to love. Navigo, to sail. Nego, to deny.

PARTICIPLES.
Noming, to name. Pres. Amans, loving. Fut. Amaturus, about to love.
Nudo, to make bare.

GERUNDS.
Numero, to count.
Obsecro, to beseech.

Aman-dum-di-do-dum-do, loving, of loving, &c.
Odore, to perfume.

SUPINES. Onero, to load.

Former, Amātum, to love. Latter, Amatu, to love, or to be loved. Opto, to wish.

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INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Tense, am loved.
Singular.

Plural. 1. Amor,

Amamur, 2. Amāris, o. Amare,

Amamini, 3. Amatur ;

Amantur.

Imperfect, was loved. 1. Amåbar,

Amabamur, 2. Amabāris, v. Amåbare,

Amabamini, 3. Amabatur;

Amabantur.

Perfect, have been loved. 1. Amatus sum, v. fui,

Amati sumus, v. fuimus, 2. Amatus es, v. fuisti,

Amati estis, v. fuistis, 3. Amatus est, v. fuit;

Amati sunt, v. fuerunt, v. fuere.

Pluperfect, had been loved. 1. Amatus eram, v. fueram, Amati eramus, v. fueramus, 2. Amatus eras, v. fueras,

Amati eratis, v. fueratis, 3. Amatus erat, v. fuerat;

Amati erant, v. fuerant.

Future, shall, or will be loved. 1. Amåbor,

Amabimur, 2. Amaberis, v. Amáběre,

Amabimini, 3. Amabitur;

Amabuntur.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Present Tense, may, or can be loved. 1. Amer,

Amêmur, 2. Ameris, v. Amére,

Amemini, 3. Ametur ;

Amentur. Imperfect, might, could, would, or should be loved. 1. Amarer,

Amārēmur, 2. Amarēris, v. Amarēre,

Amaremini, 3. Amaretur;

Amarentur.

Perfect, may have been loved. 1. Amatus sim, v. fuerim,

Amati cimus, v. fuerimus, 2. Amatus sis, v. fueris,

Amati sitis, o. fueritis, 3. Amatus sit, v. fuerit;

Amati sint, v. fuerint. Pluperfect, might, would, could, or should have been loved. 1. Amatus essem, o. fuissem, Amati essemus, v. fuissemus, 2. Amatus esses, v. fuisses,

Amati essetis, v. fuissetis, 3. Amatus esset, v. fuisset;

Amati essent, v. fuissent.

Future, shall have been loved. 1. Amatus fuěro,

Amati fuěrìmus, 2. Amatus fueris,

Amati fueritis, 3. Amatus fuerit;

Amati fuerint.

EXERCISES.
Orno, to deck.
Oro, to beg:
Paco, to subdue.
Paro, to prepare.
Pecco, to sin.
Pio, to expiate
Placo, to appease.
Porto, to carry.
Privo, to deprive.
Probo, to approve.
Pugno, to fight.
Puto, to think.
Rogo, to ask.
Saluto, lo salute.
Sano, to heal.
Sedo, to allay.
Sibilo, to hiss.
Simulo, to pretend.
Specto, to behold,
Spero, to hope.
Susurro, to whisper.
Tolero, to bear.
Turbo, to disturb,
Velo, to cover.
Vigilo, to watch.
Violo, to violate.
Voco, to call.
Vulgo, to spread abroad.
Vulnero, to wound

EXCEPTIONS
Do, to give.
Sto, to stand.
Lavo, to wash.
Poto, to drink.
Juvo, to help.
Cubo, to lie.
Domo, to subdue.
Sono, to sound.
Tono, to thunder.
Veto, to forbid.
Crepo, to make a noise.
Frico, to rub.
Seco, to cut.
Neco, to kill.
Mico, to glitter.

DEPONENT
AND COMMON VERBS.
Abominor, to abhor.
Adulor, to flatter.
Arbitror, to think.
Bacchor, to revel.
Conor, to endeavour.
Criminor, to blame.
Cunctor, to delay.
Dominor, to rule.
Epulor, to feast.
Frustror, to disappoint.
Glorior, to boast.
Hortor, to encourage
Imitor, to imitate.
Luctor, to wrestle.
Machinor, to contrire.
Minor, lo threaten.
Opinor, to think.
Osculor, to kiss.
Precor, to pray.
Recordor, to remember.
Suspicor, to suspect.
Testor, to witness.
Veneror, to worship
Venor, to hunt.

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 2. Amare, v. ator, be thou loved, Amamīni, be ye loved, 3. Amator, let him be loved;

mantor, let them be loved.

INFINITIVE MOOD. Pres. Amári, to be loved. Perf. Esse, v: fuisse amatus-a-um, to have been loved. Fui. Amatum iri, to be about to be loved.

PARTICIPLES, Perf. Amatus-a-um, loved. Fui. Amandus-a-um, to be loved.

B

PRINCIPAL PARTS.

EXERCISES.

SECOND CONJUGATION, ACTIVE VOICE.
Censeo, to judge.
Misceo, to mix

Pres. Indic.
Sorbeo, to sup:

Perf. Indic.

Supine. Pres. Infin. Teneo, to hold.

Doceo,

Docui, Doctům, Docère, to teach. Torreo, to roast. U1 and ITUM.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Habeo, to have.

Present Tense, teach, or am teaching.
Adhibeo, to admit.
Cohibeo, to restrain.,
Singular.

Plural.
Exhibeo, to exhibit.
1. Doceo, I teach,

Docēmus, we teach, Perhibeo, to give out. 2. Doces, thou teachest,

Docētis, ye teach, Prohibeo, to hinder. 3. Docet, he teaches ;

Docent, they teach. Posthabeo, to value less.

Imperfect, taught. Redhibeo, to returnathing. 1. Docēbam, I taught,

Docēbāmus, we taught, Debeo, to owe.

2. Docebas, thou taughtest, Docebatis, ye taught, Mereo, to deserve. 3. Docebat, he taught ;

Docebant, they taught.
Moneo, to admonish.

Perfect, have taught.
Præbeo, to afford.
Caleo, to be warm.
1. Docui, I have taught,

Docuimus, we have taught,
Careo, to want.

2. Docuisti, thou hast taught, Docuistis, ye have taught, Jaceo, to lie. 3. Docuit, he has taught ;

Docuērunt, v. ēre, they have taught. Doleo, to be grieved.

Pluperfect, had taught.
Liceo, to be lawful. 1. Docuěram, I had taught, Docuerāmus, we had taught,
Noceo, to hurt.

2. Docueras, thou hadst taught, Docueratis, ye had taught, Pareo, to appear.

3. Docuerat, he had taught; Docuerant, they had taught. Placeo, to please.

Future, shall, or will teach.
Taceo, to be silent.
1. Docēbo, I shall teach,

Docebimus, we shall teach,
UI, sup. caret.

2. Docebis, thou shalt teach, Albeo, to be white.

Docebitis, ye shall teach, Calleo, to be hard. 3. Docebit, he shall teach ;

Docebunt, they shall teach.
Caneo, to be hoary.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Egeo, to want.
Emineo, to be eminent.

Present Tense, may, or can icach.
Floreo, to flourish.
Frendeo, to gnash the teeth. 1. Doceam, I may teach,

Doceamus, we may teach,
Frondeo, to bear leaves.

2. Doceas, thou mayest teach, Doceatis, we may teach, Horreo, to be rough. 3. Doceat, he may teach ;

Doceant, they may teach. Humeo, to be wei.

Imperfect, might, could, would, or should teach. Immineo, to hang over, 1. Docèrem, I might teach, Docerēmus, we might teach, Langueo, to languish. 2. Doceres, thou mightest teach, Doceretis, ye might teach, Liqueo, to melt.

3. Doceret, he might teach ; Docerent, they might teach. Maceo, to be lean.

Perfect, may have taught. Niteo, to shine.

1. Docuěrim, I may have taught, Docuerimus, we may have taught, Palleo, to be pale. Pateo, to be open.

2. Docueris, thou mayest have taught, Docueritis, ye may have taught,

3. Docuerit, he may have taught; Docuerint, they may have taught. Putreo, to rot. Rigeo, to be stiff

Pluperfect, might, would, could, or should have taught. Rubeo, to be red.

1. Docuissem, I might have taught, Docuissēmus, we might have taught, Studeo, to favour.

2. Docuisses, thou mightest have taught, Docuissetis, ye might have taught, Stupeo, to be amased. 3. Docuisset, he might have taught; Docuissent, they might have taught. Splendeo, to shine.

Future, shall have taught. Tepeo, lo be warm.

1. Docuěro, I shall have taught, Docuerìmus, we shall have taught, Torpeo, to be benumbed.

2. Docueris, thou shalt have taught, Docueritis, ye shall have taught, Tumeo, to swell.

3. Docuerit, he shall have taught ; Arceo, to drive away.

Docuerint, they shall have taught. Sileo, to conceal.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Timeo, to fear,
Beo and CEO.

2. Doce, v. docēto, teach thou, Docēte, v. docetote, teach ye,
Jubeo, to order.
3. Doceto, let him teach;

Docento, let them teach.
Mulceo, to soothe.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Luceo, to shine.
Deo.

Pres. Docēre, to teach. Perf. Docuisse, to have taught.

Fut. Prandeo, lo dine.

Esse docturus, to be about to teach. Fuisse docturus, to have been Video, to see.

about to teach. Sedeo, to sit.

PARTICIPLES. Strideo, to make a noise.

Pres. Docens, teaching. Fut. Doctūrus, about to teach.
Mordeo, to bite.

GERUNDS.
Pendeo, to hang.
Spondeo, lo promise.

Docendum-di-do-dum-do, teaching, of teaching, &c.
Tondeo, to clip.

SUPINES. Remordeo, to bite again. Former. Doctum, to teach. Latter. Doctu, to teach, or to be taught.

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